401 PHYTOLOGIA BALCANICA 15 (3): 401 – 430 Sofia, 2009
Systematical and phytogeographical analysis of
the flora on Mt Golo Bardo
Nadezhda Apostolova-Stoyanova1 & Stoyan Stoyanov2
1 University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski St., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria,
e-mail: apostolova_nadejda@abv.bg
2 Institute of Botany, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev St., bl. 23,
1113 Sofia, Bulgaria, e-mail: stoyanov@bio.bas.bg
Received: November 09, 2009 ▷ Accepted: November 16, 2009
Abstract. The article presents the contemporary status of the flora and the phytogeographical characteristics of the mountain
and comprises: a floristic list of the vascular plants, including mosses; distribution of the flora on the principle
of systematics, by biological type and by origin, and by floristic elements; analysis of the participation of rare,
threatened, protected, relict and endemic species. Seven hundred and twenty-four species (without mosses) have
been identified in Mt Golo Bardo, belonging to 358 genera and 77 families. They account for 18.1 % of all species
in Bulgaria, 40.3 % of the genera, and 52.4 % of the families. Twenty-nine moss species were registered too (4.1 %
of all species in Bulgaria), distributed between 22 genera (10.6 %), 15 families (19.0 %). The biological spectrum
resembles the spectrums of two vegetation types: forests in the temperate cold zone and dry grassy communities
with prevalence of the gramineous. Hemicryptophytes prevailed in quantity (59 %), followed by therophytes
(18 %) and phanerophytes (10 %). Three classification systems have been used for the phytogeographical analysis –
of Assyov & Petrova, of Gajić and of Stefanov – all showing similar results. Distribution of the floristic elements
according to the classification of Assyov & Petrova has shown the strongest presence of the Submediterranean
elements (16.4 %), Euro-Mediterranean (14.5 %) and Eurasian (13.0 %) and according to the classification of Gajić –
Subcentral European (12.8 %), Eurasian (11.5 %) and Submediterranean (10.8 %). According to the classification of
Stefanov the species of the Mountain Centre accounted for the largest share of stationary elements in the mountain
(55.0 %), those of the Northern Continental Centre participated with the highest number of mobile elements
(34.4 %), and those of the Southern Continental Centre were most important among the elements of secondary
penetration in Bulgarian (69.5 %). On Mt Golo Bardo has been found 28 Balkan (3.9 %) and three Bulgarian
(0.4 %) endemic elements. Twenty-five relict elements were registered (3.5 % of the species composition). Sixty-six
species have been found to require a conservation status (9.1 % of the species in Mt Golo Bardo).
Key words: Bulgaria, chorology, flora, life forms, Mt Golo Bardo, vascular plants
Introduction
Mt Golo Bardo is characteristic with its ample plant diversity,
part of which is protected in the Ostritsa Managed
Reserve (MR). The flora and vegetation of Golo
Bardo and especially of Ostritsa MR have been object
of research by Bulgarian and foreign botanists, such as
Urumov (1935), Stoyanov & Achtarov (1951), Jakucs
(1961), Stanev (1965), Vichodtsevski (1968), Vasilev
(1973, 1981), Vassilev & Andreev (1978, 1983, 1992),
Pavlov & Dimitrov (2002, 2004), Apostolova-Stoyanova
& al. (2005). The floristic interest in the mountain
has been stepped up by the identifications of that region
as important for the speciation processes and enrichment
of the genetic fund of the Bulgarian flora (Vasilev
& Andreev 1978).
During the various investigations of the flora of
Ostritsa MR, between 350 and 450 vascular species
14 • Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • 2009
402 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
(without mosses) have been approximately established
(Vasilev & Andreev 1978; Vasilev 1981; Pavlov & Dimi
t rov 2002). The number of vascular scpecies (without
mosses) on the territory of the entire mountain
varies in the different studies, starting with 500 reported
by Urumov (1935) and, after some species
added by Stanev (1965), Vasilev (1973) reached 670
species reported by Vasilev & Andreev (1983, 1992).
More detailed researches of the flora of Mt Golo Bardo
and Ostritsa MR were carried out by Vasilev (1981),
Vasilev & Andreev (1978, 1981, 1983, 1992) and Pavlov
& Dimitrov (2002). In their studies they analysed
the biological and chorological spectrum, participation
of the endemics and relicts, of plants protected
by Bulgarian legislation, of species covered by various
Conventions, and of the ecological plant groups. All
above-mentioned studies have found great floristic diversity;
presence of rare, endemic, threatened, protected
and relict species; strong participation of southern
and steppe species owing to the dry and warm calcareous
terrains. Almost all publications about the flora
of Mt Golo Bardo and Ostritsa MR did not contain
lists of the identified plant species. Pavlov & Dimitrov
(2002) were the first to attach to their article a floristic
list of Ostrtsa MR.
The present study aims to identify the floristic composition
of Mt Golo Bardo, including mosses, which
have not been studied so far; and to present a systematic
and phytogeographical analysis of the flora and
comparison with the results of the earlier studies.
Object and methods
Mt Golo Bardo rises between the valleys of Pernik and
Radomir, in the northwest it reaches the Batanovski
Gorge of river Struma, and in the southeast is linked
with Mt Verila.
Mt Golo Bardo is a well differentiated massive, oblong
in shape, about 20 km long and 5 km wide. The
mountain curves in the middle so that its western part
has a west-east orientation and the rest stretches in the
northwest-southeast direction. The average altitude is
900–1000 m, which refers it to the low mountains of
Bulgaria. Mt Golo Bardo is characteristically symmetric
in profile. The central crest is rounded and distinct;
it is higher in its western part, which houses the peaks
Vetrushka (1158 m), Ostritsa (1147 m) and Primochlyak
(1154 m) (Nikolov & Yordanova 2002).
Mt Golo Bardo falls into the Temperate Continental
Climatic Region (Valev 2002). The continental character
of the climate is expressed in a warm summer and
cold winter, great amplitudes in air temperatures, springsummer
maximum and winter minimum of precipitation,
and annual, relatively sustainable snow cover.
According to the accepted hydrological regioning
of Bulgaria (Yordanova 2002), Mt Golo Bardo falls into
the Hydrological Zone B, with its temperate continental
climatic influence of the outflow; the Hydrological
Subzone BII, with considerable snow feeding of the
outflow; and the Hydrological Region BII3. The mountain
is drained out by river Struma, which encircles it
from the east, north and west. All water streams on the
territory of Mt Golo Bardo are of temporary character.
They are full early in spring, owing to the rapid thawing
of the snow cover. In the rest of the year the gullies running
down from the mountain crests are dry, owing to
the rather sparse rainfalls, strong evaporation and quick
draining away down the calcareous slopes.
The geological base of Mt Golo Bardo constitutes
of sedimental rocks. Triassic limestones, dolomites
and marls prevail, and sandstones and conglomerates
are revealed at the foot of the mountain. The calcareous
rock composition is one of the most typical specificities
of Mt Golo Bardo and a major factor for the
existing ecological conditions. The mountain is deeply
karsted, bare and dry.
The combination of continental climate with Mediterranean
influence, of calcareous base rock and lowmountain
relief has led to formation of Rendzina soils
(hummus-carbonate) of the Leptosols class (Donov
1993). With such soils the hummus horizon is characteristically
situated immediately above the primary
unconsolidated materials (AC profile). These soils are
sandy-clayey up to slightly clayey, dark-grey in colour.
The soil is insufficiently humid (dry to fresh), owing
to the fast seep-down of water to a great depth. Soil
susceptibility to erosion is a grave problem.
According to the geobotanic regioning of Bulgaria
(Bondev 2002), the vegetation of Mt Golo Bardo is referred
to the Holarctic Kingdom, European Deciduous
Forest Zone, Illyrian (Balkan) Province, Sofia District,
Graovo-Cherna Gora Region. Mesophyte riverine forest
and grassy vegetation, as well as xerothermic forest,
shrub and grassy vegetation occur in the mountain.
The floristic analysis was carried out in accordance
to the methods of Tolmachev (1974). The number of
taxa was assessed by categories, as well as the relative
403 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
participation of taxa from different ranks in the studied
flora, as compared to their general number in the
floras of Bulgaria and of Mt Golo Bardo, and the richest
in species families and genera. The biological spectrum
of the flora was determined by the life forms
according to Raunkiaer (1934). The chorological spectrum
was established by using the data for floristic elements
according to Assyov & Petrova (2006), Gajić
(1980, 1984) and Stefanov (1943) and for the bryoflora
according to Boros (1968). The participation of endemics
and relict elements was assessed (Gajić 1980,
1984), as well of the taxa with conservation status.
The floristic composition was established by means of
field studies in the period 2004–2009. Species registered
in Mt Golo Bardo by other authors, but not identified
with this investigation, are not included in the present
article. The floritstic list was arranged alphabetically by
family names, within the framework of the respective
classes and divisions (Supplement 1). The number and
distribution of the taxa (without mosses) by categories
was based according to Jordanov (1963–1979), Velchev
(1982, 1989), Kozhuharov (1992, 1995), Delipavlov &
Cheshmedzhiev (2003), and Assyov & Petrova (2006).
For the purpose of determination and nomenclature of
mosses the authors used Petrov (1975), Ganeva & Natcheva
(2003), and Natcheva & Ganeva (2005).
Results and discussion
The present study has established 724 vascular species
(without mosses), belonging to 358 genera and 77
families (Supplement 1). They account for 18.1 % of all
species in Bulgaria, 40.3 % of the genera, and 52.4 % of
the families. Their relative participation has been calculated
on the basis of 3997 species, 889 genera and
147 families identified in the Bulgarian flora (Assyov
& Petrova 2006). Twenty-nine moss species were
registered too, distributed between 22 genera, 15 families
and two classes (Supplement 1). They account for
4.1 % of all species in Bulgaria, 10.6 % of the genera,
and 19.0 % of the families. In order to make the data
comparable with those from earlier studies, the mosses
were not included in the floristic analysis.
In the distribution of vascular taxa within the flora
of Mt Golo Bardo (Table 1), the strongest participation
went to Magnoliopsida, represented by 63 families
(81.8 % of the total number of families in the territory
studied, 282 genera (78.8 % of the total number of
genera) and 582 species (80.4 % of the total number
of species). Liliopsida is represented by eight families
(10.4 %), 70 genera (19.6 %) and 133 species (18.4 %),
Pinopsida participated with two families (2.6 %), two
genera (0.6 %) and four species (0.6 %), Polypodiopsida
with three families (3.9 %), three genera (0.8 %) and
four species (0.6 %), and Equisetopsida with one family
(1.3 %), one genus (0.3 %) and one species (0.1 %).
Participation of the genera in the different families,
as compared to their total number in the flora of the
mountain (358), varied between 0.3 % и 11.2 %, and
the participation of the species in the different families
(724), varied between 0.1 % and 11.9 % (Table 2).
The Bulgarian flora is represented in Mt Golo Bardo
as a correlation within the framework of the higher
and lower taxa in Table 1 and 2. Equisetopsida participated
with 100 % of the Bulgarian families and genera
and with 12.5 % of the species, Polypodiopsida at family
level with 16.7 % of those reported for Bulgaria, at genus
level with 11.1 % and at species level with 6.6 %. The
established participation of Pinopsida claimed 50 % of
Table 1. Taxonomic structure of the flora of Mt Golo Bardo.
taxonomic category
Equisetophyta Polypodiophyta Pinophyta Magnoliophyta
Equisetopsida Polypodiopsida Pinopsida Magnoliopsida Liliopsida
Number of taxa in
Bulgaria
Number of taxa in Mt
Golo Bardo
% of the total number of
taxa in Bulgaria
% of the total number of
taxa in Mt Golo Bardo
Number of taxa in
Bulgaria
Number of taxa in Mt
Golo Bardo
% of the total number of
taxa in Bulgaria
% of the total number of
taxa in Mt Golo Bardo
Number of taxa in
Bulgaria
Number of taxa in Mt
Golo Bardo
% of the total number of
taxa in Bulgaria
% of the total number of
taxa in Mt Golo Bardo
Number of taxa in
Bulgaria
Number of taxa in Mt
Golo Bardo
% of the total number of
taxa in Bulgaria
% of the total number of
taxa in Mt Golo Bardo
Number of taxa in
Bulgaria
Number of taxa in Mt
Golo Bardo
% of the total number of
taxa in Bulgaria
% of the total number of
taxa in Mt Golo Bardo
Families 1 1 100.0 1.3 18 3 16.7 3.9 4 2 50.0 2.6 107 63 58.9 81.8 17 8 47.1 10.4
Genera 1 1 100.0 0.3 27 3 11.1 0.8 6 2 33.3 0.6 663 282 42.5 78.8 192 70 36.5 19.6
Species 8 1 12.5 0.1 61 4 6.6 0.6 17 4 23.5 0.6 3188 582 18.3 80.4 723 133 18.4 18.4
404 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Table 2. Distribution of the species and genera according to the
families and their relative participation in the floras of Mt Golo
Bardo and Bulgaria.
Families
Genera Genera
Number of taxa in Bulgaria
Number of taxa
in Mt Golo Bardo
% of the total number
of taxa in Bulgaria
% of the total number of
taxa in Mt Golo Bardo (358)
Number of taxa
in Bulgaria
Number of taxa
in Mt Golo Bardo
% of the total number
of taxa in Bulgaria
% of the total number of
taxa in Mt Golo Bardo (724)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Equisetaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 8 1 12.5 0.1
Aspleniaceae 3 1 33.3 0.3 11 2 18.2 0.3
Athyriaceae 2 1 50.0 0.3 4 1 25.0 0.1
Hypolepidaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 1 1 100.0 0.1
Cupressaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 6 2 33.3 0.3
Pinaceae 3 1 33.3 0.3 8 2 25.0 0.3
Acanthaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 2 1 50.0 0.1
Aceraceaea 1 1 100.0 0.3 7 4 57.1 0.6
Anacardiaceae 3 1 33.3 0.3 3 1 33.3 0.1
Apiaceae 62 22 35.5 6.1 143 35 24.5 4.8
Apocynaceae 2 1 50.0 0.3 4 1 25.0 0.1
Araliaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 1 1 100.0 0.1
Aristolochiaceae 2 2 100.0 0.6 5 2 40.0 0.3
Asclepiadaceae 5 1 20.0 0.3 7 1 14.3 0.1
Asteraceae 86 40 46.5 11.2 506 86 17.0 11.9
Berberidaceae 3 1 33.3 0.3 3 1 33.3 0.1
Betulaceae 5 4 80.0 1.1 9 6 66.7 0.8
Boraginaceae 21 10 47.6 2.8 78 16 20.5 2.2
Brassicaceae 57 14 24.6 3.9 188 22 11.7 3.0
Campanulaceae 8 4 50.0 1.1 45 10 22.2 1.4
Cannabaceae 2 1 50.0 0.3 2 1 50.0 0.1
Caprifoliaceae 3 3 100.0 0.8 9 3 33.3 0.4
Caryophyllaceae 30 16 53.3 4.5 191 32 16.8 4.4
Celastraceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 3 2 66.7 0.3
Chenopodiaceae 14 1 7.1 0.3 43 1 2.3 0.1
Cistaceae 5 3 60.0 0.8 12 3 25.0 0.4
Convolvulaceae 3 2 66.7 0.6 12 3 25.0 0.4
Cornaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 2 2 100.0 0.3
Crassulaceae 6 1 16.7 0.3 31 5 16.1 0.7
Dipsacaceae 7 5 71.4 1.4 35 12 34.3 1.7
Euphorbiaceae 5 2 40.0 0.6 35 12 34.3 1.7
Fabaceae 40 19 47.5 5.3 287 63 22.0 8.7
Fagaceae 3 2 66.7 0.6 18 4 22.2 0.6
Gentianaceae 5 2 40.0 0.6 26 2 7.7 0.3
Geraniaceae 2 2 100.0 0.6 29 10 34.5 1.4
Globulariaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 3 1 33.3 0.1
Hypericaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 22 5 22.7 0.7
Juglandaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 1 1 100.0 0.1
Lamiaceae 30 26 86.7 7.3 145 49 33.8 6.8
Table 2. Continuation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Linaceae 2 1 50.0 0.3 20 7 35.0 1.0
Lythraceae 4 1 25.0 0.3 10 1 10.0 0.1
Malvaceae 7 4 57.1 1.1 17 4 23.5 0.6
Monotropaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 1 1 100.0 0.1
Oleaceae 5 3 60.0 0.8 8 4 50.0 0.6
Onagraceae 4 1 25.0 0.3 20 5 25.0 0.7
Orobanchaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 26 2 7.7 0.3
Papaveraceae 7 4 57.1 1.1 31 6 19.4 0.8
Plantaginaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 15 5 33.3 0.7
Polygalaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 15 2 13.3 0.3
Polygonaceae 9 3 33.3 0.8 41 5 12.2 0.7
Primulaceae 10 3 30.0 0.8 30 4 13.3 0.6
Ranunculaceae 20 12 60.0 3.4 113 22 19.5 3.0
Resedaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 3 1 33.3 0.1
Rhamnaceae 4 1 25.0 0.3 9 2 22.2 0.3
Rosaceae 28 18 64.3 5.0 233 37 15.9 5.1
Rubiaceae 6 5 83.3 1.4 60 19 31.7 2.6
Rutaceae 3 2 66.7 0.6 5 2 40.0 0.3
Salicaceae 2 2 100.0 0.6 23 2 8.7 0.3
Santalaceae 3 2 66.7 0.6 13 4 30.8 0.6
Saxifragaceae 4 1 25.0 0.3 30 1 3.3 0.1
Scrophulariaceae 24 11 45.8 3.1 160 29 18.1 4.0
Staphyleaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 1 1 100.0 0.1
Thymelaeaceae 2 2 100.0 0.6 9 2 22.2 0.3
Tiliaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 4 2 50.0 0.3
Ulmaceae 2 1 50.0 0.3 5 2 40.0 0.3
Urticaceae 2 2 100.0 0.6 8 2 25.0 0.3
Valerianaceae 3 1 33.3 0.3 21 1 4.8 0.1
Verbenaceae 2 1 50.0 0.3 3 1 33.3 0.1
Violaceae 1 1 100.0 0.3 35 8 22.9 1.1
Amaryllidaceae 5 2 40.0 0.6 5 2 40.0 0.3
Araceae 3 1 33.3 0.3 4 1 25.0 0.1
Cyperaceae 19 1 5.3 0.3 105 11 10.5 1.5
Iridaceae 4 3 75.0 0.8 25 8 32.0 1.1
Juncaceae 2 2 100.0 0.6 33 3 9.1 0.4
Liliaceae 25 17 68.0 4.7 115 34 29.6 4.7
Orchidaceae 25 10 40.0 2.8 56 18 32.1 2.5
Poaceae 92 34 37.0 9.5 310 56 18.1 7.7
the families registered in Bulgaria, 33.3 % of the genera
and 23.5 % of the species. More than half of the families
of Magnoliopsida in Bulgaria participated in the flora
of Mt Golo Bardo (58.9 %), with 42.5 % as the share of
the genera, while the species identified in the mountain
amounted only to 18.3 %. Liliopsida were represented
somewhat similarly to the Magnoliopsida in Bulgaria:
the participation of families was recorded as 47.1 %, of
the genera 36.5 % and of the species 18.4 %. Some of the
405 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
families identified in Golo Bardo were represented by
100 % of the genera (Equisetaceae, Cupressaceae, Aceraceaea,
Aristolochiaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Geraniaceae,
Hypericaceae, Plantaginaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, Juncaceae,
etc.). This was due to the fact that only one, two
or three genera participated in the families mentioned
for the flora of Bulgaria. Owing to the limited diversity
of habitats in the mountain, a considerable part of the
representatives of the larger families did not occur in Mt
Golo Bardo, which led to a lower percentage participation
of the genera in these families (below 50.0 %) (Boraginaceae
47.6 %, Fabaceae 47.5 %, Asteraceae 46.5 %,
Scrophulariaceae 45.8 %, Orchidaceae 40.0 %, Poaceae
37.0 %, Apiaceae 35,5 %, and Brassicaceae 24.6 %). Mention
deserve here some of the large families which participated
in the flora of the mountain with more than
50.0 % of their genera (Lamiaceae 86.7 %, Liliaceae
68.0 %, Rosaceae 64.3 %, Ranunculaceae 60.0 %, Caryophyllaceae
53.3 %). Percentage participation of the species
in the different families, as compared to their total
number in the Bulgarian flora, was similar to the percentage
participation of the genera. Again, the fullest
represented were the families with one of two species
(Hypolepidaceae, Cornaceae, Araliaceae, Staphyleaceae,
and Monotropaceae). The families rich in species
showed partial representation of their species composition:
below 40.0 %. Families like Apiaceae and Fabaceae
were represented by less than ¼ of their species;
while Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Poaceae, Asteraceae,
Caryophyllaceae, Rosaceae, and Brassicaceae with
less than 1/5 of their species. Of the larger families, only
Lamiaceae and Liliaceae participated with species accounting
approximately for 30 % of the Bulgarian representatives
for the reported families.
Similar distribution of the taxa from different categories
and their relative participation, as compared to the
Bulgarian flora in general and the flora of Mt Golo Bardo,
was given in the study of Vasilev & Andreev (1992).
There are some insignificant differences probably due,
on the one hand, to the differences in the number of
the identified taxa in the mountain – 69 families, 305
genera and 663 species and, one the other, to the difference
in the number of the respective taxa for Bulgaria
– 143 families, 861 genera and 3656 species. The difference
in the number of the identified taxa cannot be
discussed, because the above-mentioned authors have
not attached a systematic list. The relative participation
of the taxa in the flora of Ostritsa MR, as compared to
their total number in the floras of Bulgaria and of Mt
Golo Bardo, studied by Vasilev & Andreev (1978, 1992)
and by Pavlov & Dimitrov (2002), also showed similar
results, which corroborates their claims of high representation
in the flora of the reserve.
The leading families in the flora of Mt Golo Bardo
coincided with those in the Bulgarian flora in general.
Most abounding in species and genera were Asteraceae
with 86 species and 40 genera, Fabaceae with 63 species
and 19 genera, and Poaceae with 56 species and 34 genera
(Table 3); the most numerous genera were Centaurea
represented by 12 species, Carex with 11, Euphorbia,
Galium and Lathyrus with 10 each, Allium with nine,
Astragalus, Bromus, Geranium, Veronica, and Viola with
eight each, Linum, Orchis, Potentilla, and Trifolium with
seven each, Bupleurum, Campanula, Hieracium, Inula,
Poa, Ranunculus, Rosa, Salvia, Stachys, and Vicia with
six each, and Epilobium, Hypericum, Medicago, Plantago,
Sedum, Silene, Tragopogon, and Verbascum with five
species each (Supplement 1).
An analysis of the biological spectrum helped assess
the specific conditions of development of the floristic
complexes. On Mt Golo Bardo hemicryptophytes
prevailed in quantity, followed by therophytes, phanerophytes,
geophytes and chamaephytes (Table 4). The
same distribution was established by Vasilev & Andreev
(1992) and by Pavlov & Dimitrov (2002). It reminded of
the biological spectrums of two vegetation types: forests
in the temperate cold zone and dry grassy communities
with prevalence of the Poaceae. Most plant species were
hemicryptophytes (59 %), which is characteristic of the
temperate geographical latitudes and is typical of the biological
spectrums of the two above-mentioned vegetation
types. Among the remaining life forms, the annual plants
(therophytes) (18 %) stood out, which implied similarity
with the biological spectrum of the dry grassy communities
with prevalence of the Poaceae typical of the Mediterranean.
Also, mention deserves the relatively strong
participation of phanerophytes (10 %), which is not characteristic
of the dry grassy communities with prevalence
of the Poaceae, but is typical of the forests in the temperate
cold zone developing under a temperate continental climate.
The resemblance of the biological spectrum of Mt
Golo Bardo to the biological spectrums of the two vegetation
types is explained by the geographical situation of
the mountain lying in the temperate continental latitudes
but with a palpable climatic influence of the Mediterranean.
Resemblance to the dry grassy communities with
prevalence of the grasses vegetation type was due to the
typical of Mt Golo Bardo xerophyte and mesoxerophyte
406 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Table 3. Families with the greatest participation of species and
genera in the flora of Mt Golo Bardo.
Families
Species Genera
Number of taxa
% of the total number
of taxa (724)
Number of taxa
% of the total number
of taxa (358)
Asteraceae 86 11.9 40 11.2
Fabaceae 63 8.7 19 5.3
Poaceae 56 7.7 34 9.5
Lamiaceae 49 6.8 26 7.3
Rosaceae 37 5.1 18 5.0
Apiaceae 35 4.8 22 6.1
Liliaceae 34 4.7 17 4.7
Caryophyllaceae 32 4.4 16 4.5
Scrophulariaceae 29 4.0 11 3.1
Brassicaceae 22 3.0 14 3.9
Ranunculaceae 22 3.0 12 3.4
Rubiaceae 19 2.6 5 1.4
Orchidaceae 18 2.5 10 2.8
Boraginaceae 16 2.2 10 2.8
Dipsacaceae 12 1.7 5 1.4
Euphorbiaceae 12 1.7 2 0.6
Cyperaceae 11 1.5 1 0.3
Campanulaceae 10 1.4 4 1.1
Geraniaceae 10 1.4 2 0.6
Table 4. Biological spectrum of the flora of Mt Golo Bardo.
Vegetation type Life-forms, %
Ph Ch H G Th
Mt Golo Bardo 10 4 59 9 18
Forests in the temperate cold zone 10 17 54 12 7
Dry grassy communities with
prevalence of Poaceae
1 12 63 10 14
Legend: Ph – Phanerophytes; Ch – Chamaephytes;
H – Hemicryptophytes; G – Geophytes; Th – Therophytes.
ical analysis of the bryoflora was made according to the
classification of Boros (1968).
Cosmopolitan mosses and characteristic of northern
part of the northern hemisphere prevailed in
Mt Golo Bardo. Distribution of the floristic elements
according to the classification of Boros (1968)
(Table 5) has shown the strongest presence of Circumpolar
(44.8 %), followed by Circumpolar, nearly
cosmopolitan (17.2 %), Cosmopolitan (6.9 %) and
Nearly cosmopolitan (6.9 %). The floristic elements
Circumpolar with mediterranean-atlantic character,
Circumpolar with mediterranean character and Mediterranean
are unite in a group of the floristic element
with Mediterranean-atlantic character, whose participation
is calculated to 10,2 %. Participation of the last
floristic element is connected with Mediterranean climate
influence and calcareous base rock.
The chorological spectrum based on the data of Assyov
& Petrova (2006) has shown the strongest participation
of the Submediterranean elements (16.4 %),
followed by the Euro-Mediterranean (14.5 %) and Eurasian
(13.0 %) (Table 6). Considerable participation (8.3–
4.0 %) was also registered by the Euro-Siberian, European,
Mediterranean, Pontic-Mediterranean, and Boreal
floristic elements. This distribution means that on the
mountain there exists a combination of such plant species
which come and originate from geographical regions
with great differences in the climatic conditions, irrespective
of the fact that the diversity of habitats offered
by the mountain is not very great. The temperate continental
climate favours the growth of species typical of the
Table 5. Phytogeographical elements of the bryoflora of Mt
Golo Bardo (according to Boros).
Chorological type
Number of
taxa
% of the total
number of taxa
Circumpolar 13 44.8
Circumpolar, nearly cosmopolitan 5 17.2
Cosmopolitan 2 6.9
Nnearly cosmopolitan 2 6.9
Circumpolar with continental character 1 3.4
Circumpolar with mediterranean-atlantic character 1 3.4
Circumpolar with mediterranean character 1 3.4
Circumpolar/ Continental 1 3.4
Circumpolar/ Submediterranean-subatlantic 1 3.4
Eurasian 1 3.4
Mediterranean 1 3.4
total 29 100
grassy communities, with strong participation of therophytes.
There are suitable places in the mountain for the
development of mesophyte forests which, in turn, explains
the similarity of the biological spectrum with that
of the forests in the temperate cold zone.
Conformities of distribution and probable origin of
plants were subject to the botanico-geographical analysis
of the flora. Chorological spectrums were drawn on the
basis of the data of Assyov & Petrova (2006), Gajić (1980,
1984) and Stefanov (1943), in order to obtain comparability
with the data obtained during earlier studies, whose
authors have used different classifications (Vasilev & Andreev
1983; Pavlov & Dimitrov 2002). A phytogeograph407
Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Central European forests and even of species originating
from the northern parts of Europe and Asia. The Mediterranean
influence, although rather weakened, favours
the settling of southern species. The calcareous baserock
also exercises an impact on the advent of thermophilous
and xerophytic representatives from the south, offering
warm and dry habitats in summer.
According to Assyov & Petrova (2006) the following
endemic elements has been found on the mountain:
28 Balkan (3.9 %) and three Bulgarian (0.4 %).
This fact testifies to originality and naturalness. Emergence
and preservation of the endemic elements on
Mt Golo Bardo is directly linked to the calcareous terrains
creating specific habitats.
A phytogeographical analysis of the flora of the Ostritsa
MR was made by Pavlov & Dimitrov (2002). The
results were very close and there was one full coincidence
with the leading floristic elements. Mention deserves
the stronger expressed Balkan and Bulgarian
floristic elements on the territory of the Reserve, represented
respectively by 7.3 % and 1.1 %. The high degree
of endemism concentrated in the protected territory
has proved the naturalness and typicality of its flora.
Distribution of the floristic elements according to the
classification of Gajić (1980, 1984) (Table 7) has shown
the strongest presence of the Pontic-Central Asiatic elements
with 25.8 %, Submediterranean 24.0 %, Eurasian
20.9 %, and Central European 17.3 %. The Pontic-Central
Asiatic elements were steppe elements originating
from Europe, the Submediterranean comprised species
from the European part of the Mediterranean, the
Eurasian comprised species originating generally from
Europe and Asia, and the Central European originated
from the central parts of Europe. At subelements level,
the lead was taken by the Sub Central European with
12.8 % participation, Eurasian with 11.5 % and Submediterranean
with 10.8 % This distribution confirmed
the advent of plants characteristic both of the temperate
and northern regions, as well as of southern species determined
by the phytogeographical spectrum according
to Assyov & Petrova (2006).
According to Gajić (1984) thirteen species referred
to the group of endemic elements occur on Mt Golo
Bardo, which accounts for 1.8 %. Mention deserves the
great difference with the Balkan (3.9 %) and Bulgarian
(0.4 %) floristic elements observed there according to
the data Assyov & Petrova. It could be explained with
the scope of the floristic elements of the two classifications.
Assyov & Petrova (2006) regarded the Balkan flo-
Table 6. Phytogeographical elements of the flora of Mt Golo
Bardo (according to Assyov & Petrova 2006).
Chorological type Number
of taxa
% of the
total number
of taxa
1 2 3 4
subMed Submediterranean 119 16.4
Eur-Med Euro-Mediterranean 105 14.5
Eur-As Eurasian 94 13.0
Eur-Sib Euro-Siberian 60 8.3
Eur European 55 7.6
Med Mediterranean 36 5.0
Pont-Med Pontic-Mediterranean 36 5.0
Boreal Boreal 29 4.0
Bal Balkan 28 3.9
subBoreal Sub Boreal 28 3.9
Kos Cosmopolitan 19 2.6
Eur-subMed Euro-Submediterranean 17 2.3
Pont Pontic 11 1.5
Bal-Dac Balkan-Dacian 8 1.1
sPont South Pontic 8 1.1
Eur-OT Euro-Oriental Turanian 6 0.8
Ap-Bal Apenninian-Balkan 5 0.7
Bal-Anat Balkan-Anatolian 5 0.7
Eur-sMed Euro-South Mediterranean 4 0.6
Med-As Mediterranean-Asiatic 4 0.6
Pont-Sib Pontic-Siberian 4 0.6
Pont-subMed Pontic-Submediterranean 4 0.6
Bul Bulgarian 3 0.4
Eur-Pont Euro-Pontic 3 0.4
Med-CAs Mediterranean-Central
Asiatic
3 0.4
Pann-Bal Pannonian-Balkan 3 0.4
Pont-Bal Pontic-Balkan 3 0.4
sSib South-Siberian 3 0.4
Carp-Bal Carpathian-Balkan 2 0.3
Eur-Med-
CAs
Euro-Mediterranean-Central
Asiatic
2 0.3
Med-OT Mediterranean-Oriental
Turanian
2 0.3
sMed-CAs South Mediterranean-Central
Asiatic
2 0.3
subMed-As Submediterranean-Asiatic 2 0.3
Alp-Carp Alpo-Carpathian 1 0.1
Alp-Carp-Bal Alpo-Carpathian-Balkan 1 0.1
Alp-Med Alpo-Mediterranean 1 0.1
Bal-Dac-Anat Balkan-Dacian-Anatolian 1 0.1
CAs (Adv) Central Asiatic-Adventive 1 0.1
CsEur Central South European 1 0.1
Eur-As/Paleo Eurasian/ Paleo 1 0.1
Eur-CAs Euro-Central Asiatic 1 0.1
Pont-CAs Pontic-Central Asiatic 1 0.1
sMed-As South Mediterranean-Asiatic 1 0.1
subMed-Sib Submediterranean-Siberian 1 0.1
total 724 100.0
408 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Table 7. Phytogeographical elements of the flora of Mt Golo
Bardo (according to Gajić 1980, 1984).
Chorological type
Number of taxa
of the total
number of taxa
1 2 3 4 5
element Pont-Ca Pontic-Central Asiatic 187 25.8
subelement Pont-Subm Pontic-
Submediterranean
32 4.4
subelement Subpont Sub Pontic 25 3.5
subelement Pont-Ca Pontic-Central Asiatic 20 2.8
subelement Subpont-
Subm
Sub Pontic-
Submediterranean
20 2.8
subelement Pont-Pan Pontic-Pannonian 19 2.6
subelement Pont Pontic 16 2.2
subelement Subpont-Ca Sub Pontic-Central
Asiatic
16 2.2
subelement Pont-Ca-
Subm
Pontic-Central Asiatic-
Submediterranean
13 1.8
subelement Pont-is.
Subm
Pontic-East
Submediterranean
8 1.1
subelement Subpan Sub Pannonian 6 0.8
subelement Subpont-
Subca-
Subm
Sub Pontic-Sub Central
Asiatic-Sub me di-
terranean
4 0.6
subelement Subpont-
Ca-Subm
Sub Pontic-Cen tral Asiatic-
Sub me di ter ranean
3 0.4
subelement Subtaur Sub Tauric 3 0.4
subelement Subpont-
Subpan
Sub Pontic-Sub
Pannonian
2 0.3
element Subm Submediterranean 174 24.0
subelement Subm Submediterranean 78 10.8
subelement is.Subm East Submediterranean 26 3.6
subelement Submez Sub Moesian 16 2.2
subelement Subeuks Sub Euxinian 8 1.1
subelement Balk Balkan 6 0.8
subelement Mez Moesian 6 0.8
subelement Subsrbalk Sub Central Balkan 6 0.8
subelement Srbalk Central Balkan 4 0.6
subelement Subsk-Pind Sub Scardus-Pindus 3 0.4
subelement Mez-Dac Moesian-Dacian 2 0.3
subelement Srbalk-
Apen
Central Balkan-
Apenninian
2 0.3
subelement Srbalk-j.
Apen
Central Balkan-South
Apenninian
2 0.3
subelement Subbalk Sub Balkan 2 0.3
subelement Submez-
Subpan
Sub Moesian-Sub
Pannonian
2 0.3
subelement Balk-Apen Balkan-Apenninian 1 0.1
subelement Balkc.
j.Apen
Balkan-Central South
Apenninian
1 0.1
subelement Balk-j.Apen Balkan-South
Apenninian
1 0.1
subelement Ilir Illyrian 1 0.1
Table 7. Continuation
1 2 3 4 5
subelement Mez-Karp Moesian-Carpathian 1 0.1
subelement Mez-Sk-
Pind
Moesian-Scardus-
Pindus
1 0.1
subelement Mez-Subdac Moesian-Sub Dacian 1 0.1
subelement Srbalkc.
j.Apen
Central Balkan-Central
South Apenninian
1 0.1
subelement Subdac Sub Dacian 1 0.1
subelement Subilir Sub Illyrian 1 0.1
subelement Submez-
Subdac
Sub Moesian-Sub
Dacian
1 0.1
element Evr Eurasian 151 20.9
subelement Evr Eurasian 83 11.5
subelement Subevr Sub Eurasian 49 6.8
subelement Subj.sib Sub South Siberian 17 2.3
subelement Evroafr Euro Africanian 2 0.3
element Se Central European 125 17.3
subelement Subse Sub Central European 93 12.8
subelement Se Central European 32 4.4
element Kosm Cosmopolitan 40 5.5
subelement Cirk Circumpolaric 20 2.8
subelement Kosm Cosmopolitan 13 1.8
subelement Subcirk Sub Circumpolaric 7 1.0
element Subatl Sub Atlantic 26 3.6
subelement Subatl-
Subm
Sub Atlantic-
Submediterranean
26 3.6
element Endem Endemic 13 1.8
subelement End-6 Central Moesian
Endemics
5 0.7
subelement End-15 West Moesian-North
Scar dus-Pindus
Endemic
3 0.4
subelement End-1 West Moesian Endemic 1 0.1
subelement End-13 West Moesian-South
Illyrian Endemic
1 0.1
subelement End-16 Central and South
Moesian-North
Scardus-Pindus
Endemic
1 0.1
subelement End-26 Southeast and East
Illyrian-North Scardus-
Pindus Endemic
1 0.1
subelement Subend Subendemic 1 0.1
element Boreal Boreal 3 0.4
subelement Subbor-Cirk Sub Boreal-
Circumpolaric
2 0.3
subelement Subbor-Evr Sub Boreal-Eurasian 1 0.1
element Pustinni Desert 3 0.4
subelement Iran-Euks Irano-Euxinian 2 0.3
subelement Subiran-is.
Subm
Sub Irano-East
Submediterranean
1 0.1
element Adv Adventive 2 0.3
subelement Adv Adventive 2 0.3
element total 724 100.0
409 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
ristic elements in a more general sense, including plants
originating and inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula in general.
In Gajić’s classification the plant species from the
Balkan Peninsula were referred to various floristic subelements,
such as Balkan, Mysian, endemic, etc. Thus,
we could refer the Balkan and Mysian elements according
to Gajić, found on the mountain and represented by
0.8 % each, to the endemics in a more general sense.
According to Stefanov (1943), in terms of origin and
ecologo-geographical relations, the floristic elements
were divided into thermophytes from the Meditrerranean
Centre, thermophytes from the South Continental
Centre, thermophytes from the North Continental Centre,
mesotherms and microtherms from the Silvoboreal
Centre, and thermophytes, mesotherms and microtherms
from the Mountain Centre. In terms of structural
and physiognomic specificities and intensity of the vegetative
activity of plants, the author differentiated them
into stationary elements, mobile plants with secondarily
extended areas in Bulgaria, and elements penetrating into
Bulgaria by secondary colonization. According to Stefanov,
most important for the primary floristic composition
was the influence of the stationary elements, while
its enrichment with allochtonous elements was mainly
due to elements penetrating into Bulgaria by secondary
colonization. His studies of the phytogeographical elements
in Bulgaria showed that the Bulgarian flora has
been composed mainly by stationary mountain and silvoboreal
elements, while the secondary were mainly due
to the mobile continental vegetation. The plant species
on Mt Golo Bardo were distributed according to the phytogeographical
elements set by Stefanov (1943) (Table 8).
The chorological spectrum has shown that 36.2 % of
the flora of the mountain was built of elements of the
Mountain Centre, followed by elements of the Northern
(21.7 %) and Southern Continental Centres (19.2 %),
by the Silvoboreal Centre (17.4 %), and the poorest represented
Mediterranean Centre (5.2 %). The strongest
participation of elements of the Mountain Centre in the
flora of Mt Golo Bardo corresponded to the chorological
spectrum for the whole of Bulgaria (Stefanov 1943).
Mention deserves, however, the strong participation of
the elements of the Northern and Southern Continental
Centres, which have managed to displace the elements
of the Silvoboreal Centre occupying the second place in
the flora of Bulgaria, after the elements of the Mountain
Centre. This fact could be explained by the strongly expressed
mobility characteristic of the continental species,
notable in the distribution of the stationary, mobile and
secondarily penetrated elements found on the mountain
(Table 8). The species of the Mountain Centre recorded
in Mt Golo Bardo accounted for the largest share of stationary
elements in the mountain (55.0 %), those of the
Northern Continental Centre participated with the high-
Table 8. Floristic elements of the flora of Mt Golo Bardo (according to Stefanov 1943).
Floristic elements
Number of stationary elements (1)
% of the total number of stationary elements
Number of mobile plants with secondarily
extended areas in Bulgaria (2)
% of the total number of mobile plants with
secondarily extended areas in Bulgaria
Number of elements penetrating into Bulgaria
by secondary colonization (3)
% of the total number of elements penetrating
into Bulgaria by secondary colonization
Total number
% of the total number of floristic elements in
Mt Golo Bardo
Thermophytes from the Meditrerranean Centre (MedC) 16 3.8 7 4.3 15 10.6 38 5.2
Thermophytes from the South Continental Centre (SCC) 14 3.3 27 16.6 98 69.5 139 19.2
Thermophytes from the North Continental Centre (NCC) 81 19.3 56 34.4 20 14.2 157 21.7
Mesotherms and microtherms from the Silvoboreal Centre (SC) 78 18.6 46 28.2 2 1.4 126 17.4
Thermophytes. mesotherms and microtherms from the Mountain Centre (MtC) 231 55.0 27 16.6 4 2.8 262 36.2
Plants from other Phytogeographical centres penetrating into Bulgaria by
secondary colonization (Adv) 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 1.4 2 0.3
Total 420 58.0 163 22.5 141 19.5 724 100.0
15 • Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • 2009
410 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
est number of mobile elements (34.4 %), and those of
the Southern Continental Centre were most important
among the elements of secondary penetration in Bulgaria
(69.5 %). Besides with their great mobility, the strong
participation of species of the Northern Continental
Centre could be also explained by the existence of suitable
conditions for their development. These conditions
include the relatively cold and long spring, as well as the
fact that calcareous terrains are slower warmed, owing to
their ability to longer retain the cold snow waters (Vasilev
& Andreev 1992). Penetration of the secondary elements
from the Southern Continental Centre and poorer
participation of mesotherms and microtherms from the
Silvoboreal Centre was mainly due to the Mediterranean
influence on the climate and the small amount of precipitations
in the summer. The dry and warm conditions
favoured the advent of southern species, among which
those from the Southern Continental Centre were greater
in number than those from the Mediterranean Centre,
as the latter were not typically mobile which, in turn, explained
their small share in the flora of the mountain.
Vasilev & Andreev (1992) made a chorological
analysis according the classification of Stefanov. It
could be claimed that the results of their study and
those of the present one completely coincide. They
have only failed to present the distribution of the stationary,
mobile and secondary elements within the
different groups of floristic elements, which obscures
orientation of the origin of autochthonous and allochthonous
complexes in Mt Golo Bardo.
Relict elements were relative poorly represented in
the flora of Golo Bardo (3.5 % of the species composition)
(Gajić 1984), including one Glacial and twentyfour
Tertiary relicts.
The conservation status of the plant species in Golo
Bardo is presented in Table 9. Pursuant to the Biological
Diversity Act (2002, 2007), there are 19 protected species
(given in Supplement 3 of the Act), four species fall under
Supplement 2 and 2a which gives plant and animal
species whose habitats could be protected by means of
protected zones and protected area, and 32 species are referred
to Supplement 4 comprising species under a protection
regime and regulated use of nature. One Critically
Endangered (Fig. 1), eight Endangered (Fig. 2), 10 Vulnerable,
five Near Threatened species according to the Red
List of Bulgarian Vascular Plants (Petrova & Vladimirov
2009) are distributed in the territory. According to the
IUCN list (Walter & Gillet 1998), there are three Rare,
one Vulnerable and one Endangered species. Two spe- Fig. 1. Ophrys insectifera – CR (photo S. Stoyanov).
cies was registered on Mt Golo Bardo which falls under
the Convention on the protection of European Wildlife and
Natural Habitats (the Bern Convention). Eighteen species
from the mountain flora are featured in Supplement
2 to the Convention on international trade with threatened
species of the wild fauna and flora (CITES). Three
species have been found falling under Directive 92/43/
EEC for the protection of natural habitats and of the wild
fauna and flora (Supplement 4). The plant species on Mt
Golo Bardo with conservation status totaled 66 (9.1 %
of the species on the mountain), some of which fall into
more than one category. The obtained results invite the
conclusion that a great many rare, threatened and protected
species occur on the mountain that are of scientific
and environmental interest. The authors of the earlier
studies had come to the same conclusion (Vasilev 1973,
1981; Vasilev & Andreev 1992; Pavlov & Dimitrov 2002).
These studies, however, would not be discussed here, owing
to the use of different literary sources and the corrections
they were subject to throughout the years.
In 1943, the great richness of vegetation in the
mountain and the number of valuable species identified
on its territory gave grounds for the establishment
of a National Park (Vasilev & Andreev 1978) around
peak Ostritsa, where these species were most concentrated.
Subsequently in 1961, that Park was turned in411
Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Table 9. Conservation status of the species on Mt Golo Bardo.
Taxon
Bulgarian
Biological
Diversity
Act
Red List of
Bulgarian
vascular
plants
IUCN Red
List of
Threatened
Plants
Convention on the
Conservation of
European Wildlife
and Natural
Habitats
(Bern Convention)
Convention on
International Trade
in Endangered
Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
(CITES)
Council Directive
92/43/EEC on the
Conservation of
Natural Habitats
and of Wild Fauna
and Flora
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Acanthus balcanicus Heyw. & F.B.K. Richardson LC
Adonis vernalis L. Annex 2
Allium cupani Rafin. VU
Anemone sylvestris L. Annex 3 NT
Anthyllis aurea Welden Annex 3 VU
Asparagus officinalis L. Annex 4
Asparagus tenuifolius Lam. Annex 4
Asphodeline taurica (Pall. ex M. Bieb.) Kunth. NT
Astragalus wilmottianus Stoj. Annex 3 EN R
Bromus moesiacus Velen. Annex 2a NT R Annex 1
Bupleurum affine Sadler Annex 4
Bupleurum apiculatum Friv. Annex 4
Bupleurum commutatum Boiss. & Balansa Annex 4
Bupleurum falcatum L. Annex 4
Bupleurum praealtum L. Annex 4
Bupleurum rotundifolium L. Annex 4
Cachrys alpina M. Bieb. Annex 3
Centaurea immanuelis-loewii Degen Annex 2.
Annex 3
EN E Annex 4
Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce Annex 2
Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm. VU Annex 2
Crocus biflorus Mill. Annex 4
Crocus flavus Weston Annex 4
Crocus olivieri J. Gay Annex 3.
Annex 4
Daphne cneorum L. EN
Draba lasiocarpa Rochel LC
Echinops banaticus Schrad. Annex 4
Echinops sphaerocephalus L. Annex 4
Fig. 2. Astragalus wilmottianus – EN (photo S. Stoyanov).
to a botanic Reserve and still later in 1999 into a Managed
Reserve. In 2007, in relation with the European
Ecological Network NATURA 2000, a protected zone
was set under Directive 92/43/EEC for the conservation
of natural habitats and of the wild fauna and flora,
under the name Ostritsa. It included most of the territory
of the mountain and covered its central and eastern
parts. Ostritsa MR falls into the boundaries of the
protected zone and constitutes 3.3 % of its area. Besides
its main task for protection of specific habitats,
this environmental measure would strengthen the opportunities
for protection of valuable species, which
do not fall into the territory of the Reserve (such as
Centaurea immanuelis-loewii Degen).
412 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Table 9. Continuation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Echium russicum J.F. Gmel Annex 2.
Annex 3
VU Annex 4
Edraianthus serbicus Petrović Annex 3 EN
Epipactis purpurata Sm. Annex 3 EN Annex 2
Eryngium palmatum Pančić & Vis. Annex 3 NT
Erythronium dens-canis L. Annex 4
Fritillaria orientalis Adams. Annex 3 VU
Galanthus elwesii Hook. f. Annex 3 EN Annex 2
Gladiolus imbricatus L. Annex 4
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. Annex 2
Gypsophila glomerata Pall. ex M. Bieb. Annex 4
Himantoglossum caprinum (M. Bieb.) Spreng. Annex 2
Annex 3
VU Annex 1 Annex 2 Annex 4
Laserpitium siler L. LC
Lilium martagon L. Annex 4
Limodorum abortivum (L.) Sw. Annex 3 VU Annex 2
Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich. Annex 2
Ononis adenotricha Boiss. NT R
Ophrys apifera Huds. Annex 3 EN Annex 2
Ophrys cornuta Steven Annex 3 VU Annex 2
Ophrys insectifera L. Annex 3 CR
Orchis morio L. Annex 4 Annex 2
Orchis pallens L. Annex 4 Annex 2
Orchis pinetorum Boiss. & Kotschy Annex 4
Orchis purpurea Huds. Annex 4 Annex 2
Orchis simia Lam. Annex 4
Orchis tridentata Scop. Annex 4 Annex 2
Orchis ustulata L. Annex 4 VU Annex 2
Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Rchb. Annex 2
Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce Annex 4
Primula veris L. Annex 4
Primula vulgaris Huds. Annex 4
Pulsatilla montana (Hoppe) Rchb. Annex 4
Salix caprea L. Annex 4
Scilla bifolia L. Annex 4
Sternbergia colchiciflora Waldst. & Kit. Annex 2
Stipa capillata L. Annex 4
Stipa epilosa Martinovský Annex 4
Tragopogon balcanicum Velen. LC
Tulipa urumoffii Hayek Annex 3 VU V
Verbascum urumovii Stoj. & Acht. Annex 3 EN
Red List of Bulgarian vascular plants: CR – Critically Endangered; EN – Endangered; VU – Vulnerable; NT – Near Threatened;
LC – Least Concern. IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants: E – Endangered; V – Vulnerable; R – Rare.
Conclusion
The systematic analysis of the mountain’s flora confirms
the great species diversity amounting approximately to
1/5 of the plant species in Bulgaria. For the needs of a
more exact and full taxonomic structure of the flora, a
systematic list would be needed. With its help during
subsequent studies there could be discussed the concrete
taxa used to determine the indexes for the floristic
analysis. Irrespective of the long-term interest in the
mountain’s flora, the mosses have so far remained outside
the investigations. This study adds 29 moss species
to the systematic list of the mountain’s flora.
One of the main reasons for the floristic diversity of
Mt Golo Bardo, constituting both of some typical for
Bulgaria Central European and of steppe and south413
Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
ern species, is the Mediterranean influence on the temperate
continental climate of the mountain. This fact
is confirmed by the biological and chorological analyses
of the flora. In the present study three qualification
systems have been used for phytogeographical analysis:
Central European by Assyov & Petrova (2006), Serbian
by Gajić (1984) and Bulgarian by Stefanov (1943).
Although the principles on which they were developed
did not coincide completely, the results are similar and
comparable. The advantage of Stefanov’s classification
is that, besides in geographical terms concerning the
origin of taxa, he provided information about their mobility,
which helps draw the conclusions about the autochthonous
and allochthonous elements in the flora.
Data on the relict, endemic, rare, threatened and protected
plants help us assess how valuable or vulnerable a
particular flora is. This information needs to be updated,
in order to reflect the corrections and additions to
the various normative documents. The registration of
species with conservation status occurring on Mt Golo
Bardo follows the data given in the Red List of Bulgarian
Vascular Plants (Petrova & Vladimirov 2009).
In conclusion, the results of the present study show
that the interest in the flora of Mt Golo Bardo has not
abated through the years and that data on its status are
permanently updated and enriched.
Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Dr Anna Ganeva
(Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) for her help for identification
of moss flora of Golo Bardo and for the specializing course of Systematics
of Bryophytes. Special thanks are extended to the anonymous
reviewer for critical notes.
Taxon floristic elements
according to Boros (1968)
Bryophyta
Marchantiopsida (Hepaticopsida)
Geocalycaceae
Lophocolea minor Nees circumpolar
Bryopsida
Amblystegiaceae
Amblystegium serpens (Hedw.)
Schimp.
circumpolar, nearly cosmopolitan
Campylium chrysophyllum (Brid.)
Lange
circumpolar
Brachytheciaceae
Brachythecium salebrosum (F.
Weber & D. Mohr) Schimp.
circumpolar
B. velutinum (Hedw.) Schimp. nearly cosmopolitan
Eurhynchium hians (Hedw.) Sande
Lac.
circumpolar
Homalothecium lutescens (Hedw.)
H. Rob.
circumpolar/ kontinental
Scleropodium purum (Hedw.)
Limpr.
eurasian
Bryaceae
Bryum capillare Hedw. circumpolar, nearly cosmopolitan
B. pallescens Schleich. ex Schwдgr. circumpolar
B. subelegans Kindb. circumpolar, nearly cosmopolitan
Dicranaceae
Dicranum scoparium Hedw. circumpolar, nearly cosmopolitan
Ditrichaceae
Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.)
Brid.
cosmopolitan
Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.)
Bruch & Schimp.
nearly cosmopolitan
Taxon floristic elements
according to Boros (1968)
Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwдgr.)
Hampe
circumpolar
Encalyptaceae
Encalypta streptocarpa Hedw. circumpolar
Fissidentaceae
Fissidens dubius P. Beauv. circumpolar/ submediterraneansubatlantic
Grimmiaceae
Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. circumpolar, nearly cosmopolitan
Hypnaceae
Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. cosmopolitan
Mniaceae
Plagiomnium affine (Blandow ex
Funck) T. J. Kop.
circumpolar
P. undulatum (Hedw.) T. J. Kop. circumpolar with mediterraneanatlantic
char.
Polytrichaceae
Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P.
Beauv.
circumpolar
Polytrichum formosum Hedw. circumpolar
Pottiaceae
Tortula subulata Hedw. circumpolar with mediterranean
char.
Thuidiaceae
Thuidium abietinum (Hedw.)
Schimp.
circumpolar with kontinental char.
T. philibertii Limpr. circumpolar
T. recognitum (Hedw.) Lindb. circumpolar
Trichostomaceae
Tortella flavovirens (Bruch) Broth. mediterranean
T. tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr. circumpolar
Supplement 1. Floristic list.
414 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
Taxon
floristic elements* according to Life forms
according to
Raunkiaer (1934)
Assyov & Petrova
(2006)
Gajić
(1980, 1984)
Stefanov
(1943)
1 2 3 4 5
Equisetophyta
Equisetaceae
Equisetum arvense L. Boreal Cirk NCC 3 H
Polypodiophyta
Aspleniaceae
Asplenium ruta-muraria L. Boreal Cirk SC 1 H
A. trichomanes L. Kos Kosm SC 1 H
Athyriaceae
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. Kos Kosm SC 1 H
Hipolepidaceae
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Kos Kosm MedC 3 H
Pinophyta
Cupressaceae
Juniperus communis L. subBoreal Cirk SC 1 Ph
J. oxycedrus L. Med Subm MedC 1 Ph
Pinaceae
Pinus nigra Arnold subMed Subm MtC 1 Ph
P. sylvestris L. subBoreal Subbor-Evr SC 1 Ph
Magnoliophyta
Magnoliopsida
Acanthaceae
Acanthus balcanicus Heyw. & F.B.K. Richardson Bal Balk MtC 1 H
Aceraceaea
Acer campestre L. Eur-OT Subse MtC 1 Ph
A. hyrcanum Fisch. & C. A. Mey. subMed Submez MtC 1 Ph
A. pseudoplatanus L. Eur-Med Se MtC 1 Ph
A. tataricum L. subMed Pont-Pan NCC 1 Ph
Anacardiaceae
Cotinus coggygria Scop. Med-As Pont-Ca-Subm MtC 1 Ph
Apiaceae
Aegopodium podagraria L. Eur-Sib Evr SC 1 H
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. Eur Subse SC 2 H
Bupleurum affine Sadler subMed Pont-Pan NCC 2 Th
B. apiculatum Friv. Bal Mez MedC 2 Th
B. commutatum Boiss. & Balansa Pont-Med Submez SCC 1 Th
B. falcatum L. subMed Evr MtC 1 H
B. praealtum L. subMed Subm MtC 1 Th
B. rotundifolium L. Eur-As Subpont-Subm SCC 3 Th
Cachrys alpina M. Bieb. Pont Subtaur MtC 1 H
Caucalis platycarpos L. Eur-CAs Subpont SCC 3 Th
Chaerophyllum temulum L. Eur-Med Subse SC 2 Th
Daucus carota L. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
Eryngium campestre L. Pont-Med Subpont-Subm NCC 2 H
E. palmatum Pančić & Vis. Bal End-15 MtC 1 H
Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. Eur-As Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
Ferulago campestris (Besser) Grecescu Eur-Sib Pont SCC 1 H
415 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
F. sylvatica (Besser) Rchb. subMed Pont-is.Subm NCC 1 H
Heracleum ternatum Velen. Med Mez SC 1 H
Laser trilobum (L.) Borkh. Eur-Med Subeuks MtC 1 H
Laserpitium siler L. subMed Subm MtC 1 H
Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm. Ap-Bal Subm MedC 3 Th
Peucedanum alsaticum L. subMed Subpont-Ca NCC 2 H
P. arenarium Waldst. & Kit. Eur-Med Pont-Pan NCC 1 H
P. austriacum (Jacq.) Koch Pont is.Subm MtC 1 H
P. cervaria (L.) Lapeyr. subMed Pont-Ca-Subm NCC 1 H
Physospermum cornubiense (L.) DC. Eur-Med Subm MtC 1 H
Pimpinella saxifraga L. Eur-As Subj.sib NCC 1 H
P. tragium Vill. Pont-subMed Subm MtC 1 H
Sanicula europaea L. Eur-Sib Evroafr SC 1 H
Scandix pecten-veneris L. Eur-As Subatl-Subm SCC 3 Th
Seseli annuum L. Eur-As Pont-Ca SC 2 H
S. libanotis (L.) Koch. Eur-Sib Evr NCC 1 H
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link Eur-As Evroafr SCC 3 Th
T. japonica (Houtt.) DC. Eur-As Subse SCC 2 Th
Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. subMed Subm MtC 1 H
Apocynaceae
Vinca herbacea Waldst. & Kit. Eur-Med Pont-Pan MtC 1 H
Araliaceae
Hedera helix L. Eur-As Subatl-Subm MtC 1 Ph
Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia clematis L. Eur-Med Subm NCC 3 H
Asarum europaeum L. Eur-Sib Evr SC 1 H
Asclepiadaceae
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medic. Eur-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 2 H
Asteraceae
Achillea ageratifolia (Sm.) Benth. & Hook. f. Bal Submez MtC 1 H
A. clypeolata Sm. Bal Mez MtC 1 H
A. collina (Wirtg.) Heimerl Eur-subMed Evr NCC 2 H
A. setacea Waldst. & Kit. subMed Subpont-Ca NCC 2 H
Anthemis austriaca Jacq. Eur-Med Pont-Pan MtC 3 Th
A. tinctoria L Eur-Sib Subpont-Subca-Subm SCC 3 H
Arctium lappa L. Eur-Med Evr SCC 3 Th
Artemisia alba Turra subMed Subm MedC 1 H
A. vulgaris L. subBoreal Cirk NCC 3 H
Aster amellus L. Eur-Med Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
A. linosyris (L.) Bernh. Eur-Med Subpont-Subm NCC 1 H
A. oleifolius (Lam.) Wagenitz Pont-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
Bellis perennis L. Eur-As Subse MtC 2 H
Carduus candicans Waldst. & Kit. Bal-Dac Pont MtC 1 H
Carlina acanthifolia All. Eur Se MtC 1 H
C. vulgaris L. Eur-Med Evr NCC 2 H
Carthamus lanatus L. subMed Pont-Subm SCC 3 Th
Centaurea affinis Friv. Bal-Dac is.Subm MtC 1 H
C. apiculata Ledeb. Eur-Sib Subpan SC 2 H
C. chrysolepis Vis. Bal Submez MtC 1 H
C. immanuelis-loewii Degen Bal is.Subm MedC 1 H
C. orientalis L. Pont-Med Pont NCC 1 H
C. pannonica (Heuff.) Simonk. Pont-Sib Subevr SC 2 H
416 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
C. rutifolia Sm. Pont Submez MedC 2 H
C. salonitana Vis. Pont-Med is.Subm NCC 1 H
C. solstitialis L. Eur-Med Pont-Ca-Subm SCC 3 Th
C. stenolepis A. Kern. subMed Subm SC 2 H
C. stoebe L. subMed Se NCC 2 H
C. triumfettii All. subMed Subse MtC 1 H
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
Chondrilla juncea L. Eur-Sib Pont-Ca-Subm SCC 3 Th
Cichorium intybus L. Eur-Sib Subevr SCC 3 H
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 H
C. canum (L.) All. Eur-Med Subpont NCC 1 H
C. vulgare (Savi) Ten. Eur-Med Subevr NCC 3 H
Crepis sancta (L.) Bornm. subMed Pont SCC 2 Th
C. setosa Haller f. Eur-Med Subm MedC 3 Th
Crupina vulgaris Cass. subMed Pont-Ca-Subm MtC 1 Th
Echinops banaticus Schrad. subMed is.Subm MtC 1 H
E. sphaerocephalus L. Eur-Med Evr NCC 2 H
Erigeron acris L. Boreal Cirk SC 1 H
Hieracium cymosum L. Eur-Sib Subpont-Ca NCC 1 H
H. echioides Lumn. subMed Evr MtC 1 H
H. hoppeanum Schult. Eur-Med Se MtC 2 H
H. pannosum Boiss. Bal Balk MtC 1 H
H. pilosella L. Eur-Med Subse MtC 1 H
H. praealtum Gochnat Eur-Sib Subse NCC 2 H
Hypochaeris maculata L. Eur-Sib Evr NCC 2 H
Inula bifrons L. Eur-Med is.Subm MtC 2 H
I. britannica L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 2 H
I. conyzae (Griess.) DC. Eur-Med Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
I. ensifolia L. Eur-Med Subpont NCC 1 H
I. hirta L. Eur-Sib Subpont-Subca-Subm NCC 1 H
I. oculus-christi L. Eur-Med Pont-Pan SCC 1 H
Jurinea consanguinea DC. subMed-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
Lactuca perennis L. Eur Subm MtC 1 H
L. serriola L. Eur-As Subpont-Subca-Subm SCC 3 Th
L. viminea (L.) J. Presl & C. Presl Eur-Med Pont-Subm SCC 3 Th
Lapsana communis L. Eur-Sib Subse NCC 3 Th
Leontodon crispus Vill. Pont-Med Pont-Subm SCC 2 H
Leucanthemum vulgare (Vaill.) Lam. Eur-Sib Evr SC 2 H
Logfia arvensis (L.) Holub. Eur-Med Subse SCC 3 Th
Mycelys muralis (L.) Dumort. Med Se MtC 1 H
Prenanthes purpurea L. Eur-Med Se MtC 1 H
Ptilostemon afer (Jacq.) Greuter Med Submez SCC 1 Th
Scorzonera austriaca Willd. Eur-Sib Subpont NCC 1 H
S. hispanica L. Med Pont-Ca-Subm NCC 1 H
S. laciniata L. Med Pont-Ca-Subm NCC 2 H
S. mollis M. Bieb. Med Pont-Subm SCC 1 G
Senecio jacobaea L. Eur-Med Subevr NCC 2 H
S. vernalis Waldst. & Kit. Eur-Med Subpont-Ca SCC 3 Th
S. vulgaris L. Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
Serratula radiata (Waldst. & Kit.) M. Bieb. sPont Pont-Pan NCC 1 H
S. tinctoria L. Eur-Sib Subevr NCC 1 H
Solidago virgaurea L. Boreal Subbor-Cirk SC 1 H
417 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip. Eur-Med Subpont-Subm MtC 1 H
Taraxacum erythrospermum Besser Eur Subse SC 1 H
T. officinale F.H. Wigg. Eur-Med Evr SC 2 H
Tragopogon balcanicum Velen. Bal Submez MtC 1 H
T. dubius Scop. Eur-Med Pont-Subm NCC 2 Th
T. porrifolius L. Med Subm MedC 1 Th
T. pratensis L. Eur-Med Evr NCC 2 Th
T. pterodes Petrović Bal End-1 MtC 1 G
Tussilago farfara L. Eur-As Subevr NCC 3 H
Xeranthemum annuum L. subMed Pont-Subm NCC 2 Th
X. cylindraceum Sm. subMed Pont-Subm SCC 3 Th
Berberidaceae
Berberis vulgaris L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 3 Ph
Betulaceae
Betula pendula Roth Eur-Sib Subj.sib SC 1 Ph
Carpinus betulus L. Eur-subMed Se MtC 1 Ph
C. orientalis Mill. subMed is.Subm MtC 1 Ph
Corylus avellana L. Med-CAs Subse SC 1 Ph
C. colurna L. Pont-CAs Iran-Euks MtC 1 Ph
Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. subMed Subm MtC 1 Ph
Boraginaceae
Anchusa azurea Mill. subMed Subm SCC 3 H
A. barrelieri (All.) Vitman subMed Pont-is.Subm MtC 2 H
Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I. M. Johnst. Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
B. purpurocaerulea (L.) I. M. Johnst. Eur-As Pont-Subm MtC 1 H
Cerinthe minor L. Pont-Med Subpont SCC 3 H
Cynoglossum hungaricum Simonk. subMed Pont MedC 3 H
Echium russicum J. F. Gmel subMed Pont-Pan NCC 1 H
E. vulgare L. Eur-As Subse NCC 3 H
Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
M. sylvatica Ehrh. ex Hoffm. Eur-As Subevr SC 1 H
Nonea pulla (L.) DC. subMed Subpont NCC 2 H
N. ventricosa (Sm.) Griseb. subMed Pont-Subm SCC 3 Th
Onosma taurica Pall. ex Willd. subMed Pont NCC 1 H
O. visianii Clementi Pont-Med Subsrbalk MtC 1 H
Pulmonaria officinalis L. Eur Subse MtC 1 H
Symphytum tuberosum L. Eur-Med Pont-Subm MtC 1 H
Brassicaceae
Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Eur-As Subse SC 1 H
Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 2 Th
A. murale Waldst. & Kit. Eur-Med Subpont-Subm MtC 1 H
A. tortuosum Willd. Pont-Med Subpont-Ca NCC 1 H
Arabis auriculata Lam. Eur-As Subm MtC 1 Th
A. hirsuta (L.) Scop. Boreal Cirk MtC 1 H
A. turrita L. subMed Subm MtC 1 H
Berteroa incana (L.) DC. sPont Subpont-Ca NCC 3 H
Calepina irregularis (Asso) Thell. Med Subm SCC 3 Th
Capsela bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Kos Kosm SCC 3 Th
Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz subBoreal Subse MtC 1 H
Clypeola jonthlaspi L. Med Subm SCC 1 Th
Draba lasiocarpa Rochel Eur-Med Subpan MtC 1 H
Erophila verna (L.) Chevall. Eur-Med-CAs Subcirk SCC 3 Th
16 • Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • 2009
418 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Erysimum cuspidatum (M. Bieb.) DC. Eur-OT Pont SCC 3 Th
E. diffusum Ehrh. CsEur Subpont-Subpan NCC 2 H
Lepidium campestre (L.) W. T. Aiton Eur-sMed Subse MedC 3 Th
Rorippa thracica (Griseb.) Fritsch subMed Srbalk MtC 1 H
Thlaspi alliaceum L. subMed Subm MedC 3 Th
T. arvense L. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
T. goesingense Halбcsy Pont Srbalk MtC 1 H
T. perfoliatum L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 2 Th
Campanulaceae
Asyneuma canescens (Waldst. & Kit.) Griseb. & Schenk Pont-Bal Pont-Pan NCC 1 H
A. limonifolium (L.) Janch. Ap-Bal Balk-j.Apen MtC 1 H
Campanula bononiensis L. Eur Subj.sib MtC 1 H
C. grossekii Heuff. Bal-Dac Submez MtC 1 H
C. lingulata Waldst. & Kit. Ap-Bal Srbalk-j.Apen MtC 1 H
C. persicifolia L. Eur-Sib Evr SC 1 H
C. rapunculoides L. Eur Subse MtC 1 H
Campanula trachelium L. Boreal Subevr SC 2 H
Edraianthus serbicus Petrović Bal End-6 MtC 1 H
Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. Eur-Med Submez MedC 2 Th
Cannabaceae
Humulus lupulus L. Eur-Sib Subj.sib NCC 2 Ch
Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera xylosteum L. Eur-Sib Evr SC 1 Ph
Sambucus nigra L. Eur-Med Subse MtC 2 Ph
Viburnum lantana L. Eur-Med Subm MtC 1 Ph
Caryophyllaceae
Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
Cerastium banaticum (Rochel) Heuff. subMed Submez MtC 1 H
C. pumilum Curtis Eur-Med Subse SCC 3 Th
C. rectum Friv. Bal-Dac Subbalk MtC 1 Th
Dianthus armeria L. Eur Se MtC 2 H
D. giganteus D'Urv. subMed Srbalk MtC 1 H
D. pelviformis Heuff. Bal Mez MtC 1 H
Gypsophila glomerata Pall. ex M. Bieb. subMed Pont NCC 1 H
G. muralis L. Eur-As Evr MedC 3 Th
Herniaria incana Lam. Eur-Med Subatl-Subm SCC 2 H
Holosteum umbellatum L. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr. Med-OT Se MtC 1 H
L. flos-cuculis L. Eur-Sib Subj.sib SC 2 H
Minuartia bosniaca (Beck) K. Malэ Bal Subilir MtC 1 H
M. caespitosa (Ehrh.) Degen Eur-Med Cirk SC 1 H
M. glomerata (M. Bieb.) Degen Eur-Med Pont-Pan NCC 1 Th
M. setacea (Thuill.) Hayek Pont Subpont-Subm NCC 1 H
Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv. Eur-As Evr SC 1 Th
Paronychia kapela (Hacq.) A.Kern. subMed Subm SCC 1 H
Petrorhagia prolifera (L.) P.W. Ball & Heyw. Pont-Med Subpont-Subm MedC 3 Th
Saponaria bellidifolia Sm. Med Subm MtC 1 H
S. glutinosa M. Bieb. subMed is.Subm MtC 1 H
Scleranthus perennis L. Eur-Med Subse NCC 2 H
Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause Eur-Sib Subevr NCC 3 H
S. conica L. subMed-As Subpont-Ca-Subm MedC 2 Th
S. italica (L.) Pers. Eur-Med Subm MtC 1 H
419 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
S. otites (L.) Webel Eur-Med Evr NCC 2 H
S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Eur-As Subevr MtC 1 H
Stellaria graminea L. Eur-As Evr SC 2 H
S. holostea L. Eur-Sib Subevr MtC 1 H
S. media (L.) Vill. Kos Kosm SCC 3 Th
Viscaria vulgaris Rцhl. Eur-Sib Subse NCC 1 H
Celastraceae
Euonymus europaeus L. Eur-As Subse SC 2 Ph
E. verrucosus Scop. Eur-Med Subpont MtC 1 Ph
Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodium album L. Kos Kosm SCC 3 Th
Cistaceae
Fumana procumbens (Dunal) Gren. & Godr. Pont-Med Pont-Subm MtC 1 H
Helianthemum nummularium (L.) Mill. Alp-Med Subse MtC 1 H
Rhodax canus (L.) Fuss. Pont Pont-Subm MtC 1 H
Convolvulaceae
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. Kos Evr NCC 3 H
Convolvulus arvensis L. Kos Kosm SCC 3 H
C. cantabrica L. Pont Pont-Subm MedC 1 H
Cornaceae
Cornus mas L. subMed Pont-Subm MtC 1 Ph
C. sanguinea L. subMed Subse MtC 1 Ph
Crassulaceae
Sedum acre L. Eur-Med Subevr SC 1 H
S. hispanicum L. Eur-Med is.Subm SCC 2 Th
S. maximum (L.) Suter subBoreal Evr SC 1 H
S. ochroleucum Chaix subMed is.Subm MtC 1 H
S. urvillei DC. Eur Submez-Subpan MtC 1 H
Dipsacaceae
Cephalaria flava (Sibth. & Sm.) Szabo Bal End-13 MtC 1 H
C. laevigata (Waldst. & Kit.) Schrad. subMed Submez NCC 1 H
C. uralensis (Murray) Roem. & Schult. Pont-Med Pont NCC 1 H
Dipsacus laciniatus L. Eur-Med Pont-Ca-Subm SCC 3 H
Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult. Eur-Sib Subse SC 2 H
K. drymeia Heuff. Alp-Carp-Bal Se MtC 1 H
K. macedonica Griseb. Bal Submez MtC 3 H
Scabiosa argentea L. Bal-Anat Pont-is.Subm SCC 2 H
S. ochroleuca L. Eur-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 2 H
S. rotata M. Bieb. Med is.Subm SCC 1 Th
S. triniifolia Friv. Bal End-16 MtC 2 Th
Succisa pratensis Moench Eur Subse SC 1 H
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia agraria M. Bieb. subMed Pont NCC 1 H
E. amygdaloides L. Eur Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
E. barrelieri Savi Med is.Subm MtC 1 H
E. cyparissias L. Eur Evr NCC 3 H
E. esula L. Eur-As Evr NCC 2 H
E. falcata L. Med-As Subpont-Subm SCC 2 Th
E. helioscopia L. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
E. niciciana Borbбs Med Mez NCC 2 H
E. polychroma A. Kern. Eur Pont-Pan MtC 1 H
E. taurinensis All. subMed Subm MedC 2 Th
420 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Mercurialis ovata Sternb. & Hoppe subMed Subpont-Subm MtC 1 H
M. perennis L. subMed Subse MtC 1 H
Fabaceae
Anthyllis aurea Welden Bal End-26 MtC 1 H
A. vulneraria L. Eur-Med Subse MtC 1 Th
A. angustifolius Lam. subMed Balk MtC 1 Ph
A. austriacus Jacq. subMed Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
A. cicer L. Eur-Sib Subpont-Ca NCC 1 H
A. glycyphyllos L. sPont Subpont-Ca SC 1 H
Astragalus onobrychis L. Eur-As Subpont-Ca NCC 2 H
A. spruneri Boiss. Bal Submez MedC 1 H
A. vesicarius L. Eur-Med Ilir NCC 1 H
A. wilmottianus Stoj. Bal End-6 NCC 1 H
Chamaecytisus calcareus (Velen.) Kuzmanov Bal Balk MtC 1 Ch
C. ciliatus (Wahlenb.) Rothm. Pont-Med Subpan MtC 1 Ph
C. hirsutus (L.) Link Eur-Sib is.Subm MtC 1 Ph
C. rochelii (Wierzb.) Rothm. Pont-Med Pont MtC 1 Ph
Chamaespartium sagittale (L.) P. Gibbs Eur Subatl-Subm MtC 1 Ch
Coronilla emerus L. subMed Subm MedC 1 Ph
C. scorpioides (L.) W.D.J. Koch subMed Subm SCC 3 Th
C. varia L. Eur-Med Subpont MtC 2 H
Corothamnus agnipilus (Velen.) Klask. Bal Balk MtC 1 Ch
C. procumbens (Waldst. & Kit.) C. Presl Eur-Med Subsrbalk MtC 1 Ch
C. rectipilosus (Adamovic) Skalicka Bal Subsrbalk MtC 1 Ch
Dorycnium herbaceum Vill. Eur-Med is.Subm MtC 2 H
Genista januensis Viv. subMed Srbalk-Apen MtC 1 Ch
G. sessilifolia DC. subMed is.Subm MtC 1 Ch
G. subcapitata Pančić Bal End-15 MtC 1 Ch
Hippocrepis comosa L. subMed Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
Lathyrus aphaca L. subBoreal Pont-Subm SCC 3 Th
L. hirsutus L. Eur-Med Subm SCC 3 Th
L. laxiflorus (Desf.) Kuntze subMed is.Subm MtC 1 H
Lathyrus niger (L.) Bernh. Eur-Med Subpont MtC 1 H
L. nissolia L. Eur-sMed Subatl-Subm MtC 2 H
L. pallescens (M. Bieb.) K. Koch subMed Pont-Pan MtC 1 H
L. pratensis L. subBoreal Subevr SC 2 H
L. tuberosus L. Eur-As Subj.sib NCC 3 H
L. venetus (Mill.) Wohlf. Eur-Med Pont-is.Subm MtC 1 H
L. vernus (L.) Bernh. Eur-Sib Subse SC 1 H
Lotus corniculatus L. Eur-Med Subevr SCC 3 H
Medicago falcata L. Eur-As Subpont-Ca NCC 2 H
M. lupulina L. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
M. minima (L.) Bartal. Eur-As Subpont-Subm SCC 3 Th
M. rigidula (L.) All. Eur-Med Subm SCC 3 Th
M. sativa L. CAs (Adv) Adv Adv H
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
Onobrychis alba (Waldst. & Kit.) Desv. subMed Balk-c.j.Apen MtC 1 H
O. arenaria (Kit.) DC. sPont Subpont NCC 1 H
Ononis adenotricha Boiss. Med is.Subm SCC 1 H
O. pusilla L. subMed Subm MtC 1 H
Trifolium alpestre L. Eur-Sib Subpont-Ca NCC 1 H
T. campestre Schreb. Eur-Med Subse MtC 2 Th
421 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
T. hybridum L. Eur-Med Subatl-Subm MedC 3 H
T. medium L. Eur-As Subse SC 2 H
T. ochroleucon Huds. Eur Subatl-Subm MtC 2 H
T. pratense L. subBoreal Subevr NCC 2 H
T. repens L. Eur-Sib Subevr SCC 3 H
Trigonella gladiata M. Bieb. subMed Subm MtC 1 G
T. monspeliaca L. subMed Subm SCC 2 Th
T. striata L. Pont-Bal Subtaur NCC 1 Th
Vicia grandiflora Scop. Eur-Med Pont-is.Subm MtC 2 H
V.onobrychioides L. Med Subm MtC 1 H
V. pannonica Crantz Eur-Med Pont-Ca-Subm SCC 3 Th
V. peregrina L. Eur-As Pont-Subm SCC 3 Th
V. sativa L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 3 Th
V. sepium L. Eur-As Subse SC 1 H
Fagaceae
Fagus sylvatica L. Eur Se MtC 1 Ph
Quercus cerris L. Eur-subMed is.Subm MtC 1 Ph
Q. dalechampii Ten. subMed is.Subm MtC 1 Ph
Q. pubescens Willd. Eur-subMed Subm MedC 1 Ph
Gentianaceae
Centaurium erythraea Rafn subMed Subse SCC 2 Th
Gentiana cruciata L. Eur-Sib Subj.sib SC 1 H
Geraniaceae
Erodium ciconium (L.) L'Hйr. subMed Subm SCC 3 Th
E. cicutarium (L.) L'Hйr. subBoreal Evr SCC 3 Th
Geranium columbinum L. subMed Evr SCC 3 Th
G. dissectum L. Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
G. lucidum L. Eur-As Subatl-Subm MtC 1 G
G. molle L. Eur-Med Subevr SCC 3 Th
G. phaeum L. Eur Se MtC 1 H
G. pyrenaicum Burm. f. subMed Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
G. robertianum L. subBoreal Subcirk SC 1 Th
G. sanguineum L. Eur Subpont MtC 1 H
Globulariaceae
Globularia aphyllanthes Crantz Eur Se NCC 1 H
Hypericaceae
Hypericum elegans Stephan ex Willd. Eur-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
H. hirsutum L. Eur-Sib Subevr SC 1 H
H. perforatum L. Kos Subevr SCC 3 H
H. rumeliacum Boiss. Bal Mez-Sk-Pind MtC 1 H
H. tetrapterum Fr. Eur-Sib Evr SCC 1 H
Juglandaceae
Juglans regia L. Eur-As/Paleo Subiran-is.Subm MtC 3 Ph
Lamiaceae
Acinos alpinus (L.) Moench Alp-Carp Subm MtC 1 H
A. arvensis (Lam.) Dandy Eur-Med Subpont MtC 2 Th
Ajuga chamaepytis (L.) Schreb. Pont-Med Subatl-Subm SCC 2 H
A. genevensis L. sPont Evr NCC 2 H
A. laxmanii (L.) Benth. sSib Pont MtC 1 H
A. reptans L. Eur-Med Subse MtC 2 H
Ballota nigra L. Eur-Med Subpont SCC 3 H
Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi Eur-Med Pont-Subm MtC 1 H
422 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
C. sylvatica Bromf. Eur-OT Subm SCC 2 H
Clinopodium vulgare L. subBoreal Cirk MtC 2 H
Glechoma hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. Eur-Med Pont-is.Subm MtC 1 H
Hyssopus officinalis L. Eur-As Subm MtC 1 H
Lamiastrum galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. & Polatschek Med Subse MtC 1 H
Lamium amplexicaule L. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
L. maculatum L. subBoreal Subse MtC 1 H
L. purpureum L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 3 Th
Leonurus cardica L. Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
Marrubium peregrinum L. subMed Pont-Pan NCC 2 H
Mellitis melissophyllum L. Eur Se MtC 1 H
Mentha spicata L. Eur Subse SCC 2 H
Micromeria cristata (Hampe) Griseb. Bal-Anat Submez MtC 1 H
Nepeta nuda L. Eur-As Subpont SCC 3 H
Origanum vulgare L. Eur-As Evr MtC 2 H
Phlomis tuberosa L. Eur-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
Prunella grandiflora (L.) Scholler subMed Subse MtC 1 H
P. laciniata (L.) L. Eur Pont-Subm NCC 2 H
Prunella vulgaris L. Kos Subevr SC 2 H
Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. Bal-Dac Subm NCC 2 H
S. argentea L. Med Subm MtC 1 H
S. nemorosa L. Eur-OT Subpont NCC 2 H
S. pratensis L. Eur-Med Subse NCC 1 H
S. sclarea L. Med-As Pont-Subm SCC 3 H
S. verticillata L. subMed Subpont-Subm SCC 3 H
Satureja montana L. Pont-Med Subm MtC 1 H
Scutellaria columnae All. subMed Subm MtC 1 H
Sideritis montana L. subMed Pont-Ca SCC 3 Th
Stachys cassia (Boiss.) Boiss. Pont-Med Subsk-Pind MedC 1 H
S. germanica L. Eur-subMed Pont-Subm NCC 3 H
S. officinalis (L.) Trevis. subMed Subse NCC 2 H
S. plumosa Griseb. Bal End-15 MtC 1 G
S. recta L. Eur-Med Subpont NCC 2 H
S. sylvatica L. Eur-As Subse SC 1 H
Teucrium chamaedrys L. subMed Subpont-Subm NCC 2 H
T. montanum L. subMed Subm MtC 1 H
T. polium L. Pont-Med Pont-Subm SCC 1 H
Thymus callieri Borbбs ex Velen. Pont Subpont MtC 1 H
T. pannonicus All. Eur Pont-Pan NCC 2 H
T. striatus Vahl subMed Srbalk-c.j.Apen MtC 1 H
Ziziphora capitata L. Med is.Subm SCC 2 Th
Linaceae
Linum austriacum L. subMed Subpont-Subm NCC 2 H
L. capitatum Kit. ex Schult. Ap-Bal Srbalk-Apen MtC 1 H
L. catharticum L. subBoreal Subse SC 2 Th
L. hirsutum L. subMed Pont-Pan NCC 1 H
L. nervosum Waldst. & Kit. subMed Pont NCC 1 H
L. tauricum Willd. Pont-Med Pont NCC 1 H
L. tenuifolium L. Pont-Med Pont-Subm NCC 1 H
Lythraceae
Lythrum salicaria L. subBoreal Pont-Ca-Subm SCC 3 H
Malvaceae
423 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Alcea rosea L. Med Adv Adv H
Althaea hirsuta L. Med-As Pont-Subm MedC 2 Th
Lavatera thuringiaca L. Pont-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 2 H
Malva sylvestris L. Kos Evr SCC 3 Th
Monotropaceae
Monotropa hypopitys L. Boreal Cirk SC 1 G
Oleaceae
Fraxinus excelsior L. Eur-Med Subse MtC 1 Ph
F. ornus L. subMed Subm MtC 1 Ph
Ligustrum vulgare L. subMed Subse MtC 2 Ph
Syringa vulgaris L. Carp-Bal Mez-Dac MtC 1 Ph
Onagraceae
Epilobium angustifolium L. subBoreal Cirk SC 1 H
E. dodonaei Vill. Pont-Med Se MtC 1 H
E. hirsutum L. Boreal Subevr NCC 2 H
E. montanum L. Eur-OT Evr SC 2 H
E. parviflorum Schreb. subBoreal Subevr SC 1 H
Orobanchaceae
Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd Eur-Med Evr NCC 1 Th
O. purpurea Jacq. Eur Subpont-Subm NCC 1 Th
Papaveraceae
Chelidonium majus L. Eur-As Evr NCC 3 H
Corydalis bulbosa (L.) DC. Eur-Med Subse MtC 1 G
C. marschalliana (Pall.) Pers. subMed Subse MtC 1 G
C. solida (L.) Schwarz Eur-Med-CAs Subse SC 1 G
Fumaria officinalis L. Eur-Sib Subevr SCC 3 Th
Papaver rhoeas L. Eur-Sib Subevr SCC 3 Th
Plantaginaceae
Plantago argentea Chaix subMed Subm MtC 1 H
P. lanceolata L. Kos Evr SCC 3 H
P. major L. Boreal Evr SCC 3 H
P. media L. Boreal Evr NCC 2 H
P. subulata L. Med Subm MtC 1 H
Polygalaceae
Polygala major Jacq. Eur-Sib Pont-is.Subm MtC 1 H
P. vulgaris L. Eur-Med Evr SC 2 H
Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Dumort. Eur-As Subevr SCC 3 Th
Polygonum aviculare L. Kos Kosm SCC 3 Th
Rumex acetosa L. Boreal Evr SC 3 H
R. acetosella L. Eur-subMed Subcirk SC 2 H
R. conglomeratus Murray Eur-As Subevr SCC 2 H
Primulaceae
Anagallis arvensis L. Kos Kosm SCC 3 Th
Lysimachia nummularia L. Eur Subse MtC 1 H
Primula veris L. Eur-Med Subse SC 1 H
P. vulgaris Huds. Eur Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
Ranunculaceae
Actaea spicata L. Eur-As Evr SC 1 H
Adonis flammea Jacq. Eur-subMed Subpont-Subm SCC 2 Th
A. vernalis L. Eur-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
Anemone nemorosa L. subBoreal Cirk SC 1 G
A. ranunculoides L. Eur-subMed Subse SC 1 G
424 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
A. sylvestris L. Eur-As Subpont-Ca NCC 1 H
Clematis integrifolia L. Eur-As Pont-Ca NCC 1 Ch
C. recta L. subMed Subpont-Ca NCC 1 Ch
Clematis vitalba L. Eur Subatl-Subm MtC 2 Ph
Consolida regalis Gray Eur-Med Subse NCC 3 Th
Helleborus odorus Waldst. & Kit. Eur-sMed Srbalk MtC 1 H
Hepatica nobilis Mill. Eur-Sib Cirk SC 1 H
Isopyrum thalictroides L. Eur Subpont MtC 1 G
Nigella arvensis L. subMed Subpont-Subm MedC 3 Th
Pulsatilla montana (Hoppe) Rchb. Eur Subsrbalk MtC 1 H
Ranunculus acris L. Kos Subj.sib SC 2 H
R. auricomus L. Eur-Med Evr SC 1 H
R. ficaria L. Eur-Sib Subse SC 2 H
R. illyricus L. Eur-subMed Subpont SCC 1 G
R. millefoliatus Vahl subMed is.Subm MtC 1 G
R. repens L. subMed Evr SC 2 H
Thalictrum minus L. Eur-Sib Evr NCC 1 H
Resedaceae
Reseda lutea L. subBoreal Subse SCC 3 Th
Rhamnaceae
Rhamnus cathartica L. Eur-As Subpont-Ca SC 2 Ph
R. saxatilis Jacq. Eur-Med Subm MtC 1 Ph
Rosaceae
Agrimonia eupatoria L. Eur-Med Evr SC 3 H
Amelanchier ovalis Medic. Pont-Med Subm MtC 1 Ph
Amygdalus nana L. Eur-As Pont-Ca NCC 1 Ph
Aremonia agrimonoides (L.) DC. subMed is.Subm MtC 1 H
Cotoneaster integerrimus Medik. Eur-Sib Subj.sib MtC 1 Ph
C. nebrodensis (Guss.) K. Koch subMed Subm MtC 1 Ph
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subBoreal Subse MtC 2 Ph
Filipendula vulgaris Moench Eur-Med Evr NCC 2 H
Fragaria vesca L. subBoreal Evr SC 2 H
Geum urbanum L. subBoreal Evr SC 2 H
Malus sylvestris Mill. Eur Subse MtC 1 Ph
Potentilla argentea L. sPont Subpont-Ca SC 2 H
P. cinerea Chaix ex Vill. Eur Subse NCC 1 H
P. micrantha Ramond ex DC. Eur-subMed Subm MtC 1 H
P. mollicrinis (Borbбs) Stankov Pont-Med Subtaur NCC 1 H
P. obscura Willd. Eur Subpont-CA NCC 2 H
P. pedata Willd. Med is.Subm SCC 2 H
P. reptans L. Kos Evr SCC 2 H
Prunus avium L. subMed Subse MtC 1 Ph
P. cerasifera Ehrh. Eur-As Subj.sib NCC 3 Ph
P. spinosa L. sPont Subpont SCC 3 Ph
Pyrus nivalis Jacq. Eur-As is.Subm MedC 1 Ph
P. pyraster Burgsd. subMed Subse MtC 1 Ph
Rosa canina L. subMed Subse SC 2 Ph
R. dumalis Bechst. Eur-As Evr SC 1 Ph
R. gallica L. Eur-Med Subpont-Ca-Subm MtC 2 Ph
R. myriacantha DC. ex Lam. & DC. subMed Subse NCC 2 Ph
R. pendulina L. subMed Se MtC 1 Ph
R. pimpinellifolia L. subMed Subse NCC 2 Ph
425 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Rubus caesius L. Eur-As Subj.sib SC 2 Ph
R. canescens DC. Eur-Med Pont-Subm MtC 2 Ph
R. discolor Weihe & Nees subMed Se MtC 1 Ph
Sanguisorba minor Scop. subBoreal Subevr SCC 2 H
Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz Eur Se MtC 1 Ph
S. domestica L. Eur-Med Subm MtC 1 Ph
S. torminalis (L.) Crantz Pont-Med Subatl-Subm MtC 1 Ph
Waldsteinia geoides Willd. Pann-Bal Mez-Subdac MtC 1 H
Rubiaceae
Asperula cynanchica L. Eur-Med Subpont-Subm MtC 2 H
A. purpurea (L.) Ehrend. subMed Subm MtC 1 H
A. taurina L. Pont-Med Subpan MtC 1 H
A. tenella Heuff. ex Degen subMed Subm MtC 1 H
Crucianella angustifolia L. Med Subm MtC 1 Th
C. graeca Boiss. Bal Subsk-Pind MtC 1 Th
Cruciata glabra (L.) Ehrend. sMed-CAs Pont-Subm MtC 1 H
C. laevipes Opiz sMed-CAs Subse SC 1 H
Galium album Mill. Eur-As Subse NCC 2 H
G. aparine L. Eur-As Evr NCC 1 H
G. flavescens Borbбs Bal-Dac Subsrbalk MtC 1 H
G. glaucum L. subMed Subpont NCC 1 H
G. heldreichii Hal. Bal-Anat Submez MtC 1 H
G. lucidum All. subMed Subm NCC 2 H
G. odoratum (L.) Scop. Eur-As Subevr SC 1 H
G. pseudaristatum Schur Pann-Bal Submez-Subpan MtC 1 H
G. spurium L. Eur-As Evr NCC 3 H
G. verum L. Eur-As Evr NCC 2 H
Sherardia arvensis L. Med Kosm SCC 3 Th
Rutaceae
Dictamnus albus L. Eur-As Subpont-Subca-Subm NCC 1 H
Haplophyllum suaveolens (DC.) G. Don Med Pont NCC 1 H
Salicaceae
Populus tremula L. subBoreal Subevr SC 1 Ph
Salix caprea L. subBoreal Evr SC 1 Ph
Santalaceae
Comandra elegans (Roch. ex Rchb.) Rchb. f. Bal-Dac-Anat Subdac MtC 1 H
Thesium arvense Horv. Med-CAs Subevr NCC 2 H
T. bavarum Schrank subMed Se MtC 1 H
T. divaricatum Jan ex Mert. & W.D.J. Koch Eur-Med Subm MedC 1 H
Saxifragaceae
Ribes uva-crispa L. subMed Subevr MtC 1 Ph
Scrophulariaceae
Digitalis grandiflora Mill. Eur-Sib Subse MtC 1 H
D. lanata Ehrh. subMed Subbalk MtC 2 H
Euphrasia hirtella Jord. ex Reut. Eur-As Evr NCC 1 Th
E. pectinata Ten. subMed Pont-Subm NCC 1 H
Lathraea squamaria L. Eur-As Subse SC 1 G
Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. Med Srbalk-j.Apen MtC 1 H
L. genistifolia (L.) Mill. Pont-Sib Pont-Pan SCC 3 H
L. vulgaris Mill. Eur-Sib Subse SCC 3 H
Melampyrum arvense L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 3 Th
M. cristatum L. Eur-Sib Subse SC 2 Th
17 • Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • 2009
426 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Odontites glutinosa (M. Bieb.) Benth. Pont-Med Subsk-Pind MtC 1 Th
O. lutea (L.) Clairv. Eur Pont-Subm NCC 1 Th
O. serotina (Lam.) Dumort. Eur Subse NCC 3 Th
Pedicularis petiolaris Ten. Ap-Bal Subend MtC 1 H
Rhinanthus rumelicus Velen. Eur-Med Subsrbalk SCC 2 Th
Scrophularia canina L. Eur-Med Subm SCC 1 H
Verbascum banaticum Schrad. Bal-Dac Submez-Subdac MtC 2 H
V. chaixii Vill. Pann-Bal Subpan MtC 1 H
V. phoeniceum L. Eur-Sib Subpont NCC 2 H
V. speciosum Schrad. Eur-Med Subeuks MtC 1 H
V. urumovii Stoj. & Acht. Bul End-6 MtC 1 H
V. austriaca L. Eur-Med Subpont-Subm MtC 1 H
V. barrelieri Roem. & Schult. Pont-Bal Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
V. chamaedrys L. Eur-As Subse SC 2 H
V. hederifolia L. Eur-Med Subse SCC 3 Th
V. officinalis L. Eur-Sib Subbor-Cirk SC 1 H
V. orchidea Crantz Eur Subpan NCC 1 H
V. prostrata L. Eur Evr NCC 1 H
V. teucrium L. Eur-Sib Evr SC 1 H
Staphyleaceae
Staphylea pinnata L. Eur-Med Subeuks MtC 1 Ph
Thymelaeaceae
Daphne cneorum L. subMed Se MtC 1 Ph
Thymelaea passerina (L.) Cosson & Germ. Pont Pont-Ca SCC 2 Th
Tiliaceae
Tilia cordata Mill. Eur Subse SC 1 Ph
T. platyphyllos Scop. Eur Se MtC 1 Ph
Ulmaceae
Ulmus glabra Huds. Eur-Med Subse SC 1 Ph
U. minor Mill. Eur-Med Subm SCC 1 Ph
Urticaceae
Parieteria officinalis L. Eur Subm MedC 3 H
Urtica dioica L. Boreal Evr NCC 3 H
Valerianaceae
Valerianella coronata (L.) DC. Eur-Med Subm SCC 3 Th
Verbenaceae
Verbena officinalis L. Kos Kosm SCC 3 H
Violaceae
Viola arvensis Murray Eur Evr SCC 3 Th
V. hirta L. Eur-As Subj.sib MtC 1 H
V. kitaibeliana Schult. Eur-Med Subpont-Subm SCC 3 Th
V. mirabilis L. Eur-As Evr SC 1 H
V. odorata L. Eur-Med Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
V. reichenbachiana Jord. ex Boreau Eur-As Se SC 1 H
V. riviniana Rchb. subMed Subse MtC 1 H
V. tricolor L. Eur-As Evr SCC 3 Th
Liliopsida
Amaryllidaceae
Galanthus elwesii Hook. f. Eur Se MtC 1 G
Sternbergia colchiciflora Waldst. & Kit. Eur-Pont Pont-is.Subm MtC 1 G
Araceae
427 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Arum maculatum L. Eur-subMed Se MtC 1 G
Cyperaceae
Carex caryophyllea Latourr. Boreal Evr SC 2 H
C. digitata L. Eur-Sib Subse SC 1 H
C. halleriana Asso Eur-As Subevr MtC 1 H
C. humilis Leyss. Eur-As Subj.sib NCC 1 H
C. liparocarpos Gaudin Pont-Med Pont-Ca MtC 1 H
C. michelii Host Eur Subeuks MtC 1 H
C. montana L. Eur-Sib Subse SC 1 H
C. pilosa Scop. Eur-As Evr MtC 1 H
C. praecox Schreb. Eur-Sib Evr NCC 2 H
C. sylvatica Huds. subMed Subcirk SC 1 H
C. tomentosa L. Eur-Sib Subj.sib MtC 1 H
Iridaceae
Crocus biflorus Mill. Med Balk-Apen MtC 1 G
C. flavus Weston Eur-Pont Mez-Dac MtC 1 G
C. olivieri J. Gay Bal Balk MtC 1 G
Gladiolus imbricatus L. Eur-sMed Subpont SC 1 G
Iris graminea L. Pont-Med Pont-Subm MtC 1 H
I. pumila L. subMed Pont-Ca NCC 1 H
I. reichenbachii Heuff. Bal-Dac Submez MtC 1 H
I. variegata L. subMed Pont-Pan MtC 1 H
Juncaceae
Juncus inflexus L. subBoreal Subcirk SCC 2 H
Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. Boreal Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
L. luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy Eur Se MtC 2 H
Liliaceae
Allium albidum Fisch. ex M. Bieb. Eur-Sib Pont-Ca NCC 1 G
A. carinatum L. Pont-Med Subeuks MtC 1 G
A. cupani Rafin. Med is.Subm MtC 1 G
A. flavum L. Med Pont-Ca-Subm NCC 2 G
A. moschatum L. Pont-subMed Pont-Subm NCC 1 G
A. nigrum L. subMed Subm SCC 3 G
A. rotundum L. Eur-OT Pont-Subm SCC 2 G
A. scorodoprasum L. Eur-Med Se NCC 3 G
A. ursinum L. Eur Se SC 1 G
Anthericum liliago L. subMed Subatl-Subm MtC 1 H
A. ramosum L. Eur Subpont NCC 1 H
Asparagus officinalis L. Eur Subpont SCC 3 H
A. tenuifolius Lam. Pont-Med Subm MtC 1 G
Asphodeline liburnica (Scop.) Rchb. Pont-Med is.Subm MedC 1 G
A. taurica (Pall. ex M. Bieb.) Kunth. Pont-Med Pont-Subm MtC 1 G
Colchicum autumnale L. Eur Se MtC 2 G
Convallaria majalis L. Boreal Cirk SC 1 G
Erythronium dens-canis L. Med Subm MtC 1 G
Fritillaria orientalis Adams. subMed Pont-Pan MtC 1 G
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl. Eur-As Evr SC 1 G
Hyacinthella leucophaea (Steven ex Kunth.) Schur Pont-Med Pont NCC 1 G
Lilium martagon L. Eur-As Evr SC 1 G
Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. Med Pont-Subm MtC 1 G
M. neglectum Guss. ex Ten. Med-OT Subm SCC 3 G
M. tenuiflorum Tausch Pont-Med Pont-Pan NCC 2 G
428 Apostolova-Stoyanova , N. & Stoyanov, S. • The flora of the Mt Golo Bardo
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Ornithogalum narbonense L. Med Subm SCC 3 G
O. pyrenaicum L. Med Subatl-Subm MtC 1 G
O. sibthorpii Greuter Bal-Anat Subeuks MedC 2 G
O. umbellatum L. Pont-subMed Subse SCC 3 G
Polygonatum latifolium (Jacq.) Desf. Boreal Subpont-Subpan MtC 1 G
P. odoratum (Mill.) Druce Eur-Sib Subj.sib SC 1 G
Scilla bifolia L. Pont-subMed Subatl-Subm MtC 1 G
Tulipa urumoffii Hayek Bul End-6 MtC 1 G
Veratrum nigrum L. Eur-As Evr MtC 1 H
Orchidaceae
Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce subMed Subse MtC 1 H
Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm. Boreal Cirk SC 1 G
Epipactis purpurata Sm. subBoreal Subevr SC 1 H
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. Eur-As Evr SC 1 G
Himantoglossum caprinum (M. Bieb.) Spreng. Med Subatl-Subm MedC 1 G
Limodorum abortivum (L.) Sw. Med Subm MedC 1 G
Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich. Eur-As Subse SC 1 G
Ophrys apifera Huds. Eur Subatl-Subm NCC 1 G
O. cornuta Steven Bal-Anat Subeuks MedC 1 G
O. insectifera L. Eur Se NCC 1 G
Orchis morio L. Eur-subMed Subse SC 1 G
O. pallens L. sPont Subm MtC 1 G
O. pinetorum Boiss. & Kotschy subMed Subse SC 1 G
O. purpurea Huds. subMed Subatl-Subm MtC 1 G
O. simia Lam. subMed Subatl-Subm MtC 1 G
O. tridentata Scop. Eur-subMed Subm MedC 1 G
O. ustulata L. Eur-Sib Subse SC 1 G
Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Rchb. Eur-Sib Evr SC 1 G
Poaceae
Aegilops neglecta Req. ex Bertol subMed Subm SCC 3 Th
A. triuncialis L. Eur-As Subm SCC 3 Th
Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. Eur-Pont Evr NCC 1 H
Agrostis capillaris L. Boreal Cirk SC 2 H
Alopecurus pratensis L. Eur-As Evr SC 2 H
Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Eur-As Subevr SC 2 H
Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv. subBoreal Evr MedC 3 Th
Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl Eur-As Subse MtC 3 H
Avenula pubescens (Huds.) Dumort. sSib Evr NCC 1 H
Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. sSib Subj.sib SC 1 H
B. sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. Eur-As Subj.sib SC 2 H
Briza media L. Eur Evr SC 1 H
Bromus benekenii (Lange) Trimen Eur-As Subevr SC 1 H
B. inermis Leyss. Eur-As Evr SC 1 H
B. japonicus Thunb. Med-CAs Subm SCC 3 Th
B. moesiacus Velen. Bul End-6 MtC 1 H
B. mollis L. Boreal Subm MedC 3 Th
B. ramosus Huds. subMed-As Subevr SC 1 H
B. squarrosus L. subMed Subm SCC 3 Th
B. sterilis L. Boreal Subevr SCC 3 Th
Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv. Boreal Cirk SC 2 H
Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. Pont-Med Pont-Ca-Subm SCC 2 H
Cleistogenes serotina (L.) Keng Eur-subMed Subm NCC 1 H
429 Phytol. Balcan. 15(3) • Sofia • 2009
Supplement 1. Floristic list – continuation.
1 2 3 4 5
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Kos Kosm SCC 3 H
Cynosurus cristatus L. Eur Subse SC 2 H
C. echinatus L. subMed Subatl-Subm MedC 3 Th
Dactylis glomerata L. Eur-As Subevr SC 2 H
Dasypyrum villosum (L.) P. Candargy subMed Subm MedC 3 Th
Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. Boreal Subcirk SC 2 H
Dichanthium ischaemum (L.) Roberty sMed-As Pont-Ca-Subm SCC 2 H
Elymus caninus (L.) L. Boreal Cirk SC 1 H
E. repens (L.) Gould Boreal Evr SC 2 H
Festuca heterophylla Lam. Boreal Se MtC 1 H
F. valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin Pont Evr NCC 2 H
Hierochloe repens (Host.) P. Beauv. Boreal Cirk SC 1 H
Holcus lanatus L. Eur Evr SC 1 H
Hordeum murinum L. Boreal Subm SCC 3 Th
Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult. Eur Cirk NCC 2 H
K. nitidula Velen. Pont Subeuks MtC 1 H
Lolium perenne L. Eur-As Subse SC 2 H
Melica ciliata L. Eur-subMed Subm NCC 1 H
M. nutans L. Eur-As Evr SC 1 H
M. uniflora Retz. Eur Se MtC 1 H
Phleum pratense L. Eur-subMed Subevr SC 2 H
Piptatherum virescens (Trin.) Boiss. Med Iran-Euks MtC 1 H
Poa badensis Haenke ex Willd. Eur-As Se MtC 1 H
P. bulbosa L. Eur-As Subevr NCC 2 H
P. compressa L. Eur-subMed Subse NCC 2 H
P. nemoralis L. Boreal Cirk SC 2 H
P. pratensis L. Kos Subcirk SC 2 H
P. trivialis L. Boreal Subevr SC 2 H
Sesleria latifolia (Adamovic) Degen Bal Mez MtC 1 H
S. rigida Heuff. ex Rchb. Carp-Bal Mez-Karp MtC 1 H
Stipa capillata L. Pont-Med Subpont-Ca-Subm NCC 1 H
S. epilosa Martinovskэ Pont-Med Subpont-Subm NCC 1 H
Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel. subBoreal Kosm SCC 3 Th
*For abbreviations see Tables 4 - 8
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