Doing Business in Cambodia
2014 Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies
INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT, U.S. & FOREIGN COMMERCIAL SERVICE AND U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2010. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED OUTSIDE OF THE
UNITED STATES.
 Chapter 1: Doing Business In Cambodia
 Chapter 2: Political and Economic Environment
 Chapter 3: Selling U.S. Products and Services
 Chapter 4: Leading Sectors for U.S. Export and Investment
 Chapter 5: Trade Regulations, Customs and Standards
 Chapter 6: Investment Climate
 Chapter 7: Trade and Project Financing
 Chapter 8: Business Travel
 Chapter 9: Contacts, Market Research and Trade Events
 Chapter 10: Guide to Our Services
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Chapter 1: Doing Business In Cambodia
 Market Overview
 Market Challenges
 Market Opportunities
 Market Entry Strategy
 Market Fact Sheet link
Market Overview Return to top
Over the last decade, Cambodia’s gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average
rate of 8.2 percent. In 2013, the economy grew by over seven percent, and it is
expected to continue to grow at a similar rate over the next two years. Cambodia,
however, remains one of the poorest countries in Asia. The country is heavily reliant on
foreign aid, with donor support equivalent to approximately half of the government’s
budget in 2013. Despite the strong performance of the garment, tourism, and
construction/real estate sectors, Cambodia remains an agrarian country. Approximately
80 percent of the Cambodian population is involved in agriculture on a full-time or parttime
basis.
Since Cambodia became the first least-developed country (LDC) to join the World Trade
Organization (WTO) in 2004, trade has steadily increased. The United States is
Cambodia’s largest trading partner. Approximately 33 percent of Cambodia’s total
exports reach the United States – primarily garment and footwear products. In 2013,
Cambodian exports to the United States were valued at $2.77 billion. For the same
year, U.S. exports to Cambodia were $241 million. The United States and Cambodia
are signatories to a 2006 Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) to
promote greater trade and investment in both countries and to provide a forum for
addressing bilateral trade and investment issues. The United States and Cambodia
began exploratory discussions on a Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) in May 2013 and
these discussions are ongoing. Cambodia is also a member of the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Asia Free Trade Area (AFTA).
Market Challenges Return to top
Significant challenges to doing business in Cambodia commonly cited by the private
sector include weak rule of law, poor infrastructure, high energy costs, corruption, and
under-developed human resources. Lack of respect for basic human rights, including
media freedoms, freedom of expression, and freedom of assembly, continues to be a
concern and has factored prominently in disputes over land rights. Limited enforcement
of intellectual property rights, including the sale of counterfeit and pirated products, also
remains a major concern for U.S. companies.
Market Opportunities Return to top
Cambodia offers potential investment opportunities in agribusiness and food processing;
tourism infrastructure and resorts; education; architecture, construction, and engineering
services; household goods and appliances; used cars and automotive parts; power
generation equipment and power transmission infrastructure; fast food and beverage
franchises; pharmaceuticals; and medical supplies and equipment.
Market Entry Strategy Return to top
Working with a local partner, such as an agent or distributor, is the most effective way to
reach Cambodian consumers. A local partner can facilitate and expedite market entry 
through market knowledge and established networks. In Cambodia, personal
relationships can be the key to successful business transactions. Please refer to
Chapter 3 of the Country Commercial Guide for further information on access to the
Cambodian market.
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Chapter 2: Political and Economic Environment
For background information on the political and economic environment of the country,
please click on the link below to the U.S. Department of State Background Notes.
http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2732.htm
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Chapter 3: Selling U.S. Products and Services
 Using an Agent or Distributor
 Establishing an Office
 Franchising
 Direct Marketing
 Joint Ventures/Licensing
 Selling to the Government
 Distribution and Sales Channels
 Selling Factors/Techniques
 Electronic Commerce
 Trade Promotion and Advertising
 Pricing
 Sales Service/Customer Support
 Protecting Your Intellectual Property
 Due Diligence
 Local Professional Services
 Web Resources
Using an Agent or Distributor Return to top
American goods and services are well regarded in Cambodia. As such, Cambodian
firms are increasingly interested in becoming agents of or distributors for U.S.
companies. U.S. companies should conduct due diligence on potential local partners to
ensure they have the necessary credentials and qualifications to conduct business. U.S.
companies should also ensure that the partnership agreements they put into place are in
compliance with Cambodian law, thoroughly documenting the rights and obligations of
each party and clearly stipulating dispute resolution procedures.
Establishing an Office Return to top
Cambodia’s Law on Commercial Enterprise provides a comprehensive legal framework
for the establishment and operation of businesses. The forms of business organization
include a limited liability company, branch office, representative office, partnership, and
sole proprietorship. Investors not seeking (or who are ineligible for) investment
incentives (see below), must register directly with the Ministry of Commerce.
Businesses seeking investment incentives must submit an application to the Cambodian
Investment Board (CIB). The CIB is a division of the Council for the Development of
Cambodia (CDC), which is responsible for accepting and reviewing applications for
investment incentives pursuant to the Investment Law of 2003, as amended. Sectors
eligible for investment incentives include agriculture and agro-processing,
manufacturing-for-export, infrastructure development, international-standard hotels, and
environmental protection activities. From the date of submission of the application, the
CIB has by statute three working days to issue a Conditional Registration Certificate or a
Letter of Non-Compliance to investors. A Final Registration Certificate must be issued
within 28 working days of the issuance of the Conditional Registration Certificate. A
Final Registration Certificate may be revoked if the investor does not carry out an
investment activity within six months of the receipt of all the required documents or if the
investor obtained a Final Registration Certificate through fraud or misrepresentation.
Upon receipt of the Final Registration Certificate from the CIB, the investor should 
prepare registration forms for filing with the Ministry of Commerce. The Ministry of
Commerce will issue the formal business license.
Franchising Return to top
Cambodia’s Commercial Enterprise Law has a provision that sets forth regulations
covering franchises. As mentioned above, American brands and products are highly
regarded in Cambodia, resulting in attractive franchise opportunities.
Direct Marketing Return to top
Telemarketing via mobile phone SMS messages and online sales is increasingly used to
target younger Cambodian consumers. Even though direct marketing is still a relatively
new concept in Cambodia, techniques such as telemarketing and door-to-door sales are
becoming more common.
Joint Ventures/Licensing Return to top
There are no special laws that apply to joint ventures. Selection of a suitable jointventure
partner, however, is very important, and great care should be taken to screen
potential partners. After entering into a local partnership, it may be difficult to dissolve
the relationship without the consent of the local partner. All terms of a joint venture
agreement should be clearly articulated, including provisions for dispute resolution. Joint
ventures with the government exist; the government contributes a majority share,
generally in real estate, while the foreign joint venture partner, with a minority share,
brings cash or equipment to the deal. The government’s ownership percentage in such
joint ventures varies widely.
Selling to the Government Return to top
Cambodia enacted a new law on public procurement in January 2012, which codified the
pre-existing patchwork of sub-decrees and other regulations governing the sector.
Competitive bidding is mandatory for the purchase of goods or services worth more than
$25,000 (100 million riel). The bidding is open only to local companies if the value is
less than $250,000 (1 billion riel) for goods, less than $300,000 (1.2 billion riel) for
construction projects, and less than $200,000 (800 million riel) for services.
The Cambodian government is required to seek international bids for the purchase of
goods valued at over $250,000, for construction projects valued at over $300,000, and
for services valued at more than $200,000.
Cambodia is not a signatory to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement.
Distribution and Sales Channels Return to top
Cambodia places minimal restrictions on foreign participation in the import/export and
distribution sectors. Cambodia’s retail landscape is undergoing rapid transformation. In
addition to stalls and shops at traditional markets, goods are increasingly sold at smallscale
Western-style shopping malls, convenience stores, and supermarkets that cater
mostly to social elites, the urban middle class, and expatriates. Legitimate importers
may obtain exclusive rights to import brand-name products from the Ministry of
Commerce.
Selling Factors/Techniques Return to top
Approximately 80 percent of Cambodia’s population lives in rural areas. The disparity in
economic development between rural areas and Phnom Penh is substantial. Within
Phnom Penh, billboards, leaflets, and storefront selling techniques are more common.
In rural areas, the most effective way to reach potential consumers is through broadcast
media. In particular, radio and television programming have deep penetration in rural
Cambodia. Trade fairs are an increasingly popular way to market products.
Electronic Commerce Return to top
E-commerce is relatively undeveloped. Impediments to the development of e-commerce
include inadequate internet infrastructure, low levels of internet use, and extremely
limited credit card use. Some local banks have begun to issue credit cards in order to
facilitate purchases made through the internet. There is a growing number of online
shopping websites that cater mostly to the small number of urban consumers with
access to the internet. Social media, such as Facebook, is increasingly used as a
medium for online shopping.
Trade Promotion and Advertising Return to top
Local vendors use a variety of advertising methods. Special promotional campaigns
using coupons, lucky draws, and discounts are popular and target consumers at local
markets, shops, restaurants, internet cafés, and movie theaters. Although newspaper
advertising is often used, radio and television are the most effective means of reaching
the Cambodian public. Billboards are present on many streets in Phnom Penh and are
used in provincial capitals as well. Leaflets are also a popular advertising technique.
Pricing Return to top
Most consumers are price sensitive. While American products are generally viewed as
higher quality, many consumers will opt for products from China or Thailand because
they are cheaper. In Phnom Penh, where government and industry are centered, prices
are higher and branded products are more popular. There is evidence of an expanding
middle class, supported by the presence of numerous international organizations,
diplomatic missions, and international businesses.
Sales Service/Customer Support Return to top
After-sales service and customer support are new concepts in Cambodia. The limited
supply of spare parts for some brands of automobiles, for example, has contributed to
the failure of those makes to increase market share against brands that have more
readily available parts. Depending on the products and services, Cambodian agents,
distributors, and consumers may expect after-sales services from their U.S. suppliers,
including product warranty for a specified period, training, advertising and promotion,
and availability of spare parts. Providing after-sales service could be an effective
method of boosting sales and winning customer loyalty.
Protecting Your Intellectual Property Return to top
Protecting Your Intellectual Property in Cambodia:
Several general principles are important for effective management of intellectual
property (IP) rights in Cambodia. First, it is important to have an overall strategy to
protect IP. Second, IP is protected differently in Cambodia than in the United States.
Third, IP rights must be registered and enforced in Cambodia under local laws – U.S.
trademark and patent registrations do not provide protection in Cambodia, nor is there
an “international copyright” that automatically protects intellectual property throughout
the entire world. Protection against unauthorized use of material in a particular country
primarily depends on the national laws of that country. Most countries do, however, offer
copyright protection to foreign works under certain conditions, and these conditions have
been greatly simplified by international copyright treaties and conventions.
Registration of patents and trademarks is on a first-in-time, first-in-right basis, so
applying for trademark and patent protection should be considered even before products
or services are sold in the Cambodian market. It is vital that companies understand that
intellectual property is primarily a private right and that the U.S. government generally
cannot enforce rights for private individuals in Cambodia. It is the responsibility of rights
holders to register, protect, and enforce their rights where relevant, retaining their own 
counsel and advisors. Companies may wish to seek advice from local attorneys or IP
consultants who are experts in Cambodian law. A list of local lawyers can be found on
U.S. Embassy Phnom Penh’s website at
http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/list_of_lawyers.html.
While the U.S. government stands ready to assist, there is little it can do if rights holders
have not taken the fundamental steps necessary to secure and enforce their IP rights in
a timely fashion. Moreover, in many countries, rights holders who delay enforcing their
rights on a mistaken belief that the U.S. government can provide a political resolution to
a legal problem may find that their rights have been eroded or abrogated due to legal
doctrines such as statutes of limitations, laches, estoppel, or unreasonable delay in
prosecuting a law suit. In no instance should U.S. government advice be seen as a
substitute for the obligation of rights holders to promptly pursue their case.
It is always advisable to conduct due diligence on potential partners and ensure they
have clear incentives to honor a contract. A good partner is an important ally in
protecting IP rights, but careful consideration should be given to permitting a partner to
register IP rights on behalf of the rights holder as doing so entails risk that the partner
will list itself as the IP owner and fail to transfer the rights should the partnership end.
Keeping an eye on cost structures and reducing the margins (and the incentive) of
would-be bad actors is critical. Projects and sales in Cambodia require constant
attention. Work with legal counsel familiar with Cambodian laws to create a solid
contract that includes non-compete clauses and confidentiality/non-disclosure
provisions.
It is also recommended that small and medium-size companies (SMEs) understand the
importance of working with trade associations and organizations to support efforts to
protect IP and stop counterfeiting. There are a number of these organizations, both in
Cambodia and the United States, including:
 The U.S. Chamber and the American Chambers of Commerce Cambodia
 National Association of Manufacturers (NAM)
 International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA)
 International Trademark Association (INTA)
 The Coalition Against Counterfeiting and Piracy
 International Anti-Counterfeiting Coalition (IACC)
 Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)
 Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO)
IP Resources
A wealth of information on protecting IP is freely available to U.S. rights holders. Some
excellent resources for companies regarding intellectual property include the following:
 For information about patent, trademark, or copyright issues -- including
enforcement issues in the United States and other countries -- call the STOP!
Hotline: 1-866-999-HALT or visit www.STOPfakes.gov. 
 For more information about registering trademarks and patents (both in the
United States as well as in foreign countries), contact the U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office (USPTO) at: 1-800-786-9199, or visit http://www.uspto.gov/.
 For more information about registering for copyright protection in the United
States, contact the U.S. Copyright Office at: 1-202-707-5959, or visit
http://www.copyright.gov.
 For more information about how to evaluate, protect, and enforce intellectual
property rights and how these rights may be important for businesses, please
visit the “Resources” section of the STOPfakes website at
http://www.stopfakes.gov/resources.
 For information on obtaining and enforcing intellectual property rights and
market-specific IP Toolkits visit www.stopfakes.gov/businesss-tools/country-iprtoolkits.
The toolkits contain detailed information on protecting and enforcing IP
in specific markets and also contain contact information for local IPR offices
abroad and U.S. government officials available to assist SMEs.
 The U.S. Commerce Department has positioned IP attachés in key markets
around the world. The IP attaché covering Cambodia is Peter N. Fowler,
Regional Intellectual Property Attaché for Southeast Asia, U.S. Embassy
Bangkok (E-mail: Peter.Fowler@trade.gov).
Due Diligence Return to top
It is difficult to overstate the importance of conducting sufficient due diligence for the
Cambodian market. Cambodia ranked 160 out of 177 countries in Transparency
International’s 2013 corruption index. It is critical to screen potential partners for
reliability and trustworthiness and to ensure that all terms of any potential agreement are
clearly articulated, including processes for dispute resolution. Companies are advised to
hire international or local lawyers or professional services to assist with due diligence
requirements.
Local Professional Services Return to top
BNG Legal
Address: No. 64, Street 111, P.O. Box No. 172, Sangkat Boeung Prolit, Khan 7 Makara,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact person: Mr. Naryth Hour Hem, Managing Director
Tel: (855) 23 217 510/(855) 23 212 740 (Cambodia); +1 (503) 967 8009 (US); +852
8191 5059 (Hong Kong); +81 (50) 5806 5665 (Japan)
Fax: (855) 23 212 840
e-Fax: +1 (503) 828 9033
E-mail: hhn@bngkh.net; info@bnglegal.com
Website: http://bnglegal.com/
DFDL Mekong Legal and Tax Advisers
Address: No. 33, Street 294 (Corner of Street 29), Sangkat Tonle Bassac, Khan
Chamkarmon (PO Box 7), Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact person: Mr. Martin DeSautels, Regional Managing Partner
Tel: (855) 23 210 400
Fax: (855) 23 214 053
E-mail: cambodia@dfdlmekong.com
Website: http://www.dfdl.com
KPMG Cambodia Limited
Address: Delano Center, 4th Floor, No. 144, Street. 169, Sangkat Veal Vong, Khan 7
Makara, 12253, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact person: Michael Gordon, Senior Partner
Tel: (855) 23 216 899
Fax: (855) 23 217 279
E-mail: kpmg@kpmg.com.kh
Website: http://www.kpmg.com/KH/en/Pages/default.aspx
Morison Kak & Associé
Address: No. 25, Street 360, Sangkat Boeung Keng Kang I, Khan Chamkamon, Phnom
Penh, Cambodia
Contact person: Mr. Key Kak, Chairman
Tel: (855) 23 218 994
Fax: (855) 23 218 993
E-mail: mka.audit@morisonkak.com
Website: http://www.morisonkak.com/
PWC
Address: No. 35, Sihanouk Blvd, Tonle Bassac, Chamkar Morn, 12301, Phnom Penh
Contact person: Kuy Lim, Partner
Tel: (855) 23 218 086
Fax: (855) 23 211 594
E-mail: lim.kuy@kh.pwc.com
Website: http://www.pwc.com/kh
Sarin & Associates (Law Firm)
Address: No. 104, Confederation de la Russie Blvd (Street 110), Siriland Tower, Phnom
Penh
Contact person: Mr. Denora Sarin, Lawyer
Mobile: (855) 98 777 007
Tel: (855) 23 882 943
Fax: (855) 23 882 943
E-mail: sarin.associates@gmail.com
Sciaroni and Associates (Legal Advisors)
Address: No. 24, Street 462, Sangkat Tonle Bassac, Khan Chamkarmorn, Phnom
Penh, Cambodia
Tel: (855) 23 210 225
Fax: (855) 23 213 089
Contact person: Mr. Bretton Sciaroni, Senior Partner
E-mail: info@sa-asia.com
Website: http://www.sa-asia.com/home/
VDB Loi
Address: Level 6, Phnom Penh Tower, 445 Monivong Blvd., Phnom Penh
Contact: Mr. Potim Yun, Partner
Tel: (855) 23 964 430
Email: potim.yun@vdb-loi.com
Website: http://www.vdb-loi.com/
Web Resources Return to top
World Bank-International Finance Corporation Report: Doing Business in Cambodia
2014
Website: http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/cambodia/
Cambodia Hotel Association
Website: http://www.cambodiahotelassociation.com.kh
Cambodian Postal Service
E-mail: info@mptc.gov.kh
Website: http://www.mptc.gov.kh
Telecom Cambodia – Cambodian Telephone Service
E-mail: sale_tc@camnet.com.kh
Website: http://www.tc.com.kh
Cambodian Yellow Pages
E-mail: info@yp.com.kh
Website: http://www.yp.com.kh
The Phnom Penh Post
Website: http://www.phnompenhpost.com
The National Bank of Cambodia
Email: info@nbc.org.kh
Website: http://www.nbc.org.kh
The Cambodia Microfinance Association
Website: http://cma-network.org/drupal/
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Chapter 4: Leading Sectors for U.S. Export and Investment
Commercial Sectors
 Agribusiness and Food Processing
 Architecture, Construction, and Engineering Services
 Tourism Infrastructure and Resorts
 Education
 Household Goods and Appliances
 Used Car and Automotive Parts
 Power Generation Equipment
 Fast Food and Beverage Franchises
 Pharmaceuticals, Medical Supplies, and Medical Equipment
Agribusiness and Food Processing
Overview Return to top
Rice Production and Exports
2012 2013 2014
Total Paddy Rice Surplus
for Export
4,748,648 4,828,832 5,136,138
Total Rice Surplus for
Export
3,039,135 3,090,452 3,287,128
Total Export of Milled Rice 205,717 378,856 561,456
Unit: In Tons
Data Sources: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Note: Figures for 2014 are unofficial estimates.
Roughly 80 percent of Cambodia’s population is engaged in the agriculture sector, which
accounted for approximately 34 percent of GDP in 2013. As a matter of policy, the
Cambodian government encourages investment in agriculture, diversification of
agricultural products, and investment in improved irrigation and water control. The
Cambodian government would like to export one million tons of milled rice by 2015 but
lacks funds to achieve its goal. Most of the current demand for water pumps, welldrilling
machines, tractors, tilling equipment, rice milling, drying, and packaging
equipment, fertilizers, insecticides, and seed comes from private agribusiness investors
and NGOs.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
There is significant potential to expand the production and processing of high yield
varieties of rice, corn, and other crops. Several investment projects in palm oil, tapioca,
rubber, and cassava are underway. Rice milling is also an emerging industry.
Opportunities Return to top
Higher quality seeds, fertilizers, and other agricultural inputs and equipment would
greatly benefit the agriculture sector, which currently relies on outdated and less
productive methods of farming. The presence of an increasing number of plantations
also creates opportunities for the establishment of processing plants to add value to
basic products for export and domestic consumption. Relatively high operating costs,
including for electricity, limit opportunities to establish processing plants.
Web Resources Return to top
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries: http://www.maff.gov.kh
Ministry of Industry and Handicraft: www.mih.gov.kh
Council for the Development of Cambodia: http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh
Federation of Cambodian Rice Exporters: http://www.fedocrex.com
Cambodia Rice Export Association: http://riceassociation.com
Architecture, Construction, and Engineering Services
Overview Return to top
Construction Projects
2012 2013 2014 2015
Total Value of Approved
Construction Projects
2,100,000 2,800,000 3,733,333 4,977,778
Construction materials
imported
153,260 182,570 217,480 308,610
Exchange Rate: 1 USD 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel
Unit: USD thousands
Data Sources:
Approved construction projects: Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning
and Construction
Construction materials imported: Ministry of Economy and Finance
Note: Figures for 2014 and 2015 are unofficial estimates.
Cambodia is in the process of rehabilitating its hard infrastructure, principally with
assistance from international donors. Given the current poor condition of the country’s
infrastructure, construction and engineering services will be in high demand for the
foreseeable future. Public works and transportation, including the road network, are a
high priority for the Cambodian government. The total investment in infrastructure in
Cambodia is estimated to be in the range of $12 billion to $16 billion from 2013 to 2022.
Infrastructure investment is state-led, and the public-sector capital investment rate as a
percentage of GDP is approximately six percent per year. In addition to infrastructure
construction, Cambodia has witnessed a major boom in residential and commercial
construction over the last few years. Several residential and commercial development
projects are underway, such as mixed-use towers, shopping malls, and suburban
commercial-residential developments. 
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
The Japanese government, World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the
Chinese government are especially active in road, bridge, and railway construction in
Cambodia. The Cambodian government has also offered Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT)
concessions to several companies to rehabilitate portions of Cambodia’s badly degraded
national highway system. Cambodia is also eager to upgrade its provincial airports.
Because there are limited funds in the national budget to pursue such projects,
Cambodia has offered BOT concessions for renovating provincial airports as well.
The Cambodian government has also announced a plan to build a new, larger national
stadium on 80 hectares on the outskirts of Phnom Penh to host major sporting events,
including the Southeast Asian Games. This project includes the stadium itself as well as
water systems, electrification, drainage systems, a safari park, an international-standard
parking garage, a world-class golf course with 36 holes, and five-star hotels.
Several large commercial and residential projects in Phnom Penh are underway, which
present additional opportunities for architecture and engineering services and suppliers
of construction materials and equipment.
The establishment of several special economic zones (SEZs) presents numerous
opportunities for development of power, water, and road infrastructure within these
areas. Intended to attract manufacturing and export-oriented companies, SEZs are
located near the borders of Thailand and Vietnam and in Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville,
and Kampot.
The main sources of foreign expertise and construction materials for large commercial
and residential projects are currently from Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, and China, but
high-quality American materials and fixtures are sought by Cambodia’s urban elite and
foreign residents.
Opportunities Return to top
Prospects exist in road, commercial, and residential construction working with
international donors and private companies. There is also a growing market for
engineering service providers. Construction materials and heavy construction
machinery are also needed to support this growing sector.
Web Resources Return to top
World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/kh
Asian Development Bank: http://www.adb.org/cambodia
Ministry of Public Works and Transport: http://www.mpwt.gov.kh
Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction:
http://www.mlmupc.gov.kh
Council for the Development of Cambodia: http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh
Phnom Penh Municipality: http://www.phnompenh.gov.kh
Cambodian Valuers and Estate Agents Association: http://www.cvea.org.kh
Tourism Infrastructure and Resorts
Overview Return to top
Tourism Inflows
2012 2013 2014 2015
Number of International
Tourists
3,584,307 4,210,165 5,052,198 6,062,638
Number of U.S. Tourists 173,076 184,964 197,912 211,766
Total Tourism Receipts
(USD thousands)
2,210,000 2,547,000 3,056,400 3,667,700
Exchange Rate: 1 USD 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel
Data Source: Ministry of Tourism
Note: Figures for 2014 and 2015 are unofficial estimates.
The tourism industry in Cambodia has matured quickly over the past few years due to
political and economic stability. The number of foreign arrivals reached 4.2 million in
2013, with more direct flights serving foreign countries. The majority of tourists are
attracted to the historical/cultural complex of Angkor Wat, but an increasing number of
tourists are also visiting the beaches in the southern town of Sihanoukville. Earnings
from the sector grew by over 15 percent to $2.5 billion, over 16 percent of total GDP in
2013.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
The government expects tourism to continue to increase as new attractions open in
different parts of Cambodia. The airport in the southern coastal town of Sihanoukville
was recently expanded and upgraded to accommodate larger aircraft, and the
government has approved many resort development projects by international and
Cambodian developers for the country’s islands, southern coastline, and mountain
areas. The government is also looking to open up more of the country to eco-tourism,
capitalizing on natural resources such as mountains, rivers, lakes, waterfalls, and rare
animal species like the Mekong dolphin.
Opportunities Return to top
Collectively, these developments present good market opportunities for U.S. companies
to develop resorts or tourist attractions and to supply tourism-related products or
infrastructure.
Web Resources Return to top
Ministry of Tourism: http://www.mot.gov.kh
Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction:
http://www.mlmupc.gov.kh
Council for the Development of Cambodia: http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh
Education
Overview Return to top
Education Imports: Cambodian Students Studying Overseas
2012 2013 2014 2015
Total Imports 23,793 27,362 31,467 34,000
Imports from the United
States
14,821 17,044 18,601 19,000
Exchange Rate: 1 USD 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel
Unit: USD thousands
Total Imports = Number of Cambodian students studying overseas x average cost of
living and tuition fees per year
Data Source: Unofficial estimates based on data from IDP Education (Cambodia).
Demand for education services is very high, as the majority of the population is still
school-age and many Cambodians recognize the importance of education in securing
better employment opportunities. Higher education in Cambodia is growing rapidly with
considerable private-sector and international-donor investment. Quality and diversity,
however, remain low, particularly with respect to vocational training. A common
complaint among local companies is the difficulty of finding well-qualified employees,
particularly for technical positions or those requiring vocational skills. Cambodian private
universities are looking for international partners to increase the quality and
competiveness of their courses.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
There is significant demand for all types of education. The overall quality of education,
however, remains relatively low. NGOs provide useful vocational training for
underprivileged Cambodians to join the work force, but professional vocational training
targeted at mid-level workers is particularly underdeveloped. Cambodians are eager to
learn, and U.S.-sourced education is very highly regarded in all fields. English-language
training is also an increasingly attractive prospect. The option for school or university
study abroad is available to a small, but growing, number of Cambodians.
Opportunities Return to top
Significant commercial opportunities exist in vocational, specialized, pre-school,
elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education sectors.
Web Resources Return to top
Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport: http://www.moeys.gov.kh
Household Goods and Appliances 
Overview Return to top
Imports of Household Goods and Appliances
2012 2013 2014 2015
Electrical, electronic equipment 235,143 739,767 1,109,651 1,664,476
Ceramic products 38,582 99,718 149,577 224,366
Furniture, lighting, signs,
prefabricated buildings
23,923 64,133 96,200 144,299
Glass and glassware 22,788 21,631 23,794 26,174
Toys, games, sports requisites 4,121 14,852 22,278 33,417
Unit: USD thousands
Data Source: International Trade Center
Note: Figures for 2014 and 2015 are unofficial estimates.
An increasing number of Cambodia’s urban elite are willing to pay for quality products.
Cambodia’s emerging middle class also increasingly demands higher levels of comfort
and convenience. Anecdotal evidence from shopping mall outlets indicates a growing
demand for new and innovative products to increase the quality of life for Cambodians.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
Numerous American food and consumer products, from condiments to cleansers, are
available in Phnom Penh’s expanding number of supermarkets. There is also a potential
market for items such as domestic water purification equipment. Because of
Cambodia’s tropical climate, there is significant demand for air conditioning equipment
and several U.S. brands are available in Cambodia. The most popular models are split
units with remote control features. Very few buildings have central air conditioning, but
there is a market for industrial-scale equipment in Cambodia’s garment and footwear
industries. High electricity and fuel costs mean that energy efficiency is a strong selling
point for any type of appliance in Cambodia.
Opportunities Return to top
Domestic water purification equipment, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioning
equipment, and energy-efficient household appliances are all in demand. There is an
increasing appetite for luxury consumer goods including home furnishings among those
with sufficient disposable income.
Web Resources Return to top
Aeon Mall: http://www.aeonmall.com/en/index.html
Lucky Market Group: http://www.luckymarketgroup.com
Shopping Center Sorya Ltd.: http://www.shoppingcentersorya.com
Sovanna Shopping Center: http://www.sovannashoppingcenter.com
Used Car and Automotive Parts
Overview Return to top
Vehicle and Motorbike Imports

2012 2013 2014 2015
Total imports 527,007 621,802 733,648 865,612
Exchange Rate: 1 USD 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel
Unit: USD thousands
Data Source: Ministry of Economy and Finance
Note: Figures for 2014 and 2015 are unofficial estimates.
Cambodia launched public bus transportation service in Phnom Penh in February 2014.
While the number of passengers using public transportation is slowly increasing, the
majority of people prefer to travel by motorbike or private car. With Cambodia’s growing
prosperity, automobile ownership is rapidly increasing. The vast majority of cars are
imported second-hand vehicles. The most popular models are four-wheel-drive vehicles
and mid-sized Japanese sedans. All car imports must be left-hand drive. Local dealers
estimate that Cambodia’s demand for new vehicles is around 4,000 vehicles annually
and the demand for second-hand cars is about 14,000 units annually. The United States
appears to be the largest supplier of used vehicles in Cambodia. A number of
companies sell used and new cars in Phnom Penh. Ford has a local dealership and an
assembly plant for its Ford Everest sport utility vehicle in Cambodia, and Chevrolet
opened its first dealership in May 2013. The market also supports Mercedes, Ssanyong,
Great Wall Motor, Hyundai, BMW, and Peugeot dealers as well as representatives of
major Japanese companies including Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Subaru, and Mitsubishi.
In early January 2013, a private Cambodian company, Heng Development Company,
launched its electric car, the Angkor EV 2013.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
Automobile parts and accessories from the United States are available in Cambodian
markets, particularly for Ford and General Motors vehicles. Limited availability of parts
for other makes and models has led customers to choose Toyota vehicles because parts
are available and affordable. As with other products, U.S. auto parts have a reputation
for quality and attract a higher price than parts produced in Thailand, Taiwan, or other
Asian countries.
Opportunities Return to top
Further opportunities exist in used cars, accessories, and spare parts.
Web Resources Return to top
Ministry of Public Works and Transport: http://www.mpwt.gov.kh
Automobile Association of Cambodia: http://www.aac.com.kh
Power Generation Equipment
Overview Return to top
Electricity prices in Cambodia are among the most expensive in the region due to a
shortage of integrated high-voltage transmission systems and the high cost of imported
diesel fuel. Power in provincial cities is more expensive and less reliable than the supply
in Phnom Penh. There is no single, integrated national electricity grid. In remote rural
areas, the only source of electricity may be a small portable generator.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
There is tremendous demand in Cambodia for diesel generators as backup power, onsite
power plants, and power generation in rural areas not served by public utilities. The
total electricity supply in 2013 was 4.3 billion kilowatt hours (kWh), a 21.8 percent
increase compared to 2012. As of early 2013, about 40 percent of the population had
access to grid-supplied electricity. Almost 100 percent of households in urban areas are
electrified, while the figure is only around 35 percent for rural households. Average
annual per capita energy consumption increased from 190.7 kWh in 2011 to 215 kWh in
2012 (data for 2013 is not yet available). As with other types of infrastructure
development, the government has only limited funding for power generation projects, but
U.S. suppliers should check the World Bank and ADB websites regularly for potential
new projects in the energy sector. The Cambodian government has stated that it is
amenable to private ownership and private financing of power plants and that it is
seeking $3 billion in investment over the next 10 years. Some build-operate-transfer
hydropower deals have already been concluded.
Opportunities Return to top
Opportunities exist for power generation and transmission equipment in cooperation with
international donors or private companies.
Web Resources Return to top
World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia
Asian Development Bank: http://www.adb.org/cambodia
Ministry of Mines and Energy: http://www.mme.gov.kh/ /
Electricite du Cambodge: http://www.edc.com.kh
Electricity Authority of Cambodia: http://www.eac.gov.kh
Fast Food and Beverage Franchises
Overview Return to top
Food and Beverage Imports

2012 2013 2014 2015
Food and ingredients 104,690 119,043 135,363 153,922
Beverages 28,935 48,193 80,268 133,692
Exchange Rate: 1 USD 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel
Unit: USD thousands
Data Source: Ministry of Economy and Finance
Note: Figures for 2014 and 2015 are unofficial estimates.
Cambodia’s growing urban middle class, supplemented by a significant expatriate
community, increasingly frequents restaurant franchises. A few local “mom and pop”
eateries emulating U.S.-style fast food restaurants are popular and busy, such as
doughnut and hamburger establishments. In 2005, Thailand’s The Pizza Company was
the first international-standard pizza business in Cambodia, and the company has done
well. In 2008, Swensen’s and KFC opened their first outlets, and both are expanding
throughout the country. Dairy Queen and Burger King have also entered the Cambodian
market. The Hard Rock Café is expected to open a franchise in Siem Reap in 2014.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
Major American soft-drink companies have bottling plants in Phnom Penh. Cambodia’s
air and land links to Thailand and Vietnam make it easy for local restaurants to secure
adequate supplies of fresh ingredients that meet Western standards, and the
government offers generous investment incentives in the agricultural sector, which would
potentially be available to any franchise interested in local production.
Opportunities Return to top
Significant opportunities exist in the range of fast food/drink options from hamburgers to
coffee shops to mid-range restaurant franchise chains. There may also be market
potential for establishments that offer casual sit-down dining in Phnom Penh.
Web Resources Return to top
The Pizza Company: http://www.pizza.co.th
KFC: http://www.kfc.com
Swensen’s: http://www.swensensicecream.com
Lucky Market Group: http://www.luckymarketgroup.com
Pharmaceuticals, Medical Supplies, and Medical Equipment
Overview Return to top
Medicine Imports

2012 2013 2014 2015
Total imports 85,766 94,264 103,604 113,869
Exchange Rate: 1 USD 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel 4,000 riel
Unit: USD thousands
Data Source: Ministry of Economy and Finance
Note: Figures for 2014 and 2015 are unofficial estimates.
Medicine Registration by Type

2012 2013
Modern medicines 1,178 1,591
Traditional medicines 39 51
Health supplements 76 182
Medical devices 130 353
Reagents 12 40
Total registrations 1,435 2,217
Data Sources: Ministry of Health
Note: The figures include new registrations and renewals.
Number of Product Registrations from 1994 to 2013
New
Registrations
Renewal
Registrations
Total
Imported health supplements 396 55 451
Imported medical devices 596 177 773
Imported modern medicine 6,627 2,476 9,103
Imported reagents 336 74 410
Imported traditional medicine 205 66 271
Local production of modern
medicine 907 335 1,242
Local production of traditional
medicine 1 0 1
Total 9,068 3,183 12,251
Data Sources: Ministry of Health
Only companies licensed by the Ministry of Health may import drugs, medical supplies,
or medical equipment. As of April 2013, there were 1,710 registered pharmacies, 245
drug import/export companies, and eight medical manufacturing institutions in the
country. In addition to the formal market, there is a gray market of smuggled
pharmaceuticals that are often counterfeit.
Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top
The Ministry of Health is the single largest purchaser of drugs, medical supplies, and
medical equipment, but the proportion of healthcare provided by the private sector is
increasing. A number of new private hospitals and clinics have opened in the past few
years, and more are expected in the future, offering potential opportunities for sales of
medical supplies and medical equipment.
Opportunities Return to top
Since U.S.-made drugs and medical equipment are well perceived here, there is great
potential for increasing market share. Local major pharmaceutical importers are eager 
to import U.S.-made products, and Cambodian consumers are keen to receive highquality
treatment offered by American medical products.
Web Resources Return to top
Ministry of Health: http://www.moh.gov.kh
Medicam: http://www.medicam-cambodia.org
Chapter 5: Trade Regulations, Customs, and Standards
 Import Tariffs
 Trade Barriers
 Import Requirements and Documentation
 U.S. Export Controls
 Temporary Entry
 Labeling and Marking Requirements
 Prohibited and Restricted Imports
 Customs Regulations and Contact Information
 Standards
 Trade Agreements
 Web Resources
Import Tariffs Return to top
There are three types of import duties and taxes in Cambodia: (1) customs import duties
with an ad-valorem rate, (2) a special tax for certain goods, and (3) a value added tax
(VAT). All imports are subject to a 10 percent flat VAT, but certain imports receive
special preferences, such as under the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). The following
items are exempt from import duties (other than the VAT): agricultural equipment and
inputs, school materials and equipment, pharmaceutical products, and sporting goods.
A complete listing of tariff rates can be found in the Customs Tariff of Cambodia 2012
report, available for purchase at the General Department of Customs and Excise.
Additional regulations on tariff rates can be requested electronically through the Ministry
of Economy and Finance homepage.
General Department of Customs and Excise website: http://www.customs.gov.kh
Ministry of Economy and Finance website: http://www.mef.gov.kh
Trade Barriers Return to top
Cambodia’s trade volume has increased significantly since the country’s accession to
ASEAN in 1999 and to the WTO in 2004. Since its WTO accession, Cambodia has
been working on trade-related laws and regulations to comply with its WTO obligations.
The Cambodian government has eliminated most non-tariff barriers to trade. In 2006,
the United States and Cambodia signed a Bilateral Trade and Investment Framework
Agreement (TIFA). Several rounds of discussions have been held to promote trade and
investment between the two countries, to help monitor and support Cambodia’s efforts to
implement its WTO commitments, and to address bilateral trade issues and coordinate
on regional and multilateral issues. Discussion of a Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT)
between Cambodia and the United States is ongoing. Cambodia will benefit from the
removal of numerous tariff lines by 2015 under the ASEAN-China Trade, ASEAN-Japan,
ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand, and ASEAN-Korea agreements.
Import Requirements and Documentation Return to top
Cambodia adopted a new Customs Law in June 2007 to bring the country into
conformity with the terms of GATT/WTO Codes on Customs Valuation. The General
Department of Customs and Excise of Cambodia (Customs) requires importers and
exporters to lodge declarations accompanied by such documents as a bill of
lading/airway bill, packing list, invoice, proof of insurance, inspector report of finding, if 
applicable, and other documents as required. In recent years, Cambodia has made
substantial progress in reforming and modernizing its import, export, and transit
operations, including by streamlining and harmonizing customs procedures with
international standards. The government has encouraged the use of a single
administrative document (SAD) system and one-stop service mechanism to facilitate
trade and risk management. Under the one-stop-service mechanism, there is only one
inspection by the inter-ministerial joint body, which streamlines customs procedures and
reduces bureaucracy and paperwork requirements. The Automatic System for Customs
Data (ASYCUDA) is now in operation at all international check points to facilitate
customs procedures as part of the country’s one-stop service implementation. These
reforms have contributed to Cambodia improving its World Bank’s Logistics Performance
Index ranking from 129th in 2010 to 83rd in 2014. For details on the import and export
clearance procedures, please visit the General Department of Customs and Excise’s
website at http://www.customs.gov.kh.
U.S. Export Controls Return to top
For information on the latest U.S. export and re-export regulations, please visit
http://www.bis.doc.gov.
Temporary Entry Return to top
A certain number of goods may be temporarily imported. These commodities need to be
re-exported within a certain period as specified by the Cambodian Customs Law. The
commodities may be granted partial or full exemption from payment of import duties and
taxes. Importers should contact the Customs Administration to ensure re-exportation
within the specified period. The Customs Administration may require the importers to
pay a security deposit to guarantee import taxes and duties, which is not to exceed the
amount of taxes and duties of taxed imports.
Additional details on temporary entry can be found at the General Department of
Customs and Excise’s website at
http://www.customs.gov.kh/SubDegreeEN/Prakas928EN.pdf.
Labeling and Marking Requirements Return to top
Labels or marks are not mandatory for all imports; however, products need to have their
labels certified and registered with relevant ministries before importing into Cambodia.
Labels for different products are regulated and certified by different ministries. Suppliers
of products that could harm public health or safety are also required to certify that the
products comply with the standards set by the Institute of Standards of Cambodia (ISC).
Mandatory standards required by ISC apply to electrical and electronic products, for
example. The ISC is charged with drafting and issuing regulations, while the Cambodia
Import-Export Inspection and Fraud Repression Directorate General (CamControl) in the
Ministry of Commerce is charged with providing pre-approval notice of regulated
products.
More information on labeling and marking requirements can be found on the ISC website
at http://www.isc.gov.kh.
Additional information about CamControl can be found at http://www.camcontrol.gov.kh/.
Prohibited and Restricted Imports Return to top
Cambodia currently prohibits the commercial importation of the following products:
narcotics, psychotropic substances and their precursors, toxic waste and poisonous
chemicals and substances, and certain pesticides. Government regulations also prohibit
the import of used computers and spare parts, household waste (discarded from
dwellings, public buildings, factories, markets, hotels, business buildings, restaurants, 
transport facilities, recreation sites, etc.), and hazardous waste (for example, PCB waste
from discarded air conditioners). To curb the spread of avian influenza, Cambodia
created and implemented more stringent quality control and inspection of poultry
imports. Certain imports are subject to quantitative restrictions and importers of these
products are required to seek approval from relevant government ministries or technical
agencies. Import permits or licenses are required from relevant government agencies
depending on the nature and type of the imported commodity. Import licenses are
required for firearms and pharmaceuticals. Firearm import licenses can be obtained
from the Ministry of Interior, while pharmaceutical licenses can be obtained from the
Ministry of Health. Other special requirements apply to imports of food products and
pharmaceuticals: food products must have a 50 percent minimum remaining shelf life at
the time of inspection, and pharmaceuticals must have a minimum 18 months remaining
shelf life at the time of inspection.
Ministry of Interior
Website: http://www.interior.gov.kh
National Laboratory for Drug Quality Control, Ministry of Health
Website: http://www.moh.gov.kh
Customs Regulations and Contact Information Return to top
The government adopted a new Customs Law and issued an implementing sub-decree
on the promulgation of lists of prohibited and restricted goods in 2007. Further details on
customs regulations can be found at:
General Department of Customs and Excise, No. 6-8, Norodom Blvd., Phnom Penh.
Tel & Fax: (855) 23 214 065
E-mail: info-pru@customs.gov.kh
Website: http://www.customs.gov.kh
Standards Return to top
 Overview
 Standards Organizations
 Conformity Assessment
 Product Certification
 Accreditation
 Publication of Technical Regulations
 Labeling and Marking
 Contacts
Overview Return to top
Cambodia adopted the Law on Standards of Cambodia in 2007 to improve the quality of
products, services, and management; raise and rationalize production efficiency; ensure
fair and simplified trade; rationalize product use; and enhance consumer protection and
public welfare. Several government bodies and agencies share oversight and control
over these standards.
Standards Organizations Return to top
The Institute of Standards of Cambodia (ISC) was officially established in 2008. ISC
drafts laws and regulations, conducts production surveillance, provides supervision and 
technical support, provides training and consultancy to help companies register and
certify their products, disseminates technical regulations, and develops national
standards for products and management. The ISC is in the process of developing
standards for laboratory analysis techniques for the identification of heavy metals and
trace elements and microbiological laboratory techniques. Cambodia uses the ISO/IEC
guide 21-1 and 2:2005 as guides for adopting international standards as national
standards or technical regulations. The Ministry of Health is charged with prescribing
standards, quality control, distribution, and labeling requirements for pharmaceuticals,
medical equipment, and cosmetics. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
is responsible for agricultural products. The National Standards Council (NSC),
established in 2009, leads coordination in the development of national standards;
advises the ISC on the criteria and procedures pertinent to the preparation, approval,
acceptance and selection of the standards; and considers and approves proposals for
Cambodian standards prepared and recommended by ISC to develop, adopt, review,
revise, or cancel Cambodian standards. The NSC is chaired by the Minister of Industry
and Handicraft, with representatives from relevant technical line ministries including the
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; the Ministry of Health; and the Ministry of
Commerce. Overall, the NSC is the national secretariat, which oversees, regulates,
verifies, and adopts or certifies standards proposed by each technical ministry. The
mandate of the NSC is to ensure quality and standard conformity with national and
international standards.
Institute of Standards of Cambodia (Ministry of Industry and Handicraft)
Website: http://www.isc.gov.kh
U.S. NIST Notify Service
Member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are required under the
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) to report to the WTO all
proposed technical regulations that could affect trade with other Member countries.
Notify U.S. is a free, web-based e-mail subscription service that offers an opportunity to
review and comment on proposed foreign technical regulations that can affect your
access to international markets. Register online at http://www.nist.gov/notifyus.
Conformity Assessment Return to top
The ISC develops national standards, performs conformity assessment, inspects and
controls the quality of laboratories, and certifies product and service standards and
compliance for locally consumed goods and export goods. It helps rectify minor errors in
standards compliance. The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry,
and Fisheries are each responsible for implementing their own regulations on standards,
safety, and quality of respective imports, exports, and locally consumed goods. On the
whole, the ISC has a mandate to supervise and provide technical support to the line
ministries to help these ministries develop their standards to conform to national
standards. The ISC also tests for compliance with mandatory Cambodian standards,
conducts conformity assessment and production surveillance, and monitors and verifies
the compliance of the technical regulations of each respective ministry/agency. Other
services provided include education, training, consultancy, and dissemination of
technical information on standards and quality.
Product Certification Return to top
The responsibility for establishing industrial standards and certifications resides with the
ISC. Certification includes product standard compliance, product safety standard
compliance, and production and service management system compliance. Not all
imports require a certificate or license. Importers of regulated products, however, must
request a certificate or a license before importing. To date, the ISC has not strictly
inspected standard compliance or regularly certified product standards for both locally
consumed goods and products for export. It has never suspended, withdrawn, or
revoked any product certificate or license.
Accreditation Return to top
Responsibility for accreditation services was transferred from the ISC to the General
Department of Industry in the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft. The Ministry, which is
still formulating its internal procedures following the transfer of authority, has not yet
begun offering accreditation services.
Publication of Technical Regulations Return to top
Law, rules, and regulations concerning standards are available at the ISC homepage.
Hard copies are published in the Royal Gazette by the General Directorate of Royal
Gazettes and Computer Services of the Council of Ministers.
Institute of Standards of Cambodia (Ministry of Industry and Handicraft)
Website: http://www.isc.gov.kh
General Directorate of Royal Gazettes and Computer Services, Office of the Council of
Ministers
Website: http://www.pressocm.gov.kh
Labeling and Marking Return to top
For information on standards related to this issue, see “Labeling and Marking
Requirements” in Chapter 5: Trade Regulations, Customs, and Standards.
Contacts Return to top
Further information can be obtained from the website of the Institute of Standards of
Cambodia at http://www.isc.gov.kh.
The U.S. Embassy point of contact on standards-related issues is Commercial Specialist
Sokros Chann: (855) 23 728 158, ChannS@state.gov.
Trade Agreements Return to top
Cambodia joined the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1995 and is
also a member of the ASEAN Consultative Committee on Standards and Quality
(ACCSQ). Cambodia ratified the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Mutual Recognition
Arrangements. It has signed numerous trade agreements, including the U.S.-Cambodia
Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) in 2006, and several rounds of
discussions have been held since to promote greater trade and investment between the
two countries and to help monitor and support Cambodia’s efforts to implement its WTO
commitments. The TIFA also provides a forum to address bilateral trade issues and
allows Cambodia and the United States to coordinate on regional and multilateral issues. 
Web Resources Return to top
Institute of Standards of Cambodia of Ministry of Industry and Handicraft
Website: http://www.isc.gov.kh
General Directorate of Royal Gazettes and Computer Services, Office of the Council of
Ministers
Website: http://www.pressocm.gov.kh
General Department of Customs and Excise
Website: http://www.customs.gov.kh
Ministry of Interior
Website: http://www.interior.gov.kh
National Laboratory for Drug Quality Control, Ministry of Health
Website: http://www.moh.gov.kh
Bilateral Trade Department of Ministry of Commerce
Website: http://www.moc.gov.kh
Cambodian Investment Board of the Council for the Development of Cambodia
Website: http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh
Return to table of contents
Chapter 6: Investment Climate
 Openness to Foreign Investment
 Conversion and Transfer Policies
 Expropriation and Compensation
 Dispute Settlement
 Performance Requirements and Incentives
 Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
 Protection of Property Rights
 Transparency of Regulatory System
 Efficient Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment
 Competition from State Owned Enterprises
 Corporate Social Responsibility
 Political Violence
 Corruption
 Bilateral Investment Agreements
 OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs
 Labor
 Foreign-Trade Zones/Free Ports
 Foreign Direct Investment Statistics
 Web Resources
Openness to Foreign Investment Return to top
Cambodia began the transformation from a command economy to the free market in the
late 1980s. It is now integrating into the regional and world trading framework.
Cambodia joined ASEAN in 1999 and served as ASEAN chair in 2012. In 2001, the
country joined the World Customs Organization, and in September 2004, it became a
member of the WTO.
Attitude Toward FDI: Cambodia’s 1994 Law on Investment established an open and
liberal foreign investment regime. All sectors of the economy are open to foreign
investment and the government permits 100 percent foreign ownership of companies in
most sectors. In a few sectors – such as cigarette manufacturing, movie production, rice
milling, gemstone mining and processing, publishing and printing, radio and television,
wood and stone carving production, and silk weaving – foreign investment is subject to
local equity participation or prior authorization from authorities. There is little or no
discrimination against foreign investors either at the time of initial investment or after
investment. Some foreign businesses, however, have reported that they are at a
disadvantage vis-a-vis Cambodian or other foreign rivals, who engage in acts of
corruption or tax evasion or take advantage of Cambodia’s poor enforcement of laws
and regulations.
More information about investment and investment incentives in Cambodia may be
found on the Council for the Development of Cambodia’s website at
http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh.
Other Investment Policy Reviews (IPRs): In compliance with WTO requirements,
Cambodia conducted its first review of trade policies and practices in November 2011. 
The next review will be conducted in 2017. Cambodia’s full trade policy review report
can be found at http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp353_e.htm.
In response to the trade policy review recommendations, Cambodia has undertaken the
following reforms:
- Elimination of the Certificate of Origin requirement for exports to countries where
a certificate is not required;
- Implementation of online business registration;
- Adoption of competitive hiring process for Ministry of Commerce staff;
- Implementation of risk evaluation measures for the Cambodia Import-Export
Inspection and Fraud Repression Directorate General (CamControl) and creation
of a CamControl risk management unit; and
- Enactment of Law on Public Procurement, with the Ministry of Economy and
Finance currently drafting a sub-decree to improve the public procurement
process.
Ongoing or planned reforms include the creation of a commercial court system and
amendments to the Law on Standards.
Laws/Regulations of Foreign Direct Investment: As described more fully below,
Cambodian courts are ostensibly independent, and the government has no right to
intervene in private commercial disputes. Foreign investors, however, are generally
reluctant to resort to the Cambodian judicial system to resolve commercial disputes
because the courts are perceived as unreliable and susceptible to external political
influence or bribery. To address these concerns, the Cambodian government is in the
process of creating a commercial court, which it hopes will increase the judiciary’s
professionalism and discourage corruption and external political influence.
Cambodia’s 1994 Law on Investment created an investment licensing scheme to
regulate the approval process for foreign direct investment and provide incentives to
potential investors. In March 2003, the government simplified the licensing scheme and
increased transparency and predictability by enacting the Law on the Amendment to the
Law on Investment (Amended Law on Investment). The licensing scheme for
investments of less than $2 million was clarified in a sub-decree on the Establishment of
the Sub-Committee on Investment in the Provinces-Municipalities of the Kingdom of
Cambodia in February 2005. Sub-decree No. 111 on the Implementation of the Law on
the Amendment to the Law on Investment, issued in September 2005, lays out detailed
procedures for registering a Qualified Investment Project with the Council for the
Development of Cambodia and provincial/municipal investment sub-committees.
Cambodia is currently reviewing its investment laws and regulations in connection with
the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.
Industrial Strategy: The agricultural sector, which contributed about 36 percent to
Cambodia’s GDP in 2013, is a key driver of the country’s economy. As part of the
government’s policy to support the agriculture industry, materials and equipment used in
agricultural production are exempt from import duties. The government hopes these
policies will increase milled rice exports from 379,000 tons to one million tons by 2015.
Cambodia also plans to finalize its industrial policy before the end of 2014. 
Limits on Foreign Control: There are few limitations on foreign control in Cambodia.
Foreign investors may own 100 percent of their investment projects except in the sectors
of cigarette manufacturing, movie production, rice milling, gemstone mining and
processing, publishing and printing, radio and television, wood and stone carving
production, and silk weaving. According to Cambodia’s Amended Law on Investment
and related sub-decrees, there are no limitations based on shareholder nationality or
discrimination against foreign investors except in relation to investments in real property
or state-owned enterprises. The Law on Investment and the Amended Law on
Investment state that the majority interest in land must be held by one or more
Cambodian citizens. Pursuant to the Law on Public Enterprise, the Cambodian
government must directly or indirectly hold more than 51 percent of the capital or the
right to vote in state-owned enterprises.
Screening of FDI: Foreign direct investment must be registered with the Ministry of
Commerce, and investors must obtain operating permits from the relevant line ministries.
If a foreign investor seeks investment incentives as a Qualified Investment Project,
he/she must register and receive approval from the Council for the Development of
Cambodia or the Provincial-Municipal Investment Sub-Committee. The application to
the Council for the Development of Cambodia may be made either before or after
registering with the Ministry of Commerce. More information about the Qualified
Investment Project process may be found at
http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh/investment-scheme/investment-applicationprocedures.html.
Competition Law: The Ministry of Commerce expects to submit a draft Law on
Competition to the Council of Ministers in 2014.
Investment Trends: The total stocks of foreign direct investment registered capital and
fixed assets in Cambodia from 1994 to 2013 were $5.2 billion and $28.14 billion,
respectively. The average annual foreign direct investment inflow based on fixed assets
between 2011 and 2013 amounted to approximately $2.55 billion. Foreign direct
investment inflow based on fixed assets decreased by about 11 percent to $1.22 billion
in 2013. 
Rankings
The following table lists Cambodia’s most recent rankings by organizations that monitor
economic freedom, business regulations, and perceived level of corruption.
TABLE 1A: Summary of several indices and rankings
Measure Year Rank/Value Website Address
Transparency International’s
Corruption Perceptions Index
2013 160/177 http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2013/resul
ts/
Heritage Foundation’s Economic
Freedom Index
2013 58.5/177 http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking
World Bank’s Doing Business
Report “Ease of Doing Business”
2013 137/189 http//doingbusiness.org/rankings
Global Innovation Index

2013 110/142 http://www.globalinnovationindex.org/co
ntent.aspx?page=gii-full-report-
2013#pdfopener
World Bank Gross National
Income Per Capita
2012 $880 http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.G
NP.PCAP.CD
TABLE 1B: Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Scorecards
Measure Year Score
MCC Government Effectiveness FY2014 0.09/58 percent
MCC Rule of Law FY2014 -0.07/42 percent
MCC Control of Corruption FY2014 -0.13/38 percent
MCC Fiscal Policy FY2014 -3.2/47 percent
MCC Trade Policy FY2014 71.0/58 percent
MCC Regulatory Quality FY2014 0.40/84 percent
MCC Business Start-Up FY2014 0.54/84 percent
MCC Land Rights and Access FY2014 0.69/68 percent
MCC Natural Resource Protection FY2014 100.0/100 percent
MCC Access to Credit FY2014 44/83 percent
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), a U.S. government entity charged with
delivering development grants to countries that have demonstrated a commitment to
reform, produced scorecards for countries with a 2012 per capita gross national income
(GNI) of $4,085 or less. A list of countries/economies with MCC scorecards and links to
those scorecards are available at http://www.mcc.gov/pages/selection/scorecards.
Details on each of the MCC’s indicators and a guide to reading the scorecards are
available at http://www.mcc.gov/documents/reports/reference-2013001142401-fy14-
guide-to-the-indicators.pdf.
Conversion and Transfer Policies Return to top
Foreign Exchange
There are no restrictions on the conversion of capital for investors. Cambodia’s 1997
Law on Foreign Exchange states that there shall be no restrictions on foreign exchange
operations through authorized banks. Authorized banks are required, however, to report
the amount of any transfers equaling or exceeding $100,000 to the National Bank of
Cambodia on a regular basis.
Loans and borrowings, including trade credits, are freely contracted between residents
and nonresidents, provided that loan disbursements and repayments are made through
an authorized intermediary.
The Foreign Exchange Law allows the National Bank to implement exchange controls in
the event of a foreign exchange crisis. In the event of such a crisis, the National Bank
may impose certain temporary restrictions for a maximum period of three months on the
activity or foreign exchange position of authorized intermediaries or on any loans in
domestic currency extended to nonresidents. The U.S. Embassy is not aware of any 
cases in which investors have encountered obstacles in converting local to foreign
currency or in sending capital out of the country.
Remittance Policies
Article 11 of the Law on the Amendment to the Law on Investment of 2003 states that
Qualified Investment Projects can freely remit abroad foreign currencies, purchased
through authorized banks, for the discharge of financial obligations incurred in
connection with their investments. These financial obligations include:
- Payment for imports and repayment of principal and interest on international
loans;
- Payment of royalties and management fees;
- Remittance of profits; and
- Repatriation of invested capital in case of dissolution.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF) status
Despite Cambodia’s commitment to work with FATF and the Asia Pacific Group to
address its strategic Anti-Money Laundering/Combating the Financing of Terrorism
(AML/CFT) deficiencies, FATF’s website states that it is not yet satisfied that Cambodia
has made sufficient progress toward improving its AML/CFT regime and certain strategic
AML/CFT deficiencies remain. FATF recommends that Cambodia continue to work on
implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including 1) establishing and
implementing adequate procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets and 2)
implementing effective controls for cross-border cash transactions. If Cambodia does
not take sufficient steps to implement its action plan by June 2014, FATF may determine
that the country is out of compliance.
Expropriation and Compensation Return to top
Land rights are a contentious issue in Cambodia, complicated by the fact that most
property holders do not have legal documentation of their ownership rights as a result of
the Khmer Rouge era. Numerous cases have been reported of influential individuals or
groups acquiring land titles or concessions through political and/or financial connections,
and then using force to displace communities to make way for commercial enterprises.
In late 2009, the National Assembly approved the Law on Expropriation, which sets
broad guidelines on land-taking procedures for public-interest purposes. It defines
public-interest activities to include construction, rehabilitation, preservation, or expansion
of infrastructure projects and development of buildings for national defense and civil
security. These provisions include construction of border crossing posts, construction of
facilities for research and exploitation of natural resources, and construction of oil
pipeline and gas networks. Property can also be expropriated for natural disasters and
emergencies, as determined by the government. Legal procedures regarding
compensation and appeals are expected to be established in a forthcoming sub-decree,
which is under review by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The U.S. Embassy is
not aware of any cases in which Cambodia has expropriated a U.S. investment.
Dispute Settlement Return to top
Legal System, Specialized Courts, Judicial Independence, Judgments of Foreign
Courts
American investors are generally reluctant to resort to the Cambodian judicial system to
resolve commercial disputes because the courts are perceived as unreliable and
susceptible to external political influence or bribery. Both local and foreign businesses
report frequent problems with inconsistent judicial rulings, corruption, and enforcing
judgments. For these reasons, most commercial disputes are currently resolved through
negotiations facilitated by the Ministry of Commerce, the Council for the Development of
Cambodia, the Cambodian Chamber of Commerce, or other concerned institutions.
Cambodia adopted a Commercial Arbitration Law in 2006. In 2010, the government
provided for the establishment of the National Arbitration Center (NAC), Cambodia’s first
alternative dispute resolution mechanism, to enable companies to resolve commercial
disputes more quickly and inexpensively than through the court system. The NAC was
officially launched in March 2013 but has not yet begun accepting cases because the
body lacks operating procedures, facilities, and staff. Cambodia has also announced
plans to create a commercial court system. The status and structure of the commercial
court will become clear after the government enacts Cambodia’s Law on Court
Structures, which it expects to do in 2014.
Bankruptcy
Cambodia’s 2007 Law on Insolvency was intended to provide collective, orderly, and fair
satisfaction of creditor claims from debtor properties and, when appropriate, the
rehabilitation of the debtor’s business. The Law on Insolvency applies to the assets of
all business people and legal entities in Cambodia. The 2013 World Bank’s Doing
Business Report ranks Cambodia 163 out of 189 in terms of the “ease of resolving
insolvency.”
International Arbitration
International arbitration is available for Cambodian commercial disputes. Cambodia
became a member of the World Bank’s International Center for Settlement of Investment
Disputes in January 2005. In 2009, the International Center approved a U.S. investor’s
request for arbitration in a case against the Cambodian government, and in 2013 the
tribunal rendered an award in favor of Cambodia.
Duration of Dispute Resolution
Due to corruption and an overly bureaucratic system, investment/commercial disputes
may take years to resolve.
Performance Requirements and Incentives Return to top
WTO/TRIMS: To date, Cambodia has not notified the WTO of any measurements that
were inconsistent with the Trade Related Investment Measure (TRIMs) requirements. 
Investment Incentives: All investments need to be registered with the Ministry of
Commerce. Cambodia’s Law on Investment and Amended Law on Investment also
provide a mechanism for various types of incentives for investments that meet specified
criteria. Investors seeking an investment incentive must submit an application to the
Cambodian Investment Board, a division of the Council for the Development of
Cambodia charged with reviewing investment applications. Investment activities
excluded from incentives are detailed in the September 2005 Sub-Decree on the
Implementation of the Amendment to the Law on Investment. These include the
following sectors: retail, wholesale, and duty-free stores; entertainment establishments
(including restaurants, bars, nightclubs, massage parlors, and casinos); tourism service
providers; currency and financial services; press and media-related activities;
professional services; and production and processing of tobacco and wood products.
Incentives also may not be applied to investments in the production of certain products if
the investment is less than $500,000. This includes food and beverages; textiles,
garments, and footwear; and plastic, rubber, and paper products. Investors are not
required to place a deposit guaranteeing their investment except in cases involving a
concession contract or real estate development project. Investors who wish to apply are
required to pay an application fee of seven million riel (approximately $1,750), which
represents the administrative fees for securing necessary approvals, authorizations,
licenses, or registrations from all relevant ministries and entities, including stamp duties.
Under a 2008 sub-decree, the Council for the Development of Cambodia is required to
seek approval from the Council of Ministers for investment proposals that involve an
investment of capital of $50 million or more, politically sensitive issues, the exploration
and/or exploitation of mineral or natural resources, or infrastructure concessions. The
Council for the Development of Cambodia is also required to seek approval from the
Council of Ministers for investment proposals that will have a negative impact on the
environment or the government’s long-term strategy.
Qualified Investment Projects are entitled to receive different incentives such as profit
tax exemptions, special depreciation, and duty-free import of production equipment and
construction materials. Investment projects located in designated special promotion
zones or export processing zones are also entitled to the same incentives. Industryspecific
investment incentives, such as a three-year profit tax exemption, may be
available in the agriculture and agro-industry sectors. Agricultural materials used as
inputs in export industries may be exempt from the value-added tax. More information
about the criteria and investment areas eligible for incentives may be found at
http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh/investment-scheme/investment-incentives.html.
Performance Requirements: Under Cambodian law, most foreign investments and
foreign investors are subject to the following taxes: corporate profits tax (20 percent),
tax on individual salaries (0 to 20 percent), withholding taxes (4 to 15 percent), valueadded
taxes (0 to 10 percent), and import duties (0 to 35 percent).
The Law on Investment permits investors to hire foreign nationals for employment as
managers, technicians, or skilled workers if the qualifications and/or expertise are not
available in Cambodia.
Right to Private Ownership and Establishment Return to top
There are no limits on the rights of foreign and domestic entities to establish and own
business enterprises or to compete with public enterprises. Only Cambodian citizens or
legal entities, however, have the right to own land. Under the 2001 Land Law, foreign
investors may secure control over land through Economic Land Concessions (ELCs),
long-term leases, or renewable short-term leases. In May 2012, the government issued
a moratorium on granting new ELCs. Since that time, however, there have been several
new ELCs granted, which the government justified by stating that any ELC in which the
parties were in private negotiations or had reached an agreement “in principle” prior to
the directive could continue through to issuance. In October 2012, Prime Minister Hun
Sen reiterated that until his retirement, no new ELCs would be granted.
Qualified investors approved by the Council for the Development of Cambodia have the
right to own buildings built on leased property. The law, however, is unclear as to
whether buildings from qualified projects can be transferred between foreign investors or
whether foreign investors can own buildings built through projects not approved by the
Council for the Development of Cambodia.
In 2010, Cambodia adopted a law allowing limited foreign ownership in multi-story
buildings from the second floor up, such that foreign ownership may not exceed 70
percent of the area of all private units of the co-owned building. Foreigners are not
authorized to acquire ownership rights in buildings located within 30 kilometers of the
land borders of Cambodia, except in Special Economic Zones or other areas, as
determined by the government.
Protection of Property Rights Return to top
Cambodia has adopted legislation concerning the protection of property rights, including
the Land Law, the Law on Copyrights, and the Law on Patent and Industrial Design.
Cambodia is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization and the Paris
Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and is a party to the ASEAN
Framework Agreement on Intellectual Property Cooperation. Cambodia has also
concluded bilateral agreements on intellectual property protection and cooperation with
the United States, China, and Thailand.
Real Property: The 2001 Land Law provides a framework for real property security and
a system for recording titles and ownership. Land titles issued prior to the end of the
Khmer Rouge regime in 1979 are not recognized due to the severe dislocations that
occurred during the Khmer Rouge period. The government is making efforts to
accelerate the issuance of land titles, but in practice the titling system is cumbersome,
expensive, and subject to corruption. The majority of property owners lack
documentation proving ownership. Even when title records exist, recognition of legal
title to land has not been uniform, and there are reports of court cases in which judges
have sought additional proof of ownership. Although foreigners are constitutionally
forbidden to own land, the 2001 law allows long- or short-term leases to foreigners. As
noted above, Cambodia also allows foreign ownership in multi-story buildings from the
second floor up.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR): Cambodia has enacted several laws pursuant to its
WTO commitments on intellectual property. Copyrights are governed by the Law on
Copyrights and Related Rights, which was enacted in January 2003. Trademarks are 
governed by the Law Concerning Marks, Trade Names and Acts of Unfair Competition,
which was enacted in 2002. A patent law has been in place since 2003. Some gaps in
intellectual property protection remain, however, and outstanding legislation includes a
draft law for protecting trade secrets, a law on integrated circuit protection, and
legislation on protecting encrypted satellite signals required by the World Intellectual
Property Organization. In January 2014, Cambodia enacted the Law on Geographical
Indications, recognizing geographical indications of local and foreign products.
Infringement of IPR is pervasive, particularly related to software, compact discs and
music, books, cigarettes, alcohol, and pharmaceuticals. Although Cambodia is not a
major center for the production and export of pirated compact discs, digital video discs
(DVD), or other copyrighted materials, local businesses report Cambodia is growing as a
source of pirated material due to weak enforcement. An inter-ministerial committee was
established to combat piracy of compact discs and DVDs in the domestic market.
Infringement complaints may be made to the Economic Police, Customs, the Cambodia
Import-Export Inspection and Fraud Repression Directorate General, or the Ministry of
Commerce. The division of responsibility among each agency, however, is not clearly
defined. The National Intellectual Property Rights Committee is planning to create two
new sub-committees: a sub-committee on IPR enforcement and a sub-committee on the
education and dissemination of IPR rules and regulations. The sub-decree on the
establishment of the two sub-committees is currently under review by the Council of
Ministers.
For additional information about treaty obligations and points of contact at local IP
offices, please see the World Intellectual Property Organization’s country profiles at
http://www.wipo.int/directory/en/details.jsp?country_code=KH.
Resources for Rights Holders:
 Mr. Peter N. Fowler
 Regional IP Attaché
 Telephone number: (662) 205-5913
 Email address: Peter.Fowler@trade.gov
Transparency of Regulatory System Return to top
There is no pattern of systematic discrimination by the government against foreign
investors in Cambodia. Numerous issues of transparency in the regulatory regime arise,
however, from the lack of legislation and capacity of key institutions. Investors often
complain that the decisions of Cambodian regulatory agencies are inconsistent,
arbitrary, or corrupt. Cambodia has indicated a desire to discourage monopolistic
trading arrangements in most sectors, but it has yet to pass the Law on Competition as
part of its WTO accession obligations. The Ministry of Commerce expects Cambodia to
enact competition legislation by 2015. Under the most recent draft, a National
Committee on Competition would be established.
Efficient Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment Return to top
The Cambodian government does not use regulation of capital markets to restrict foreign
investment. Banks have been free to set their own interest rates since 1995, and
increased competition between local institutions has led to a gradual lowering of interest
rates from year to year. Domestic financing, however, is still difficult to obtain at
competitive interest rates. The average annual interest rate on loans in U.S. dollars was
10.8 percent in 2013. A law addressing secured transactions, which includes a system
for registering such secured interests, was promulgated in May 2007. Most loans are
secured by real property mortgages or deposits of cash or other liquid assets, as
provided for in existing contract and real property laws. In 2012, credit (through
commercial and specialized banks) grew by 35 percent to $1.5 billion. Commercial
loans constituted 65.8 percent of all loans, followed by consumer loans (17 percent) and
overdrafts (14.9 percent). The ratio of non-performing loans stood at 2.45 percent at the
end of 2012, largely the same as in 2011. Figures for 2013 are not yet available.
In March 2014, Moody’s Investors Service affirmed Cambodia’s government issuer
rating at B2 with a stable outlook. The rating was based on Cambodia’s healthy
economic growth outlook and a stable external payment position, which balanced
structural weaknesses.
In 2008, the National Bank raised the minimum capital reserve requirements for banks
from $13 million to $37.5 million. By the end of 2012, total assets in the banking system
had reached $10.9 billion, an increase of 37 percent compared with 2011 and equivalent
to 77 percent of GDP. The infusion of capital from newly created banks and additional
customer deposits were the primary drivers underlying the growth.
As of September 2013, the banking system in Cambodia consisted of 35 commercial
banks; eight specialized banks (banks set up to finance specific turn-key projects such
as real estate development); 37 licensed microfinance institutions, of which seven were
licensed microfinance deposit taking institutions; and 33 registered rural credit operators.
The National Bank has also granted licenses to one financial leasing company, four
third-party processors (Wing, Western Union, Money Gram, and AM GSM), and one
Credit Bureau Company to improve transparency and credit-risk management and
encourage more lending to small- and medium-sized enterprise customers.
In a move designed to address the need for capital markets in Cambodia, the
Cambodian Securities Exchange (CSE) was launched on July 11, 2011. In April 2012,
the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority, a state-owned enterprise, was the first
domestically registered company on the CSE. On June 16, 2013, Grand Twins
International (Cambodia) PLC, a Taiwanese-owned garment maker, became the second
company to list shares on the CSE with a $19.3 million initial public offering. Two other
state-owned enterprises – the Autonomous Port of Sihanoukville and Telecom
Cambodia – are preparing for initial public offerings, but a listing date has yet to be
announced.
In November 2006, the National Assembly passed legislation to permit the government
to issue bonds to address the country’s budget deficits. No bonds, however, have been
issued since 2007, and Prime Minister Hun Sen said in 2008 that the government did not
plan to issue bonds in the near future. In 2007, the government also passed the Law on
the Issuance and Trading of Non-government Securities.
Competition from State Owned Enterprises Return to top
Cambodia has four main state-owned enterprises: Electricité du Cambodge, which is in
charge of producing and distributing power nationwide; Phnom Penh Water Supply
Authority, which is responsible for water treatment and supply; Rural Development Bank,
which services and refinances loans to licensed financial institutions, commercial banks,
specialized banks, micro-finance institutions, associations, development communities,
and small- and medium-sized enterprises that take part in rural development in
Cambodia; and Green Trade Company, which manages Cambodia’s national reserve of
rice through purchases and sales made at market prices.
Each state-owned enterprise is under the supervision of a line ministry or government
institution and is overseen by a board of directors drawn from among senior government
officials. Private enterprises are generally allowed to compete with state-owned
enterprises under equal terms and conditions. These entities are also subject to the
same taxes and value-added tax rebate policies as private-sector enterprises. Stateowned
enterprises are covered under the law on public procurement, which was
promulgated in January 2012, and their financial reports are audited by the appropriate
line ministry, Ministry of Economy and Finance, and the National Audit Authority.
Cambodia does not have a sovereign wealth fund.
Corporate Social Responsibility Return to top
Corporate social responsibility is a new concept to Cambodia and is not widely
understood by local businesses or consumers. The vast majority of corporate social
responsibility programs in Cambodia are run by U.S., European, or Australian
companies.
The government neither encourages nor discourages foreign and local enterprises to
follow corporate social responsibility principles. Although Cambodia has a number of
laws related to labor and employment rights, consumer protection, and environmental
protection, the enforcement is often inadequate and corruption remains a significant
issue for many companies.
The Cambodian government has not enacted any laws or adopted any regulations
concerning corporate governance, accounting, and executive compensation standards
to protect the interests of shareholders. Companies operating in Cambodia are not
required to publicly disclose information related to corporate governance, accounting, or
executive compensation, and the U.S. Embassy is unaware of any efforts in Cambodia
to promote public disclosure.
Political Violence Return to top
The risk of political violence directed at foreign companies operating in Cambodia is low.
Foreign companies have been the targets of violent protests in the past, such as the
2003 anti-Thai riots against the Embassy of Thailand and Thai-owned commercial
establishments. More recently, there were unconfirmed reports that several
Vietnamese-owned establishments were targeted for looting during a January 2014
labor protest. Such incidents, however, are rare. The U.S. Embassy is unaware of any
incidents directed at American or other Western interests.
Political uncertainty persists in the aftermath of the disputed national elections held in
July 2013. Following a parliamentary boycott by the opposition Cambodia National
Rescue Party, the ruling Cambodian People's Party formed a one-party government.
The two parties have held periodic negotiations to resolve the impasse since the
elections but, as of June 2014, they had yet to reach a settlement.
Corruption Return to top
Corruption, including bribery, raises the costs and risks of doing business in Cambodia.
Corruption has a corrosive impact on both market opportunities for U.S. companies and
the broader business climate. It also deters international investment, stifles economic
growth and development, distorts prices, and undermines the rule of law.
It is important for U.S. companies, irrespective of their size, to assess the business
climate in the relevant market in which they will be operating or investing, and to have an
effective compliance program or measures to prevent and detect corruption, including
foreign bribery. U.S. individuals and firms operating or investing in foreign markets
should take the time to become familiar with the relevant anticorruption laws of both the
foreign country and the United States in order to properly comply with them, and when
appropriate, they should seek the advice of legal counsel.
The U.S. Government seeks to level the global playing field for U.S. businesses by
encouraging other countries to take steps to criminalize their own companies’ acts of
corruption, including bribery of foreign public officials, by requiring them to uphold their
obligations under relevant international conventions. A U. S. firm that believes a
competitor is seeking to use bribery of a foreign public official to secure a contract
should bring this to the attention of appropriate U.S. agencies, as noted below.
U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: In 1977, the United States enacted the Foreign
Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which makes it unlawful for a U.S. person, and certain
foreign issuers of securities, to make a corrupt payment to foreign public officials for the
purpose of obtaining or retaining business for or with, or directing business to, any
person. The FCPA also applies to foreign firms and persons who take any act in
furtherance of such a corrupt payment while in the United States. For more detailed
information on the FCPA, see the FCPA Lay-Person’s Guide at
http://www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud.
Other Instruments: It is U.S. government policy to promote good governance,
including host-country implementation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws and
policies pursuant to their obligations under international agreements. Since enactment
of the FCPA, the United States has been instrumental to the expansion of the
international framework to fight corruption. Several significant components of this
framework are the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in
International Business Transactions (OECD Anti-Bribery Convention), the United
Nations Convention against Corruption (UN Convention), the Inter-American Convention
against Corruption (OAS Convention), the Council of Europe Criminal and Civil Law 
Conventions, and a growing list of U.S. free trade agreements. Cambodia is a party to
the UN Convention and has endorsed the Action Plan of ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption for
Asia and the Pacific since 2003.
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention: The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention entered into
force in February 1999. As of March 2009, there were 38 parties to the Convention
including the United States (see http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/59/13/40272933.pdf).
Major exporters China, India, and Russia are not parties, although the U.S. government
strongly endorses their eventual accession to the Convention. The Convention obligates
the parties to criminalize bribery of foreign public officials in the conduct of international
business. The United States meets its international obligations under the OECD AntiBribery
Convention through the U.S. FCPA. Cambodia endorsed the Action Plan of
ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption for Asia and the Pacific in 2003, but Cambodia is not a party
to the OECD Convention.
UN Convention: The UN Anticorruption Convention entered into force on December
14, 2005, and there were 158 parties to it as of November 2011 (see
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories.html). The UN Convention is
the first global comprehensive international anticorruption agreement. The UN
Convention requires countries to establish criminal and other offences to cover a wide
range of acts of corruption. The UN Convention goes beyond previous anticorruption
instruments, covering a broad range of issues ranging from basic forms of corruption
such as bribery and solicitation, embezzlement, and trading in influence to the
concealment and laundering of the proceeds of corruption. The Convention contains
transnational business bribery provisions that are functionally similar to those in the
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention and contains provisions on private-sector auditing and
books and records requirements. Other provisions address matters such as prevention,
international cooperation, and asset recovery. Cambodia has been a party to the UN
Convention since 2007.
OAS Convention: In 1996, the Member States of the Organization of American States
(OAS) adopted the first international anticorruption legal instrument, the Inter-American
Convention against Corruption (OAS Convention), which entered into force in March
1997. The OAS Convention, among other things, establishes a set of preventive
measures against corruption, provides for the criminalization of certain acts of
corruption, including transnational bribery and illicit enrichment, and contains a series of
provisions to strengthen the cooperation between its States Parties in areas such as
mutual legal assistance and technical cooperation. As of December 2009, the OAS
Convention had 34 parties (see http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/Sigs/b-58.html).
Cambodia is not a party to the OAS Convention.
Council of Europe Criminal Law and Civil Law Conventions: Many European
countries are parties to either the Council of Europe (CoE) Criminal Law Convention on
Corruption, the Civil Law Convention, or both. The Criminal Law Convention requires
criminalization of a wide range of national and transnational conduct, including bribery,
money-laundering, and account offenses. It also incorporates provisions on liability of
legal persons and witness protection. The Civil Law Convention includes provisions on
compensation for damage relating to corrupt acts, whistleblower protection, and validity
of contracts, inter alia. The Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) was
established in 1999 by the CoE to monitor compliance with these and related anticorruption
standards. Currently, GRECO comprises 49 member States (48 European 
countries and the United States). As of December 2011, the Criminal Law Convention
had 43 parties and the Civil Law Convention had 34. Cambodia is not a party to the
Council of Europe Conventions.
Free Trade Agreements: While it is U.S. government policy to include anticorruption
provisions in free trade agreements (FTAs) that it negotiates with its trading partners, the
anticorruption provisions have evolved over time. The most recent FTAs negotiated
require trading partners to criminalize “active bribery” of public officials (offering bribes to
any public official must be made a criminal offense, both domestically and transnationally)
as well as domestic “passive bribery” (solicitation of a bribe by a domestic
official). All U.S. FTAs may be found at the U.S. Trade Representative website at
http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements. Cambodia does not have
an FTA with the United States.
Local Laws: U.S. firms should familiarize themselves with local anticorruption laws and,
when appropriate, seek legal counsel. While the U.S. Department of Commerce cannot
provide legal advice on local laws, the Department’s U.S. and Foreign Commercial
Service can provide assistance with navigating a host country’s legal system and
obtaining a list of local legal counsel.

Assistance for U.S. Businesses: The U.S. Department of Commerce offers several
services to aid U.S. businesses seeking to address business-related corruption issues.
For example, the U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service can provide services that may
assist U.S. companies in conducting due diligence as part of the company’s overarching
compliance program when choosing business partners or agents overseas. The U.S.
and Foreign Commercial Service can be reached directly through its offices in every
major U.S. and foreign city or through its website at www.trade.gov/cs.
The Departments of Commerce and State provide worldwide support for qualified U.S.
companies bidding on foreign government contracts through the Commerce
Department’s Advocacy Center and State’s Office of Commercial and Business Affairs.
Problems, including alleged corruption by foreign governments or competitors,
encountered by U.S. companies in seeking such foreign business opportunities can be
brought to the attention of appropriate U.S. government officials, including local embassy
personnel and through the Department of Commerce Trade Compliance Center “Report
A Trade Barrier” website at tcc.export.gov/Report_a_Barrier/index.asp.
Guidance on the U.S. FCPA: The Department of Justice’s (DOJ) FCPA Opinion
Procedure enables U.S. firms and individuals to request a statement of the DOJ’s
present enforcement intentions under the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA regarding
any proposed business conduct. The details of the opinion procedure are available on
DOJ’s Fraud Section website at www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa. Although the
Department of Commerce has no enforcement role with respect to the FCPA, it supplies
general guidance to U.S. exporters who have questions about the FCPA and about
international developments concerning the FCPA. For further information, see the Office
of the Chief Counsel for International Counsel, U.S. Department of Commerce website
at http://www.ogc.doc.gov/trans_anti_bribery.html. More general information on the
FCPA is available at the websites listed below.

Exporters and investors should be aware that generally all countries prohibit the bribery
of their public officials and prohibit their officials from soliciting bribes under domestic 
laws. Most countries are required to criminalize such bribery and other acts of
corruption by virtue of being parties to various international conventions discussed
above.
In Cambodia, the Anti-Corruption Law was adopted in 2010 to combat corruption
through education, prevention, and more effective enforcement. Under this law, all civil
servants are obligated to declare their financial assets to the government every two
years. The third round of asset and debt declaration took place during the month of
January 2014. The Anti-Corruption Unit, which was formed in 2010, has launched
several high-profile prosecutions against public officials, including members of the police
and judiciary.
Cambodia ratified the UN Convention against Corruption in 2007 and endorsed the
Action Plan of the Asian Development Bank/Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific in 2003.
Cambodia is not a party to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery.
Business people, both local and foreign, have identified corruption, particularly within the
judiciary, customs service, and tax authorities, as the single greatest deterrent to
investment in Cambodia. Corruption was cited by a plurality of respondents to a World
Economic Forum survey as the most problematic factor for doing business in Cambodia.
The average base salary for civil servants is approximately $105 per month. Although
salaries have increased by 20 percent annually over the last few years, these wages
remain below the level required to maintain a suitable quality of life in Cambodia, and as
a result, public employees are susceptible to corruption and conflicts of interest. Local
and foreign businesses report that they must often pay facilitation fees to expedite any
business transaction. Even though the Cambodian government has published the
official fees of public services since early 2013, the practice of paying additional fees
remains common. Furthermore, the process for awarding government contracts is not
transparent and is susceptible to corruption.
Resources to report corruption in Cambodia:
Cambodian government point of contact:
 Om Yentieng
 President
 Anti-Corruption Unit
 Building No. 54, Preah Norodom Blvd, Sangkat Phsar Thmey 3, Khan Daun
Penh, Phnom Penh
 Telephone number: (855) 23 223 954
 Email address: info@acu.gov.kh
NGO point of contact:
 Preap Kol
 Executive Director
 Transparency International Cambodia
 Telephone number: (855) 23 214 430
 Email address: info@ticambodia.org
Anti-Corruption Resources
Some useful resources for individuals and companies regarding combating corruption in
global markets include the following:
 Information about the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), including a “LayPerson’s
Guide to the FCPA,” is available at the U.S. Department of Justice’s
website at http://www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa.
 Information about the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, including links to national
implementing legislation and country monitoring reports, is available at
http://www.oecd.org/department/0,3355,en_2649_34859_1_1_1_1_1,00.html. See
also the new Anti-Bribery Recommendation and Good Practice Guidance Annex for
companies at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/40/44176910.pdf.
 General information about anticorruption initiatives, such as the OECD Convention
and the FCPA, including translations of the statute into several languages, is
available at the Department of Commerce Office of the Chief Counsel for
International Commerce website at http://www.ogc.doc.gov/trans_anti_bribery.html.
 Transparency International (TI) publishes an annual “Corruption Perceptions Index”
(CPI). The CPI measures the perceived level of public-sector corruption in 180
countries and territories around the world. The CPI is available at
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009. TI also
publishes an annual “Global Corruption Report,” which provides a systematic
evaluation of the state of corruption around the world. It includes an in-depth
analysis of a focal theme, a series of country reports that document major
corruption-related events and developments from all continents, and an overview of
the latest research findings on anti-corruption diagnostics and tools. (See
http://www.transparency.org/publications/gcr.)
 The World Bank Institute publishes Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) at
http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.asp that assess six dimensions of
governance in 213 countries, including Voice and Accountability, Political Stability
and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of
Law, and Control of Corruption. The World Bank Business Environment and
Enterprise Performance Surveys may also be of interest and are available at
http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/BEEPS.
 The World Economic Forum publishes the Global Enabling Trade Report, which
presents the rankings of the Enabling Trade Index and includes an assessment of
the transparency of border administration (focused on bribe payments and
corruption) and a separate segment on corruption and the regulatory environment,
at http://www.weforum.org/s?s=global+enabling+trade+report.
 Additional country information related to corruption can be found in the U.S. State
Department’s annual Human Rights Reports available at
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/. 
 Global Integrity, a nonprofit organization, publishes its annual Global Integrity
Report, which provides indicators for 106 countries with respect to governance and
anti-corruption. The report highlights the strengths and weaknesses of nationallevel
anti-corruption systems and is available at: http://report.globalintegrity.org/.
Bilateral Investment Agreements Return to top
Bilateral investment treaties provide reciprocal national treatment to investors, excluding
benefits deriving from membership in future customs unions or free trade areas and
agreements relating to taxation. These agreements preclude expropriations except
those that are non-discriminatory, undertaken for a lawful or public purpose, and
accompanied by prompt, adequate, and effective compensation at the fair market value
of the property prior to expropriation. The agreements also guarantee repatriation of
investments and provide for settlement of investment disputes via arbitration. Cambodia
has signed bilateral investment agreements with Austria, Australia, China, Croatia,
Cuba, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Indonesia, Kuwait, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, the
Netherlands, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines,
Singapore, Republic of Korea, Switzerland, Thailand, Vietnam, and the Organization of
the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Future agreements with Algeria, Bangladesh,
Belarus, the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, Bulgaria, Myanmar, Egypt,
Hungary, Israel, Iran, Libya, Macedonia, Malta, Qatar, Russia, Turkey, the United
Kingdom, and Ukraine are planned.
In July 2006, Cambodia signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement with the
United States to promote greater trade and investment between both countries and
provide a forum to address bilateral trade and investment issues. In August 2012, the
United States and Cambodia agreed to begin exploratory discussions on a potential
bilateral investment treaty, and these negotiations are ongoing.
OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs Return to top
Cambodia has an agreement with the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)
to encourage investment and is eligible for the Quick Cover Program under which OPIC
offers financing and political risk insurance coverage for projects on an expedited basis.
With most investment contracts written in U.S. dollars, there is little exchange rate risk.
Even for riel-denominated transactions, the fact that Cambodia has adopted a managed
floating exchange-rate regime based on the U.S. dollar means that exchange rates are
likely to remain stable. Cambodia is a member of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency of the World Bank, which offers political-risk insurance to foreign investors. The
Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank) provides financing for purchases
of U.S. exports by private-sector buyers in Cambodia on repayment terms of up to seven
years. Ex-Im Bank support is typically limited to transactions with a commercial bank
functioning as an obligor or guarantor. The Ex-Im Bank will, however, consider
transactions without a bank undertaking on a case-by-case basis.
Labor Return to top
Approximately 65-70 percent of Cambodia’s labor force is engaged in subsistence
agriculture. Around 500,000 people, the majority of whom are women, are employed in
the garment and footwear sector. An additional 350,000 Cambodians are employed in
the tourism sector, and a further 50,000 people in construction. According to the 2013
Inter-Censal Population Survey of Cambodia, the country’s annual population growth
rate was 1.46 percent from 2008 to 2013. Around 55 percent of the population is under
the age of 25. The United Nations has estimated that around 300,000 new job seekers
enter the labor market each year.
Given the severe disruption to the Cambodian education system and loss of skilled
Cambodians during the 1975-79 Khmer Rouge period, workers with higher education or
specialized skills are few and in high demand. The Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey
conducted in 2012 found that about 28 percent of the labor force had completed an
elementary education. Only 2.8 percent of the labor force had completed postsecondary
education. The 2013-2014 Global Competitiveness Report of the World
Economic Forum identified an inadequately educated workforce as one of the most
serious problems to doing business in Cambodia.
Cambodia’s 1997 Labor Code protects the right of association and the right to organize
and bargain collectively. Specifically, the law provides for the right of private-sector
workers to form and join trade unions of their own choice without prior authorization, the
right to strike, and the right to bargain collectively. While unions may affiliate freely, the
law does not explicitly address their right to affiliate internationally.
The law requires trade unions to file their charters and lists of their officials with the
Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training (MOLVT). The Bureau of Labor Relations is
responsible for facilitating the process of union registration and certification of “most
representative status” for unions, which entitles a union representing a majority of
workers in a given enterprise to represent all the workers in that establishment.
Civil servants, including teachers, judges, and military personnel, as well as household
workers, do not have the right to form or join a trade union. Personnel in the air and
maritime transportation industries are free to form unions but are not entitled to social
security and pension benefits and are exempt from the limitations on work hours
prescribed by the labor law.
The law stipulates that workers can strike only after several requirements have been
met, including the failure of other methods of dispute resolution (such as negotiation,
conciliation, or arbitration), a secret-ballot vote of the union membership, and sevendays
advance notice to the employer and the MOLVT. There is no law prohibiting
strikes by civil servants, workers in public sectors, or workers in essential services.
Legal protections are in place to guard strikers from reprisal.
The labor code prohibits forced or compulsory labor, establishes 15 as the minimum
allowable age for paid work, and 18 as the minimum age for anyone engaged in work
that is hazardous, unhealthy, or unsafe. The statute also guarantees an eight-hour
workday and 48-hour work week, and provides for time-and-a-half pay for overtime or
work on an employee’s day off. To increase the competitiveness of local garment
manufacturers, the labor code was amended in 2007 to establish a night shift wage of
130 percent of daytime wages.
As of October 2010, the minimum wage for garment and footwear workers was officially
set at $61 per month. There is no minimum wage for any other industry. In November
2011, to help workers meet basic needs like healthcare, the government approved an
increase of $5 per month starting in January 2012. More recently, garment workers
have pushed for an increase to $160 per month. In December 2013, the tripartite Labor
Advisory Committee agreed to raise the minimum wage to $100, effective February 1,
2014. Following the Labor Advisory Committee’s decision, labor protests in early
January 2014 ended in violent clashes between demonstrators and government security
forces that resulted in at least four deaths. Labor leaders continue to advocate for an
increase to $160, and the government has established a commission to review the
minimum-wage level and report to the Labor Advisory Committee.
Enforcement of many aspects of the labor code is poor, and many labor disputes involve
workers simply demanding conditions to which they are legally entitled. Collective labor
disputes between employers and employees may be resolved through conciliation and
arbitration by the Arbitration Council, which is an independent, national institution with
quasi-judicial authority under Cambodian labor law.
The U.S. government, the International Labor Organization, and others have been
working closely with Cambodia to improve enforcement of the labor code and workers’
rights in general. The 1999 U.S.-Cambodia Bilateral Textile Agreement linked
Cambodian compliance with internationally recognized core labor standards with the
level of textile quota the United States granted to Cambodia. Under the terms of that
agreement, the U.S. government committed to increase the size of Cambodia’s textile
export quota if the country demonstrated improvements in labor standards. This was the
first bilateral trade agreement to positively link market access with progress in
compliance with labor obligations. The International Labor Organization, which works
with the government to monitor adherence to international labor standards in the
garment sector, succeeded in improving compliance with workplace standards, virtually
eliminating the worst labor abuses, such as forced labor and child labor. While the quota
regime ended on January 1, 2005 following Cambodia’s accession to the WTO, the
International Labor Organization’s Better Factories Cambodia program continues to
monitor and report on working conditions in garment factories. All export garment
factories in Cambodia must agree to be monitored by the program in order to receive an
export license. Since March 2014, monitoring reports summarizing compliance issues,
tracking trends, and analyzing progress in Cambodia’s garment and footwear industries
are available online.
The Cambodian government is currently drafting a Trade Union Law and expects
passage by the end of 2014.
Foreign-Trade Zones/Free Ports Return to top
To facilitate the country’s development, the Cambodian government has shown great
interest in increasing exports via geographically defined special economic zones. In
December 2005, the government adopted the Sub-Decree on Special Economic Zones
to speed up the creation of the zones by detailing the procedures, conditions, and
incentives for investors. Since issuing the sub-decree, the Cambodia Special Economic
Zones Board has approved 33 special economic zones, which are located in Phnom 
Penh, Koh Kong, Kandal, Kampot, Sihanoukville, and near the borders of Thailand and
Vietnam. The main investment sectors in these zones include garments, shoes,
bicycles, food processing, car and motorcycle assembly, and electrical equipment
manufacturing.
Foreign Direct Investment Statistics Return to top
According to the Council for the Development of Cambodia, the total stocks of foreign
direct investment registered capital and reported fixed assets in Cambodia from 1994 to
2013 were $5.2 billion and $28.14 billion, respectively. The average annual foreign
direct investment inflows of registered capital and reported fixed assets during the period
1994-2013 were about $274 million and $1.48 billion, respectively. These foreign direct
investment figures, however, may not represent actual investments. While the Council
for the Development of Cambodia provides statistics for fixed assets, these numbers
were based on projections and not actual investments. Foreign direct investment inflow
based on fixed assets decreased by about 11 percent to $1.22 billion in 2013.
Key Macroeconomic Data, U.S. FDI in Cambodia
By end of 2013, the Council for the Development of Cambodia had registered
approximately $80 million in U.S. investments since August 1994. This represents 0.52
percent of GDP. Investors include Caltex, which has a nationwide chain of service
stations and a petroleum holding facility in Sihanoukville; Crown Beverage Cans
Ministry of
Economy and
Finance
Asian
Development
Bank
US government or
International Data Source
Economic Data Year Amount Year Amount
Cambodia Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) (Millions U.S.
Dollars)
2013 15,191 2013 15,248 http://www.adb.org/countrie
s/cambodia/economy
Foreign Direct Investment Council for the
Development
of Cambodia
US government
or International
Statistical
Source
US government or
International Data Source
U.S. FDI in Cambodia (Millions
U.S. Dollars, stock positions)
2013 79.6 2012 54 http://www.ustr.gov/node/7
961
Cambodia’s FDI in the United
States (Millions U.S. Dollars,
stock positions)
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Total inbound stock of FDI as
percentage of Cambodia’s GDP
2013 0.52% 2012 0.38% U.S. FDI in Cambodia:
$54 million (source, USTR)
GDP in 2012: $14,038
million (source, ADB)
Cambodia Limited, a part of Crown Holdings Inc., which produces aluminum cans;
CBRE Group, Inc., which is one of the largest real estate companies in Cambodia;
Motorola Solutions Inc., which has invested in a trunk radio system for the Cambodian
Ministry of Interior; RM Asia, which owns a Ford automobile assembly plant, a John
Deere distributorship, and franchises for Swensen’s Ice Cream, Pizza Company, Kohler,
and Dairy Queen; GE Health Care and GE Consumer and Industrial, which have local
distributors; and Chevron, which is actively exploring offshore petroleum deposits. W2E
Siang Phong Co., Ltd., a joint venture between U.S. and Dutch investors, has invested in
biogas power generation. There are also U.S. investors in several Cambodian garment
factories.
Since 2007, several well-known U.S. companies opened or upgraded their presence in
Cambodia. General Electric and DuPont, for example, have representative offices. Otis
Elevators, a division of United Technologies, also upgraded to a branch office, and
Microsoft initiated a presence through its Market Development Program.
Major non-U.S. foreign investors in Cambodia include Asia Pacific Breweries
(Singapore), Asia Insurance (Hong Kong), ANZ Bank (Australia), BHP Billiton (Australia),
Oxiana (Australia), Infinity Financial Solutions (Malaysia), Total (France), Cambodia
Airport Management Services (CAMS) (France), Manulife Cambodia PLC (Canada),
Prudential (United Kingdom), Smart Mobile Phone (Malaysia), Shinawatra Mobile Phone
(Singapore), Thakral Cambodia Industries (Singapore), Petronas Cambodia (Malaysia),
Charoeun Pokphand (Thailand), Siam Cement (Thailand), Bank of China (China), and
Cambrew (Malaysia).
Some major local companies and their sectors are Sokimex Group (petroleum, tourism,
and garments), Royal Group of Companies (telecommunications and information
technology, banking and insurance, media and entertainment, hotel and resort
properties and development, trading, and transportation), AZ Distribution (construction
and telecommunications), Mong Reththy Group (construction, agro-industry, and rubber
and palm oil plantations), KT Pacific Group (airport projects, construction, tobacco, food,
and electronics distribution), Hero King (cigarettes, casinos, and power), Anco Brothers
(cigarettes, casinos, and power), Canadia Bank (banking and real estate), Acleda Bank
(banking), Men Sarun Import and Export (agro-industry and rice and rubber exports),
and Vattanac Capital (banking, real estate, and golf resorts). In 2009, Acleda Bank
opened its first bank branch outside of Cambodia in Laos, and in 2013 it opened offices
in Burma. Statistics on Cambodian investment overseas are not available, but such
investments are likely minimal.
Sources and Destination of FDI Cambodia (2012)
Direct Investment from/in Cambodia Economy Data
From Top Five Sources/To Top Five Destinations (US Dollars, Millions)
Inward Direct Investment Outward Direct Investment
Total Inward 2,628 100% Total Outward 370 100%
Republic of Korea 1,393 53% China, P.R.: Mainland 299 81%
Malaysia 451 17% Singapore 77 21%
Thailand 406 15% Republic of Korea 2 1%
France 218 8%
Denmark 106 4%
Source: http://cdis.imf.org
According to International Monetary Fund data, total foreign direct investment in
Cambodia amounted to $2.63 billion in 2012, with the Republic of Korea constituting the
largest proportion (53 percent of total investment). The other top foreign direct
investment countries in Cambodia were Malaysia, Thailand, France, and Denmark. The
number of Cambodian investments outside the country was quite small compared to
inward foreign direct investment. In 2012, outward foreign direct investment was $370
million, with 81 percent of the total investment going to China. Two other major
countries were Singapore ($77 million) and the Republic of Korea ($2 million).
The International Monetary Fund’s 2013 data is not yet available. The Council for the
Development of Cambodia provided updated stock foreign direct investment data on
registered capital and fixed assets for approved projects, including domestic investment,
broken down by country of origin. The top 15 approved foreign direct investment
registered capital figures by country below may overstate investment because they
include ongoing projects and/or projects that may never be completed. Retention of
dormant or defunct projects from earlier years makes the investment figures appear
higher.
Total Cumulative Registered Investment Projects by Country of Origin (August
1994 to December 2013)
Countries $ Millions Percent
Cambodia 1,949 27%
Malaysia 1,609 22%
China 893 12%
Vietnam 529 7%
Taiwan 522 7%
Korea 299 4%
Thailand 236 3%
Singapore 228 3%
Hong Kong 205 3%
United Kingdom 140 2%
United Sates 80 1%
Japan 75 1%
Canada 69 1%
Australia 59 1%
Indonesia 56 1%
Other 201 3%
Total 7,150 100%
Source: The Council for the Development of Cambodia
Sources of Portfolio Investment (Cambodia, 2012)
Portfolio Investment Assets
Top Five Partners (Millions, US Dollars)
Total Equity Securities Total Debt Securities
All Countries 2,417 100% All countries 1,396 100% All countries 1,021 100%
Republic of
Korea 1,395 58%
Republic of
Korea 547 39%
Republic of
Korea 848 83%
Thailand 391 16% Thailand 252 18% Thailand 139 14%
France 218 9% France 185 13% France 33 3%
Denmark 106 4% Denmark 106 8% Denmark 0 0%
Poland 1 0% Poland 0 0% Poland 1 0%
Source: http://cdis.imf.org
All the figures in the above tables are provided by the country of origin of the
investments. Cambodian-supplied data is not available.
The total value of portfolio investment assets was $2.47 billion in 2012, the latest figures
available. Among the top five partners, Korea was the largest holder of equity securities,
with 39 percent and debt securities with 83 percent. Thailand and France were the
second and third largest holders of equity securities and debt securities.
Return to table of contents
Return to table of contents
Chapter 7: Trade and Project Financing
 How Do I Get Paid (Methods of Payment)
 How Does the Banking System Operate
 Foreign-Exchange Controls
 U.S. Banks and Local Correspondent Banks
 Project Financing
 Web Resources
How Do I Get Paid (Methods of Payment) Return to top
Letters of credit are the most common method used to facilitate payment and are
preferred over bank guarantees, cash-in advance, and open accounts. Other payment
methods such as forward exchange contract, standby letters of credit, foreign currency
loans, and import and export letters of credit can be tailor-made to an individual importer
or exporter. Instruments and methods of payment offered by banks vary, ranging from
import and export documentary collections, documentary export and import credits, open
account, consignments, cash-in-advance, and guarantees. For a large-scale business
transactions, exporters and importers are required to have bank guarantees, such as
shipping, bid, payment, advance payment, performance, and retention money
guarantees. Private commercial banks provide trade finance services and have foreign
correspondent banks in the United States, Europe, Asia, and elsewhere. Not all
Cambodian commercial and specialized banks, however, handle trade finance.
Commercial banks in Cambodia may use an external credit rating agency, such as
Standard & Poor’s.
How Does the Banking System Operate Return to top
Cambodia’s banking sector is rapidly expanding, with 35 commercial banks, eight
specialized banks, 36 microfinance institutions of which seven are microfinance deposittaking
institutions, and 35 registered microfinance operators. Four banks – Cambodia
Public Bank, Acleda Bank, Canadia Bank, and ANZ Royal – account for over 60 percent
of all bank deposits. In 2013, total assets of the banking sector were approximately
$12.6 billion, of which loans accounted for about 52.5 percent. Loans made to the
services, wholesale, and retail sectors accounted for over 50 percent of total loans.
Despite an increase in the use of banking and finance systems, overall lending and
banking activities remain relatively low due to the lack of trust and prohibitively high
interest rates on loans. Economists note that, while a typical country has a bank deposit
to GDP ratio of roughly 60 percent, Cambodia’s ratio was around 57 percent in 2013.
Foreign-Exchange Controls Return to top
Under the 1997 Foreign Exchange Law, there is no restriction on foreign exchange
operations, including the purchase and sale of foreign exchange and the transfer of all
types of international settlements. The government intervenes, however, to promote
macroeconomic stability by managing the exchange rate. The current exchange rate is
approximately $1=4,030 riel. The law stipulates that only authorized intermediaries may
perform these transactions. In reality, many unregistered money exchangers perform 
currency exchange services. The authorized financial intermediaries are lawfully
established banks, which are required to report to the National Bank of Cambodia on the
types of transfers and outflow or inflow of capital. Investors are not required to report on
transactions of funds. The burden rests solely on the bank as the authorized
intermediary. Article 13(1) of the Law of Foreign Exchange requires the import or export
of any means of payment equal to or exceeding $10,000 or an equivalent amount to be
reported to the Customs authorities at the border crossing point, and the Customs
authorities should transmit this information on a monthly basis to the National Bank.
While foreign exchange transfers are not currently restricted, the law does allow the
National Bank to implement exchange controls in case of a foreign exchange crisis. The
law does not, however, clearly specify what would constitute a crisis. There are
currently no restrictions on the repatriation of profits or capital derived from investments
either in Cambodia or on most transfers of funds abroad.
U.S. Banks and Local Correspondent Banks Return to top
The following are the major banks that have correspondent U.S. banking arrangements:
Angkor Capital Bank Plc.
Tel: (855) 23 993 168; Fax: (855) 23 994 168
E-mail: info@angkorcapitalbank.com
Acleda Bank Plc.
Tel: (855) 23 998 777; Fax: (855) 23 998 666
E-mail: enquiry@acledabank.com.kh
ANZ Royal Bank
Tel: (855) 23 999 000; Fax: (855) 23 221 310
E-mail: ccc@anz.com
Campu Bank
Tel: (855) 23 214 111; Fax: (855) 23 217 655
E-mail: campupnh@campubank.com.kh
Canadia Bank
Tel: (855) 23 215 286; Fax: (855) 23 427 064
E-mail: canadia@canadiabank.com.kh
Foreign Trade Bank
Tel: (855) 23 724 466; Fax: (855) 23 426 108
E-mail: ftb@camnet.com.kh
Project Financing Return to top
Trade and investment financing is available through most foreign bank branches and
local banks. There is a large but unmet demand for loans to local small and medium
enterprises (SMEs). Most loans are short term and provide working capital to traders.
The average interest rate on deposits in U.S. dollars was 3.4 percent in 2013 and 4.4
percent in 2012. The average interest rate on loans in U.S. dollars was approximately
10.8 percent in 2013, compared to 11.6 percent in 2012. For the private sector to
access commercial loans for private projects, collateral or other forms of guarantees are 
required. Through financial leasing, small and medium investment projects can get
capital lease assets from leasing firms.
In June 2009, President Obama determined that Cambodia was no longer a MarxistLeninist
economy, as defined under section 2(b)(2B)(i) of the Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im
Bank) Act of 1945, removing the long-standing determination that had prohibited the ExIm
Bank from providing financing in Cambodia. The Ex-Im Bank now offers financing for
the purchase of U.S. exports for private-sector buyers in Cambodia for the short-term
(repayment up to one year) and the medium-term (repayment from one to seven years).
Ex-Im Bank’s support is typically limited to transactions with a commercial bank
functioning as an obligor or guarantor. Additionally, Cambodia is eligible for the Quick
Cover Program under which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) offers
financing and political risk insurance coverage for projects on an expedited basis.
Cambodia became a member of the World Bank in 1970 and began borrowing in 1993.
The World Bank has a country office in Phnom Penh and has provided loans since 1994
in a variety of sectors with energy, road rehabilitation, education, governance and publicsector
reform, trade and poverty reduction, disease control and health, and social fund
projects constituting the largest shares. Cambodia is a member of the Multilateral
Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) of the World Bank, which offers political-risk
insurance to foreign investors. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other banks,
such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), have also provided loans
to finance the government’s Public Investment Programs. In 1966, Cambodia became a
member of the ADB. Since the early 1990s, ADB has approved $1.65 billion in loans as
of December 2013 in a variety of sectors, but with an emphasis on infrastructure,
including roads, railroads, and irrigation; the energy and power sectors; private-sector
development; health; and education. The U.S. government maintains a commercial
liaison office at ADB headquarters in Manila, which reports directly to the Office of
Multilateral Development Banks at the U.S. Department of Commerce in Washington. It
assists U.S. companies in bidding on contracts and activities funded by the ADB. The
Bank of China’s Cambodia office was established in 2010. By the end of December
2013, the Bank of China’s total assets in Cambodia were $423.5 million; deposits and
loans were $323 million and $234 million, respectively.
Web Resources Return to top
Export-Import Bank of the United States: http://www.exim.gov
Country Limitation Schedule: http://www.exim.gov/tools/country/country_limits.html
OPIC: http://www.opic.gov
Trade and Development Agency: http://www.tda.gov/
SBA’s Office of International Trade: http://www.sba.gov/oit/
USDA Commodity Credit Corporation: http://www.fsa.usda.gov/ccc/default.htm
U.S. Agency for International Development: http://www.usaid.gov
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency: http://www.miga.org
Angkor Capital Bank Plc: http://www.angkorcapitalbank.com
Asian Development Bank: http://www.adb.org/countries/cambodia/main
International Monetary Fund: http://www.imf.org/external/country/KHM/index.htm
World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia
Acleda Bank Plc: http://www.acledabank.com.kh
ANZ Bank: http://www.anzroyal.com
Campu Bank: http://www.campubank.com.kh
Canadia Bank: http://www.canadiabank.com
Foreign Trade Bank: http://www.ftbbank.com
Return to table of contents
Return to table of contents
Chapter 8: Business Travel
 Business Customs
 Travel Advisory
 Visa Requirements
 Telecommunications
 Transportation
 Language
 Health
 Local Time, Business Hours and Holidays
 Temporary Entry of Materials and Personal Belongings
 Web Resources
Business Customs Return to top
Like many other countries in Asia, business relationships in Cambodia have their
foundations in personal relationships. Connections are important in making contacts
and establishing trust. Cambodians are open, approachable and friendly. It is
recommended that approaches to potential business contacts be made with a prior
introduction or personal reference. Potential partners and customers in Cambodia
frequently are more receptive to those who arrive with an introduction or letter from a
known government official or business contact. Although not absolutely required, small
gifts with a company logo are appreciated, as are luncheon or dinner invitations.
Business travelers to Cambodia should have business cards. As in many countries, the
cards are exchanged to formalize the introduction process. Always distribute and
receive business cards with both hands as a sign of respect and take a few seconds to
study a person’s card after it has been received. This is particularly important when
dealing with Cambodia’s ethnic Chinese minority, many of whom hold influential
positions in the country’s business community.
The “sampeah” – placing palms together in a prayer-like position – remains the
traditional gesture of greeting, particularly for women, although it is becoming more
popular to shake hands. Foreigners may shake hands with men and women, but should
wait until the woman offers her hand; otherwise use the traditional sampeah greeting.
Touching someone on the head, pointing with the feet, or pointing in someone’s face are
deemed extremely rude and offensive. Wearing hats in houses, buildings, and
particularly in temples is also considered rude.
Cambodia is a tropical country ill-suited for formal Western business attire. In a strictly
formal meeting, however, it is advisable that men wear a suit and tie and women wear a
dress or business suit. In a less formal setting, business casual attire may be
appropriate.
Travel Advisory Return to top
Travel within cities and provincial towns is generally safe, but prior to arrival in
Cambodia, business travelers should consult the U.S. Department of State’s current 
travel advisory available at http://travel.state.gov. Travelers should also consult the U.S.
Embassy’s current Consular Information Sheet, available at
http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1080.html.
U.S. citizens may register online with the Department of State to obtain updated
information on travel and security within Cambodia at
https://travelregistration.state.gov/ibrs/ui/.
Visa Requirements Return to top
A valid passport and a Cambodian visa are required. Tourist and business visas for
U.S. passport holders are valid for three months beginning with the date of issue.
Cambodia offers online visa processing at http://evisa.mfaic.gov.kh. Travelers may also
apply in person at the Cambodian Embassy located at 4530 16th Street NW,
Washington, D.C., 20011; tel. 202-726-7824 or 202-726-7742; fax 202-726-
8381. Tourists and business travelers may also obtain a Cambodian visa upon arrival at
the airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap and at all major border crossings. All
methods of obtaining a Cambodian visa require passport-sized photographs and a
passport that is valid for a minimum of six months beyond the date of entry into
Cambodia.
The fee is $20 for tourist visas and $25 for business visas. Travelers should bring with
them two passport-sized photos for the visa application. A tourist visa can be extended
for one month, but only one time. Business visas can be extended for $45 for one
month, $75 for three months, $155 for six months, and $285 for one year. These fees
are for fast-track processing (two working days). Fees for normal processing are lower.
Individuals with a business license issued by the Council for the Development of
Cambodia may apply for a business visa valid for a year. The fee is $180. The Ministry
of Interior has a team at the Council for the Development of Cambodia to assist
investors in obtaining long-term business visas.
Travelers should note that Cambodia regularly imposes fines for overstaying a visa. If
the overstay is 30 days or less, the charge is $5 per day, while for overstays of over 30
days, the charge is $6 per day.
Overseas inquiries may be made at the nearest embassy or consulate of Cambodia or
by visiting the Embassy of the Kingdom of Cambodia website at
http://www.embassyofcambodia.org/.
U.S. companies that require travel of foreign business persons to the United States
should consult the following links:
State Department Visa Website: http://travel.state.gov/visa/
U.S Embassy in Phnom Penh: http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/visas.html
Telecommunications Return to top
Telephone (landlines as well as cell phones), fax, internet, and telegram services are
available in Cambodia. International telephone charges are relatively expensive 
compared to other countries in the region. Cell phone service covers most areas
throughout the country and is provided by several companies, including Mobitel
(http://www.mobitel.com.kh), SMART (http://www.smart.com.kh), Metfone
(http://www.metfone.com.kh), and Beeline (http://www.beeline.com.kh). International
roaming service for mobile phones is available but can be expensive. Internet services
are rapidly improving both in terms of price and service, but unlimited broadband service
is still relatively expensive. Internet access via a wireless system is provided in most
major hotels and is free of charge in many restaurants and cafés.
Transportation Return to top
Cambodia has three international airports: Phnom Penh International Airport, Siem
Reap International Airport, and Sihanoukville Airport. These three airports have been
upgraded over recent years with modern terminals. Domestic air service links Phnom
Penh with Siem Reap and Siem Reap with Sihanoukville.
Cars and buses offer a cheap way to travel to most provincial capitals. Cambodia
launched public bus transportation service in Phnom Penh in February 2014. Although
small, the number of passengers using public transportation is slowly increasing.
Metered taxi service is available in Cambodia. Motorcycle-taxis (locally known as motodups),
three-wheeled motor taxis (known as tuk-tuks), and cyclos are popular forms of
transportation. The U.S. Embassy does not recommend using moto-dups or cyclos as
they are prone to accidents and there is a greater risk of street crime. Private cars are
available for rental in most cities upon arrival. Rental fees run between $25 to $50 per
day. If contracting with an independent taxi service, visitors should agree on the price
with the driver before embarking. In Phnom Penh, travel at night on foot or motorbike is
not recommended.
There have been notable improvements to the Cambodian road network over the last
several years. It is much easier to move around the country now than it was just a few
years ago. The safety of road travel outside urban areas varies; traveling only during
daylight hours can reduce the potential risk of road accidents. During the rainy season,
some locations cannot be reached by road. Travelers, especially those planning a
lengthy visit to Cambodia, should register online with the Department of State at
https://travelregistration.state.gov/ibrs/ui/.
Cambodia has an international and commercial deep water port at Sihanoukville
(http://www.pas.gov.kh).
Language Return to top
Khmer is the official language of Cambodia. English is commonly used in most business
meetings. Some senior government officials, however, prefer using Khmer in official
meetings. Chinese, French, Thai, and Vietnamese are also widely spoken.
Health Return to top
Medical facilities and services in Cambodia do not meet international
standards. Both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap have a limited number of
internationally run clinics and hospitals that can provide basic medical care and 
stabilization. Medical care outside these two cities is almost non-existent. Local
pharmacies provide a limited supply of prescription and over-the-counter
medications, but because the quality of locally obtained medications can vary
greatly, travelers should bring adequate supplies of medications for the duration of
their stay in Cambodia.
A current list of clinics, hospitals, and pharmacies with names, addresses and telephone
numbers may be obtained from the U.S. Embassy Consular Section website at
http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/medical_information.html.
For information on avian influenza (bird flu), please refer to the Department of
State’s Avian Influenza Fact Sheet. The U.S. Embassy is unaware of any HIV/AIDS
entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Cambodia.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and
water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-
877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at
http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of
infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website
at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at
http://www.who.int/ith/en.
The Department of State strongly urges U.S. citizens to consult with their medical
insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies
overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical
evacuation. Please see information on medical insurance overseas at
http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1470.html.
Local Time, Business Hours, and Holidays Return to top
Local Time
During U.S. Eastern Standard Time, Cambodia is 12 hours ahead of the U.S. East
Coast. Cambodia consists of a single time zone and is GMT +7.
Business Hours
Business hours for commercial offices are usually from 7:30 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. and from
1:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, and Saturday mornings. Government
offices are officially open from 7:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. and from 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Monday through Friday.
Holidays for 2014
January 1 International New Year’s Day
January 7 Victory over Genocide Regime
February 14 Meaka Bochea Day
March 8 International Women’s Day
April 14-16 Khmer New Year
May 1 International Labor Day
May 13-15 Birthday of His Majesty Preah Bat Samdech Preah Boromneath
Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia
May 13 Visaka Bochea Day
May 26 Royal Plowing Ceremony
June 1 International and Cambodian Children’s Day
June 18 Birthday of Her Majesty the Queen-Mother Norodom Monineath
Sihanouk of Cambodia
September 22-23 Pchum Ben
September 24 Constitution DayOctober 15 Commemoration Day of King
Norodom Sihanouk
October 23 Anniversary of Paris Peace Accord
October 29 Coronation Day of His Majesty Preah Bat Samdech Preah
Boromneath Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia
November 5-7 Water Festival
November 9 Independence Day
December 10 International Human Rights Day
Temporary Entry of Materials and Personal Belongings Return to top
Certain articles temporarily imported for re-export are exempt from import duties and
taxes. The importers are required to pledge that such articles will be re-exported within
the specified period and may be required to provide a guarantee that is refunded after all
the obligations under the pledge have been fulfilled.
Below are a listing of goods allowed for temporary entry:
1. Display or exhibition goods
a. Display or exhibition goods for a trade fair or conference
b. Goods necessary to display machines or equipment
c. Construction equipment and ornaments
d. Advertising equipment for the display of foreign goods such as film and sound
equipment
e. Translation equipment, film and video equipment, and cultural or scientific
films for use at an international conference
2. Technical equipment for use by technicians, experts, or other professionals (such
as computers, phone, fax machines, cameras, voice recorders, and LCDs), apart
from machinery used in manufacturing, packaging, or natural resource
exploitation.
3. Containers, packages, samples of goods (with no commercial value), or other
imports related to, but not part of, commercial transactions when sold or
purchased
4. Goods for educational purposes, including scientific components
5. Sports equipment and sportswear
6. Equipment for advertising and attracting tourists to visit other countries
7. Personal effects/belongings
8. Goods imported for humanitarian use/purposes
9. Means of transport of persons or goods for commercial use, such as any vehicle,
aircraft, road vehicle, or railway rolling stock.
Additional details on temporary entry can be found at the Customs and Excise
Department’s website at http://www.customs.gov.kh/SubDegreeEN/Prakas928EN.pdf.
Web Resources Return to top
 Cambodian Immigration Department: http://www.cambodia-immigration.com/
 Royal Embassy of Cambodia in Washington, D.C.:
http://www.embassyofcambodia.org/visa.html
Return to table of contents
Return to table of contents
Chapter 9: Contacts, Market Research and Trade Events
 Contacts
 Market Research
 Trade Events
Contacts Return to top
U.S. AND CAMBODIAN CONTACTS
A – Royal Government of Cambodia
1 - Key Cambodian Government Agencies
Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC)
Address: Government Palace, Sisowath Quay, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Mr. Sok Chenda Sophea, Secretary General
Tel: (885) 23 427 597; (855) 23 428 954
Fax: (855) 23 360 636
E-mail: info@cambodiainvestment.gov.kh
Website: http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh
 http://www.cdc-crdb.gov.kh
Ministry of Commerce
Address: Lot 19-61, MOC Road (113B Road), Phum Teuk Thla, Sangkat Teuk Thla,
Khan Sen Sok, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Sun Chanthol, Senior Minister
Tel: (855) 23 866 088; (855) 23 866 478
Fax: (855) 23 866 188; (855) 23 866 425
E-mail: moccab@moc.gov.kh
Website: http://www.moc.gov.kh
Ministry of Mines and Energy
Address: No. 79-89, Pasteur road (51), Sangkat Psaa Thmey 3, Khan Daun Penh,
Phnom Penh
Contact: H.E. Suy Sem, Minister
Tel: (855) 23 219 574
Fax: (855) 23 219 584
E-mail: info@mme.gov.kh
Website: http://www.mme.gov.kh
Ministry of Industry and Handicraft
Address: No. 45, Norodom Blvd, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Cham Prasidh, Senior Minister
Tel: (855) 23 211 141
Website: www.mih.gov.kh
Ministry of Public Works and Transport
Address: Preah Norodom Blvd., Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Tram Iv Tek, Minister
Tel: (855) 23 427 845
E-mail: info@mpwt.gov.kh
Website: http://www.mpwt.gov.kh
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Address: No. 200, Preah Norodom Blvd., Sangkat Tonle Bassac, Khan Chamkarmon,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Ouk Rabun, Minister
Tel: (855) 23 726 128; (855) 23 726 129
Fax: (855) 23 217 320
Website: http://www.maff.gov.kh
Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications
Address: Corner Street 13 and 102, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Prak Sokhon, Minister
Tel: (855) 23 724 809; (855) 23 428 246
Fax: (855) 23 426 011
E-mail: info@mptc.gov.kh
Website: http://www.mptc.gov.kh
Ministry of Tourism
Address: Lot 3A, St. 169, Veal Vong Commune, Prampi Makara District, Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Thong Khon, Minister
Tel: (855) 23 884 974 (Department of Administration & General Affairs)
 (855) 23 885 039 (Department of Marketing & Promotion)
E-mail: info@tourismcambodia.org
Website: http://www.tourismcambodia.org/
Ministry of Economy and Finance
Address: No. 60, Street 92, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: H.E. Aun Pon Moniroth, Minister
Tel: (855) 23 724 664
Fax: (855) 23 427 798
E-mail: admin@mef.gov.kh
Website: http://www.mef.gov.kh
General Department of Customs and Excise
Address: No. 6-8, Preah Norodom Blvd., Sangkat Phsar Thmei III, Khan Daun Penh,
Phnom Penh
Contacts: H.E. Pen Siman, Director General; Mr. Kun Nhem, Deputy Director General
Tel: (855) 23 214 065
Fax: (855) 23 214 065
E-mail: info-pru@customs.gov.kh
Website: http://www.customs.gov.kh
Municipality of Phnom Penh
Address: No. 69, Preah Monivong Boulevard, Sangkat Srah Chak, Khan Daun Penh,
Phnom Penh
Contact: H.E. Pa Socheatevong, Governor
Tel: (855) 23 722 054
Fax: (855) 23 725 626
Public Relations and International Cooperation Office (for foreigners)
Tel: (855) 23 430 681
Fax: (855) 23 430 681
E-mail: info@phnompenh.gov.kh
Website: http://www.phnompenh.gov.kh
The National Bank of Cambodia
Address: No. 22-24, Preah Norodom Blvd., Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contacts: H.E. Chea Chanto, Governor; Mr. Kim Vada, Director of Bank Supervision
Department
Tel: (855) 23 722-221
 (855) 23 722 563
Fax: (855)23 426 117
E-mail: info@nbc.org.kh
Website: http://www.nbc.org.kh
General Department of Taxation
Address: No. 522-524, Corner Russian Federation & Mao Tsetong Blvd, Sangkat Toek
Laak I, Khan Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh
Contact: H.E. Kong Vibol, Director General
Tel: (855) 23 886 708
E-mail: gdt@tax.gov.kh
Website: http://www.tax.gov.kh
2 – Cambodian Government Offices in the United States
Royal Embassy of Cambodia
Address: 4530 16th Street, NW, Washington, D.C., 20011
Tel: (202) 726 7742
Fax: (202) 726 8381
Contact: H.E. Mr. Hem Heng, Ambassador
E-mail: camemb.usa@mfa.gov.kh
Website: http://www.embassyofcambodia.org
Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations
Address: 327 East 58th Street, New York, N.Y., 10022
Tel: (212) 336 0777 / 759-7129
Fax: (212) 759 7672
Contact: H.E. Tuy Ry, Ambassador
E-mail: cambodia@un.int
Website: http://www.cambodiaun.org/
B – U.S. Government Contacts
United States Embassy Phnom Penh
Cambodian Mailing Address: No. 1, Street 96, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Tel: (855) 23 728 000
Fax: (855) 23 728 600
Website: http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/
Economic/Commercial Officer: Mr. David Myers
Tel: (855) 23 728 401
E-mail: MyersDR3@state.gov
Economic/Commercial Specialist: Mr. Yuk Sothirith
Tel: (855) 23 728 116
Fax: (855) 23 728 800
E-mail: YukS@state.gov
Commercial Specialist: Ms. Chann Sokros
Tel: (855) 23 728 158
Fax: (855) 23 728 800
E-mail: ChannS@state.gov
U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration
Address: 1401 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, D.C., 20230
Tel: (800) USA-TRAD(E)
Website: http://www.ita.doc.gov/
United States Commercial Service, U.S. Embassy Bangkok
Address: 3rd Floor, Room 302, GPF Witthayu Tower A, 93/1 Wireless Rd., Bangkok
10330, Thailand
Contact: Michael L. McGee, Senior Commercial Officer
Tel: (66) 2 205 5280
Fax: (66) 2 255 2915
E-Mail: Michael.McGee@trade.gov
Website: http://export.gov/thailand
Export-Import Bank of the United States
Address: 811 Vermont Ave. NW, Washington, D.C., 20571
Tel: 800 565 3946 / (202) 565 3946
Fax: (202) 565 3380
Website: http://www.exim.gov
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
Address: 1100 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20527
Tel: (202) 336 8400
Fax: (202) 336 7949
E-Mail: info@opic.gov
Website: http://www.opic.gov
C – Multilateral Contacts:
Asian Development Bank
Address: 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550, Metro Manila, Philippines
Tel: (63) 2 632 4444
Fax: (63) 2 636 2444
Website: http://www.adb.org
Asian Development Bank – Cambodia Resident Mission
Address: No. 29, Suramarit Boulevard, Sangkat Chaktomuk, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom
Penh
Tel: (855) 23 215 805 / 215 806 / 216 417
Fax: (855) 23 215 807
Website: http://www.adb.org/carm
International Finance Corp. – U.S. Office
Address: 1850 I (Eye) St. NW, Room I-11-063, Washington, D.C., 20433
Contact: Mr. Morgan Landy, Cambodia Investment Officer
Tel: (202) 473 9350
Fax: (202) 676 0820
Website: http://www.ifc.org
International Finance Corp. – Cambodia Office
Address: 5th Floor, Phnom Penh Tower, No. 445, Monivong Blvd, Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Tel: (855) 23 863 200
Fax: (855) 23 863 239/240
Email: shor@ifc.org
Website: http://www.ifc.org
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
Address: 1818 H St. NW, Washington, D.C., 20433, USA
Tel: (202) 458 2538
Fax: (202) 522 2630
Email: migainquiry@worldbank.org
Website: http://www.miga.org
D – Local Business Associations
Cambodia Chamber of Commerce
Address: Building Address: No. 7D, Russian Address: Blvd, Sangkat Toek Laak I, Khan
Toul Kok, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Okhna Kith Meng, President
Tel: (855) 23 880 795
Fax: (855) 23 881 757
E-mail: info@ccc.org.kh
Website: http://www.ccc.org.kh
Cambodia Association of Travel Agents
Address: No. 65, Street 240, Sangkat Chaktomuk, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Tel: (855) 23 212 421
Fax: (855) 23 216 212
E-mail: cata@online.com.kh
Website: http://www.cata.org.kh
Cambodia Constructors’ Association
Address: Canadia Tower (12th floor), No. 315, Ang Duong St (Corner of Monivong Blvd),
Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Tel: (855) 23 868 222 (connect to 81 202)
Fax: (855) 23 988 828
Email: secretariatcca@yahoo.com
Website: www.cca.org.kh
Cambodia Federation of Employers and Business Associations
Address: No. 44A, Street 320, Sangkat Boeung Keng Kang III, Khan Chamkar Morn,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Van Sou Ieng, President
Tel: (855) 23 222 186/ 23 219 279
Fax: (855) 23 222 185
E-mail: camfeba@camfeba.com
Website: http://www.camfeba.com
Cambodia Hotel Association
Address: No. 53D, Street 242, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Luu Meng, President
Tel: (855) 77 966 520
Fax: (855) 23 220 722
E-mail: info@cambodiahotelassociation.com.kh
Website: http://www.cambodiahotelassociation.com.kh/
Garment Manufacturers Association in Cambodia
Address: No. 175, Street 215, Sangkat Phsar Dem Kor, Khan Toul Kok, Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Contacts: Mr. Van Sou Ieng, Chairman; Dr. Ken Loo, Secretary General
Tel: (855) 12 563 082; (855) 23 301 181
Fax: (855) 23 882 860
E-mail: info@gmac-cambodia.org
Website: http://www.gmac-cambodia.org
Federation of Cambodian Rice Millers Associations
Address: National Road No.5, Prey Kone Sek Village, Sangkat O’char, Battambang
City, Battambang Province, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Ny Lyheng, Managing Director
Tel: (855) 12 932 388; (855) 88 932 3888
E-mail: lyhengny@yahoo.com
Federation of Cambodian Rice Exporters
Address: Cambodian Chamber of Commerce building, No. 7D, Russian Federation Blvd,
Sangkat Boeung Kak II, Khan Toul Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Tel: (855) 89 222 013
Email: info@fedocrex.com
Website: http://www.fedocrex.com
E– Local Professional Services
Professional services, local law firms, and U.S. law firms are listed alphabetically below:
BNG Legal
Address: No. 64, Street 111, P.O. Box No. 172, Sangkat Boeung Prolit, Khan 7 Makara,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Naryth Hour Hem, Managing Director
Tel: (855) 23 217 510 / (855) 23 212 740/ (1) (503) 96 78009 (US)/ (852) 8191 5059
(Hong Kong)/ (81) (50) 5806 5665 (Japan)
Fax: (855) 23 212 840 / e-Fax: (1) (503) 828 9033 (US)
E-mail: hhn@bngkh.net / info@bnglegal.com
Website: http://www.bnglegal.com
DFDL Mekong Legal and Tax Advisers
Address: No. 33, Street 294 (Corner Street 29), Sangkat Tonle Bassac, Khan
Chamkarmon, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Martin DeSautels, Regional Managing Partner
Tel: (855) 23 210 400
Fax: (855) 23 214 053
E-mail: cambodia@dfdlmekong.com
Website: http://www.dfdlmekong.com
KPMG Cambodia Limited
Address: Delano Center, 4th Floor, No. 144, Street. 169, Sangkat Veal Vong, Khan 7
Makara, 12253, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Michael Gordon, Senior Partner
Tel: (855) 23 216 899
Fax: (855) 23 217 279
E-mail: kpmg@kpmg.com.kh
Website: http://www.kpmg.com.kh
Morison Kak & Associé
Address: No. 25, Street 360, Sangkat Boeung Keng Kang I, Khan Chamkamon, Phnom
Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Key Kak, Chairman
Tel: (855) 23 218 994
Fax: (855) 23 218 993
E-mail: mka.audit@morisonkak.com
Website: http://www.morisonkak.com
PWC
Address: No. 35, Sihanouk Blvd, Tonle Bassac, Chamkar Morn, 12301, Phnom Penh
Contact: Kuy Lim, Partner
Tel: (855) 23 218 086
Fax: (855) 23 211 594
E-mail: lim.kuy@kh.pwc.com
Website: http://www.pwc.com/kh
Sarin & Associates (Law Firm)
Address: 104, Confederation de la Russie Blvd (110), Siriland Tower
Contact: Mr. Denora Sarin, Lawyer
Mobile: (855) 98 777 007
Tel: (855) 23 882 943
Fax: (855) 23 882 943
E-mail: sarin.associates@gmail.com
Sciaroni and Associates (Legal Advisors)
Address: No. 24, Street 462, Sangkat Tonle Bassac, Khan Chamkarmorn, Phnom
Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Bretton Sciaroni, Senior Partner
Tel: (855) 23 210 225
Fax: (855) 23 213 089
E-mail: info@sa-asia.com
Website: http://www.sa-asia.com
VDB Loi
Address: Level 6, Phnom Penh Tower, 445 Monivong Blvd., Phnom Penh
Contact: Mr. Potim Yun, Partner
Tel: (855) 23 964 430
Email: potim.yun@vdb-loi.com
Website: www.vdb-loi.com
F– Foreign Business Associations
AMCHAM Cambodia
Address: No. 34, Sothearos Blvd, Sangkat Chey Chum Neas, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom
Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Bretton G. Sciaroni (Chairman)
Tel: (855) 15 333 715; (855) 17 666 529
E-mail: admin@amchamcambodia.net/ ed@amchamcambodia.net
Website: http://www.amchamcambodia.net
Australian Business Association of Cambodia (ABAC)
Address: No. 20, Kramuon Sar (St.114), Corner Street 67, in ANZ Royal Bank
Contact: Mr. Derek Nayes, Vice President
Tel: (855) 12 385 157
E-mail: abacambodia@gmail.com
Website: http://www.abaccambodia.com
British Chamber of Commerce in Cambodia (BritCham)
Address: Room number 153, Building A, Phnom Penh Center, Sihanouk (St. 274),
corner of Sothearos (St. 3), Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Darren Conquest, Chairman
 Paul Glew, Vice Chairman
Mobile: (855) 12 831 950
E-mail: executivedirector@britchamcambodia.org
Website: http://www.britchamcambodia.org
European Chamber of Commerce in Cambodia (EUROCHAM)
Address: No. 33, Sothearos Blvd (corner of street 178), B.P 522, Khan Daun Penh,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Tel: (855) 23 964 141
E-mail: info@eurocham-cambodia.org
Website: http://www.eurocham-cambodia.org
French Cambodian Chamber of Commerce
Address: No. 33E2, Sothearos (Street 3), Corner of Preah Ang Makhak Vann (Street
178), Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Daniel Zarba, Director
Tel/Fax: (855) 23 221 453
E-mail: ccfc@ccfcambodge.org
Website: http://www.ccfcambodge.org
International Business Chamber of Cambodia (IBC)
Address: 12th floor, Phnom Penh Tower, No. 445, Monivong Blvd, Phnom Penh
Contact: Mr. Bretton G. Sciaroni, Chairman
Tel: (855) 23 964 455
E-mail: admin1@ibccambodia.com
 info@ibccambodia.com
Website: http://www.ibccambodia.com
Japanese Business Association of Cambodia
Address: 2F, Phnom Penh Tower, No. 445, Monivong Blvd. (St.93/232), Sangkat
Boeung Pralit, Khan 7 Makara, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Kiyotaka Doho, General Secretary
Tel: (855) 12 725 503
E-mail: jimukyoku@jbac.info
Website: http://www.jbac.info
Korea Trade Center (KOTRA)
Address: Commercial Section Embassy of the Republic of Korea, PGCT Center, Street
274, Phnom Penh
Tel: (855) 23 214 465; (855) 23 999 099
Fax: (855) 23 999 097
E-mail: kotrapnh@gmail.com
Website: http://www.kotra.or.kr
Malaysian Business Council of Cambodia (MBCC)
Address: No. 87, Street 294, Boeng Keng Kong 1, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Teh Sing, President
Mobile: (855) 16 836 222
E-mail: mbcc.secretariat@gmail.com
Website: http://mbccambodia.org
Taiwan Commercial Association in Cambodia (TCAC)
Address: No. 1E, Street Ongtaminh, Sangkat Kakab, Khan Po Senchey, Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Contact: Mr. Lin Chih Long, President
 Mr. Chen KC, Secretary
Tel: (855) 12 956 399
 (855) 23 982 222
E-mail: tcac2011@hotmail.com
Thai Business Council of Cambodia
Address: No. 196, Preah Norodom Blvd., Sangkat Tonle Bassac, Khan Chamkarmon,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Contact: Ms. Ora Nooch Pakarat, President
Mobile: (855) 16 958 065
E-mail: admin@tbcccambodia.org/ secretary@tbccambodia.org
Website: http://tbcccambodia.org
U.S.-ASEAN Business Council
Address: 1101, 17th Street NW, Suite 411, Washington, D.C., 20036
Contact: Mr. Daniel Henderson
Tel: (1) 202 289 1911
E-mail: mail@usasean.org
Website: http://www.usasean.org
Market Research Return to top
To view market research reports produced by the U.S. Commercial Service, please visit
http://www.export.gov/mrktresearch/index.asp and click on Country and Industry Market
Reports.
Please note that these reports are only available to U.S. citizens and U.S. companies.
Registration on the site is required and is free.
Trade Events Return to top
Please click on the following link for information on upcoming trade events:
http://www.export.gov/tradeevents/index.asp
Return to table of contents
Chapter 10: Guide to Our Services
The President’s National Export Initiative marshals Federal agencies to prepare U.S.
companies to export successfully, connect them with trade opportunities, and support
them once they do have exporting opportunities.
The U.S. Commercial Service offers customized solutions to help U.S. exporters,
particularly small- and medium-sized businesses, successfully expand exports to new
markets. Our global network of trade specialists works one-on-one with businesses
through every step of the exporting process, helping them to:
 Target the best markets with world-class research,
 Promote their products and services to qualified buyers,
 Meet the best distributors and agents for their products and services,
 Overcome potential challenges or trade barriers, and
 Gain access to the full range of U.S. government trade promotion agencies and
services, including export training and potential trade financing sources.
To learn more about the Federal Government’s trade promotion resources for new and
experienced exporters, please visit www.export.gov.
For more information on the services U.S. Embassy Phnom Penh offers to U.S.
exporters, please visit http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/services_for_us_companies.html.
U.S. exporters seeking general export information/assistance or country-specific
commercial information can also contact the U.S. Department of Commerce's Trade
Information Center at (800) USA-TRAD(E).
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained in this report is accurate as of
the date published. The Department of Commerce, however, does not take
responsibility for actions readers may take based on the information contained herein.
Readers should always conduct their own due diligence before entering into business
ventures or other commercial arrangements. The Department of Commerce can assist
companies in these endeavors.
Return to table of contents
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