VETERINARSKI ARHIV 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
* Contact address:
Assistant Profesor Dr. Dinyo Bakalov, Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia
University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, Phone: +359 42 280 2695; Fax: +359 42 395 46, E-mail: dzhbakalov@abv.bg
ISSN 0372-5480
Printed in Croatia
Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Dinyo Bakalov1*, Nikolay Goranov1, and Radostin Simeonov2
1Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University,
Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Pathologic Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia
University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
BAKALOV, D., N. GORANOV, R. SIMEONOV: Canine paraprostatic cyst -
a case report. Vet. arhiv 74, 85-94, 2004.
The paraprostatic cyst is not a common disease of the prostate gland. The present report describes
in detail the clinical status, radiological, haematological and histological findings in a canine patient.
Following non-standard surgical intervention (ureterocolonic anastomosis) the status of the patient
was studied for a period of eight months.
Key words: canine prostata, paraprostatic cyst, ureterocolonic anastomosis
Certain publications describe diseases of the canine prostate gland as
benign hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, prostatic and paraprostatic cysts,
acute and chronic prostatitis, abscess, prostatic carcinoma (PETER et al.,
1995; STERCHY, 1994).
The paraprostatic cyst is among the rarest of diseases (KRAWIEC, 1994,
STERCHY, 1994). KRAWIEC and HEFLIN (1992) examined 177 patients with
changes in the prostate gland, finding a cyst in only 2 of 177 cases.
D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
According to BASINGER et al. (1993), LATTIMER (1994), PETER et al. (1995) and
PURSWELL et al. (2000) the cysts originated from an embryonic structure
known as uterus masculinus.
The present report describes a case of paraprostatic cyst in a dog.
Pathohistological findings in samples from the prostata evidenced a chronic
inflammation. A non-standard and radical surgical intervention was
undertaken. Afterwards, the patient’s clinical status and laboratory findings
(haematology and blood biochemistry) were studied for a period of 8
Literature data on the outcome of ureterocolonic anastostomosis are
few and those that do exist are quite contradictory. Therefore, the aim of
the present study was to report a favourable outcome of a case of
paraprostatic cyst in a dog with ureterocolonic anastomosis.
Materials and methods
A six-year-old male Boxer dog was admitted for examination and
treatment at the Department of Veterinary Surgery, Trakia University, Stara
Zagora. Prior to the surgical intervention the animal was examined and
both native and contrast radiography, as well as laboratory tests, were
performed. Following cystectomy and removal of the formation, a modified
Leadbetter technique of ureterocolonic anastomosis on the descending
colon was performed as described by MONTGOMERY and HANKES (1987),
WALDRON (1993) and FOSSUM (1997). The same haematological and blood
biochemical indexes were analysed on post-surgical days 50, 105 and at
the end of the 8th month. Serology tests were performed to detect the
existence of a Brucella canis infection. A specimen from the surgically
removed tissue was submitted for histological analysis. The specimen was
fixed in a 10% solution of neutral formaldehyde and processed by the
routine histological technique. The sections were stained with
haematoxylin/eosin (H/E).
Anamnesis revealed the presence of blood drops in the urine, which
appeared a month before the referral and which subsequently became more
87 Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
frequent. No other pathological signs were observed during urination, nor
were any other changes in the general condition of the animal.
Fig. 1. Lateral abdominal double-contrast cystogram of the dog
During the clinical examination there were no deviations of the
principal indexes connected with the function of the cardiac and respiratory
systems. Body temperature was also normal.
A hard, elastic and non-painful formation was palpated in the caudal
portion of the abdomen. Rectal palpation revealed a cylindrical enlargement
of the urethra.
On native lateral radiography, a homogeneous and intensive 20-cm
shadow whose shape resembled to that of the urinary bladder was observed.
Catheterization was easily performed, allowing the possibility to obtain
urine samples and to perform double contrast radiography (air and sodium
amidotrizoate + meglumine amidotrizoate - UROPOLIN 60%, Polfa,
Poland). The double contrast radiography (Fig. 1) clearly delineated the
shadow of the bladder, positioned dorsally above the formation.
D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Blood tests showed no changes in the values of total protein, blood
urea nitrogen and creatinine (Table 1).
On the basis of acquired data, a disease of the prostate gland, or
neoplasm affecting the urinary tract, was suggested and a diagnostic median
laparotomy was performed. The observed formation was found right under
the site of the operative approach. Macroscopically, it appeared as a 15 x
10 cm oval mass with a red, irregular surface. At palpation, the consistency
was hard and elastic, narrowing caudally resembling a cone and passing
into the urethra in the area of the prostate gland. The bladder, about four
times smaller, was situated dorsally above it. Bladder size, consistency
and wall were normal with its ventral side connected with the formation
(Fig. 2). No changes in other organs in this area were found.
On the basis of laparotomy findings and data from the earlier tests,
a paraprostatic cyst was diagnosed and a decision for cyst resection was
taken. During incision an attempt was made to separate the cyst from the
bladder. Because of their adhesion, a general ectomy (removal of the cyst,
the prostata and the bladder) was undertaken.
After separating the ends of the ureters and the seminal ducts the blood
vessels of the prostate and the bladder were ligated. A ligature was placed
1 cm after the prostate, after which bleeding ceased completely. A modified
Table 1. Clinical, haematological and blood biochemical parameters of the patient prior
to and after the ureterocolonic anastomosis
nd = not determined
Post operative days
Prior to
operation Day 1 Day 3 Day 5 Day 50 Day 105 Month 8
Haemoglobin, g/L 170 142 170 nd 125 140 140
Haematocrit, l/L 0.50 0.42 0.50 nd 0.36 0.40 0.42
Erytrocytes, T/L 7.85 6.05 7.60 nd 5.14 5.66 5.80
Leukocytes, G/L 6.1 26.5 20.6 14.6 7.1 11.5 8.0
Total protein, g/L 78 71 54 nd 64 51 51
Creatinine, µmolLl 69 65 86 114 662 97 64
Urea, mmol/L 4.7 4.38 9.94 7.85 3.0 3.8 9.0
Body temperature, ºC 38.5 37.9 38.8 nd 38.5 38.2 38.6
Body mass, kg 30.0 nd nd nd 24.5 28.5 29.0
Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
89 Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Leadbetter technique of ureterocolonic anastomosis was performed as
described by MONTGOMERY and HANKES (1987), WALDRON (1993), FOSSUM
(1997), by incising seromuscular rectangular flaps per each ureter and a 4-
mm opening of the mucous membrane beneath them in the area of the
descendent colon. The lumen of the ureters was stitched with this opening
and their end covered with the flap (Fig. 3). In the final phase of the
operation the dog was neutered.
In the post-operative period the clinical condition of the animal
was studied and haematology analyses performed (Table 1). The initial
difficulty for retention of faeces and urine need to be mentioned, although
these difficulties disappeared over the next ten days. Apart from that, the
animal was administered a single i.m. injection of antibiotic: Lincomycin-
Spectinomycin 5/10 (Alfasan; Woerden, Holland) - 1ml/5 kg body mass
for 6 days.
Macroscopically, the removed tissue appeared as a large, thin-walled
cavity filled with a red fluid. The bladder was connected to its dorsal wall
Fig. 2. The cyst and the dorsally located
urinary bladder joined at their caudal parts
Fig. 3. Stages of ureterocolonic
anastomosis - scheme after FOSSUM
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D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Fig. 4. Macroscopic view of removed organs (prostata, urinary bladder, part of urethra
and cyst)
and it merged caudally with the formation in the area of the prostate. At
the point where it merged with the prostate the tissue was of thick and
elastic consistency, with a rough surface and yellow-brownish in colour.
There was no communication between the cavity and the urethra (Fig. 4).
The histology of the specimen exhibited dominant proliferative
processes in the interlobular and intralobular stroma. Various degrees of
focal or diffuse lymphohistyocitar proliferates, often mixed with plasmatic
cells, were also observed. At the same time, connective tissue growths
with initial or advanced fibrosis or hyalinosis could be seen. In the
Fig. 5. Cystic formation. H&E,
scale bar ≈ 4 µm.
Fig. 6. Lymphohystiocytic proliferate
inside the interstitium. H&E,
scale bar ≈ 3 µm.
D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
parenchyma of the lobules there were atrophic, dystrophic or necrobiotic
changes at different phases. Among these some haemorrhages were also
found. In some areas the tubules became larger and formed cyst-like cavities
of different sizes. This was due to the fact that the cavities retain secretion
often mixed with desquamated epithelium. (Figs 5, 6, 7).
Serological tests for Brucella canis were negative.
Physical examination on post-operative day 50 revealed a loss in body
weight. Laboratory tests showed increased blood creatinine levels (Table
1) and the dog’s owner reported that the animal had vomited. An antibiotic
treatment with Ciprofloxacin (Balkanpharma - Bulgaria) at a dose of 10
mg/kg was started, being administered orally once daily for two weeks.
The same tests (Table 1) were repeated on the 105th day and at the
end of the 8th month after the operation, by which time the animal had
regained its normal weight. The owners did not report any other changes
in the dog’s condition. One year after the operation the owner further
confirmed that there had been no negative changes in the patient’s health.
Results of the clinical examination, the laboratory indexes, radiography
and diagnostic laparotomy, pathoanatomical examination of the extirpated
organs, are all similar to the description of the paraprostatic cyst given by
WALDRON (1993), LATTIMER (1994), HEDLUND (1997).
The histological findings of examined specimens evidenced signs of a
chronic inflammatory process, i.e. an indication of chronic prostatitis. The
Fig. 7. Multichamber cyst and haemorrhage. H&E, scale bar ≈ 4 µm.
D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
exact reason for this has not been determined since neither gland secretion
nor cystic fluid has been tested. The test for brucellosis was negative.
Descriptions of chronic bacterial prostatitis have been presented in various
publications (PURSWELL et al., 2000; STERCHY, 1994). A similar histological
picture at a later phase in the development of infectious or self-immune
reactions was given by WALDRON (1993).
Treatment methods for paraprostatic cysts include their resection,
marsupialization or partial prostatectomy. WALDRON (1993) states that in
many cases the cysts have grown together with caudal abdominal and pelvic
structures. WEADER (1978) mentioned that there were difficulties
experienced during incision in 12 cases, due to the fact that the cyst was
connected to the neck of the bladder or the ureters. The same problems
were also encountered by us.
According to WALDRON (1993), possible complications after drainage
include urinary tract infections, abscesses, urinary incontinence and chronic
drainage. After performing partial prostatectomy on 20 dogs with abscesses,
prostatic and paraprostatic cysts, RAWLINGS (1997) observed intermittent
or minor incontinence in 5 dogs, and pyuria in a further 5 dogs.
In our report, the ureterocolonic anastomosis technique, a technique
used for treatment of bladder diseases, was employed because of the
encountered difficulties. The results obtained from sick and healthy patients
are contradictory. STONE et al. (1988a) performed the technique in 10 healthy
dogs and evaluated the post-operative period. MONTGOMERY and HANKES
(1987) and STONE et al. (1988b) used the same technique for the treatment of
patients with carcinoma of the bladder. The complications they reported
included metabolic acidosis, higher levels of creatinine and urea,
neurological problems, hydronephrosis, obstruction at the anastomosis site,
pyelitis and pyelonephritis.
Observation of the clinical condition, haematological and blood
biochemical indices of the patient, as well as the therapy with Ciprofloxacin,
allowed us to avoid undesirable complications during a period of 8 months
after the operation.
D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
Received: 3 April 2003
Accepted: 23 January 2004
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D. Bakalov et al.: Canine paraprostatic cyst - a case report
Vet. arhiv 74 (1), 85-94, 2004
BAKALOV, D., N. GORANOV, R. SIMEONOV: Paraprostatièna cista u psa.
Vet. arhiv 74, 85-94, 2004.
Paraprostatièna cista rijetka je bolest prostate psa. U radu je detaljno opisana klinièka slika te
radiološki, hematološki i histološki nalazi takve ciste u jednog psa. Stanje pacijenta promatrano je
tijekom osam mjeseci nakon kirurške obradbe tj. uèinjene ureterokolonske anastomoze .
Kljuène rijeèi: pas, prostata, cista, ureterokolonska anastomoza