Biennial Conference of the 
International Association for the Study of the Commons
10 - 14 January 2011, Hyderabad, INDIA
S u s t a i n i n g   C o m m o n s :   S u s t a i n i n g   O u r   F u t u r e13
IASC 2011
IASC 2011
President’s Note I
Foreword II
About the IASC IV
About FES V
Overview of the Conference VI
Conference Programme at a Glance VIII
Detailed Programme Schedule XV
Paper Abstracts 03
Poster Abstracts 282
Video Abstracts 293
Appendix 30113 I TH
IASC 2011
Welcome to the 13
 Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons
(IASC).  We look forward to a lively and stimulating exchange of knowledge across disciplines, resources,
and among scholars and practitioners that have become the hallmark of IASC conferences.  We received a
record number of abstract submissions for this Conference, reflecting the growing interest in the commons
internationally. Fifty-four reviewers helped to screen abstracts. We hope you agree that this has yielded a
very rich set of papers, posters, and films to be presented this week.  If you find the choices overwhelming,
or you can’t attend every presentation you are interested in, you can check out the papers on the conference
data stick or the Digital Library of the Commons (http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/), and follow up discussions
via the new communications platform for IASC members (www.iasc-commons.org).
I would like to thank the Government of India, the State Government of Andhra Pradesh, and the Dr. Marri
Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of the Government of Andhra Pradesh, in partnering
with FES in organising the Conference.
This Conference would not have been possible without the outstanding work of our hosts, the Foundation
for Ecological Security, and the team of Indian and international collaborators who have helped to guide the
programme development.  On behalf of the Executive Council and membership of the IASC, I wish to thank
them for their work, and you for your participation to make this Conference a success.
Ruth Meinzen-Dick
President, International Association for the Study of the Commons
IASC 2011
It gives me immense pleasure to welcome you all to the 13
 Biennial Conference of the IASC in the
heritage city of Hyderabad in southern India. The Government of Andhra Pradesh, in whose capital city we
will deliberate the commons, is presently piloting a regional programme that will integrate the development
and restoration of common lands in the implementation of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(NREGA), and the Community Forest Management arrangements in this part of the country are also well
known for their scale, initiative and institutional design. At different scales, Hyderabad and India are of
significance to this Conference, providing a fantastic opportunity to witness and amplify the debates on the
future of common property resources and it’s relevance.
By hosting a Conference of this nature in India we hope to draw attention to the critical role that Commons
such as forests, water bodies and grazing lands play in sustaining the rural economy. We have a wonderful
opportunity to counter and dispel dominant myths and archaic ideas that treat common lands as ‘wastelands’.
On the other hand, we are also witnessing some exciting moments in the governance of our natural resources.
The Government of India recently constituted a committee to examine ‘State Agrarian Relations and
Unfinished Tasks in Land Reforms’ with a sub-committee to look into ‘Access of Poor to Common Property
and Forest Resources and Agriculture Land Use’. Amongst other suggestions, the committee has
recommended the introduction of a land use policy and the reviving of land-use boards at the district level
to ensure proper use of agrarian land and access of poor to CPR. Also, with the enactment of the Forest
Rights Act, the discussion on legal recognition to community forests has gained momentum.
The Conference has come to South Asia for the first time and it is also the first instance where a practitioner
organization (FES) will host the Conference. We  attempt to enrich this Conference by bringing together
practitioners, decision-makers and scholars to a common meeting place. We are joined by a number of
non-government organizations, academic and research organizations, and community associations and
networks in what is being termed the ‘Initiative on Commons’. These include a range of research projects,
media fellowships, workshops, debates and publications aimed at practitioners, policy makers, researchers,
the media and interested laypersons.
I wish to thank IASC for the trust placed and opportunity given to the Foundation for Ecological Security to
host this Conference.  We are grateful to Concern Worldwide, Omidyar Network, IDRC, Action Aid, Ford
Foundation, CAPRi, NABARD, Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, ARGHYAM, UNDP-GEF-SGP and Tata Consultancy
Services for extending their gracious support towards this event.
IASC 2011
I take this opportunity to thank the Ministry of Environment and Forests, for their support. I also thank the
Department of Land Resources, Government of India, the Department of Rural Development and Panchayati
Raj and the Dr. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of the Government of Andhra
Pradesh, in partnering with FES in organising the Conference and providing us a perfect venue. I am also
grateful to the Department of Tourism and Culture, Government of Andhra Pradesh, which has extended
support in coordinating with the local departments and organising the Conference.
Special thanks go to all participants for coming to Hyderabad. Your presence is invaluable and makes this
Conference worth its significance. Have a pleasant stay and make the most of this global confluence of the
commons – I hope you remain in touch with FES beyond this Conference and join in chartering the future
of our commons.
Jagdeesh Rao Puppala
Conference Co-ChairIV 13
IASC 2011
The International Association for the Study of the Commons began as the Common Property Network in
1984. The Common Property Network was formed to foster discussions on Common Property issues. In
1989, the IASC was founded as the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP), a
non-profit Association devoted to understanding and improving institutions for the management of resources
that are (or could be) held or used collectively by communities in developing or developed countries.
The Association is devoted to bringing together interdisciplinary researchers, practitioners, and policymakers
for   the  purpos e  of   fos t e r ing  be t t e r  unde r s t anding s ,   improv ement s ,   and  sus t a inabl e   solut ions   for
environmental, electronic, and any other type of shared resource that is a commons or a common-pool
IASC’s broad goals are laid out as:
● encouraging exchange of knowledge among diverse disciplines, areas, and resource types
● fostering mutual exchange of scholarship and practical experience
● promoting appropriate institutional design
The Association encourages intellectual exchange on policy applications and commons issues through a
number of activities, including:
● sponsoring annual or biennial conferences and co-sponsoring regional workshops and conferences;
● publishing The Commons Digest and the International Journal of the Commons;
● collecting basic information about networks of scholars, practitioners, organizations, and institutions
concerned with the commons, in order to encourage linkages and compile directories for IASC members
within and between different regions of the world;
● identifying guest editors to collect information from their regions to promote the publication of articles
by authors outside of North America in the The Commons Digest;
● creating bibliographies of commons research and publications;
● fostering interdisciplinary discussions and the production of scholarly, applied, and policy-oriented
The Association’s work on the functioning of natural resource commons has been instrumental in refuting
the notion of an inevitable ‘tragedy of the commons; through careful analysis of the factors that influence
the management of these resources. More recently, IASC has started to explore new areas of commons
research such as knowledge, culture, health and global resources.
The collective expertise that the Association can mobilise, from over 90 countries, fuels policy debates of
global significance. Whether the issue is intellectual property, network neutrality, global warming, land
reform, legal empowerment of the poor, or reforming the international financial system, the Association
strongly believes that research and lessons from working in and with commons regimes are important in
shaping governance systems that will benefit as many people as possible, simultaneously preserving resources
at hand for future generations.
Fore more on the IASC, visit www.iasc-commons.org
IASC 2011
Registered under the Societies Registration Act XXI 1860, the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES) was
set up in 2001 to reinforce the massive and critical task of ecological restoration in the country.
The crux of FES’ efforts lie in locating forests and other natural resources within the prevailing economic,
social and ecological dynamics in rural landscapes and in intertwining principles of conservation and local
self governance for the protection of the natural surroundings and improvement in the living conditions of
the poor. By working on systemic issues that can bring about a multiplier change, FES strives for a future
where the local communities determine and move towards desirable land-use that is based on principles of
conservation and social justice.
FES works with 1,800 village institutions in 27 districts across six states, and assists the village communities
in protecting 1,12,000 hectares of revenue wastelands, degraded forestlands and Panchayat grazing lands
(Charagah lands). Outside the Government, FES is probably the only organization that works on Commons
at this scale in India. FES has plans to extend the work to a further 50,000 hectares over the next five years.
Graduating from a ‘Watershed Approach’ to a ‘Landscape Approach’ has further enabled the organization
to effectively address and ensure the long-term durability of its efforts.
FES has rich experience in restoring degraded landscapes, locating common lands in the larger farming
systems, building community institutions for natural resource management at habitation and inter habitation
levels, promoting livelihood activities that lead to improved income levels. While each location may be
guided by specific strategies, the broad organizational level strategic areas are:
● Establishing institutional design principles and mechanisms that provide space for the poor. Developing
linkages between village level institutions and the umbrella institution of Panchayats, and integration of
natural resource management plans by Panchayats.
● Improving rural livelihoods particularly of the poor and marginalised so as to meet the subsistence
requirements and increase household incomes from agriculture, forests and other allied livelihoods.
● Reviving the criticality of forests and other common lands and locating inter-linkages with the associated
production systems, thereby highlighting the value of forests and water for the sustenance of farming and
safeguarding subsistence livelihoods.
● Strengthening platforms for discussion at a village and inter-village level by inviting government
functionaries, academia and larger civil society to join on issues of poverty alleviation and conservation
and use of natural surroundings.
For more on FES, visit www.fes.org.in
IASC 2011
As you are aware, the IASC Conferences, along with the other regional level meets that are organised from
time to time, aim at bringing together minds working on the subject of common property resources and
encouraging the exchange of knowledge among the diverse disciplines and institutions. The 13
Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons  (IASC) has attracted more than 500
papers to be presented during the course of the event. We had an overwhelming response to the ‘Call for
Papers’ from about 70 countries, and over 1100 abstracts were submitted, representing a diversity of themes.
In addition to academics and young scholars, the Conference has also attracted paper submissions from
practitioners from India and other countries.
The abstracts covered a wide range of themes including theoretical aspects of commons, governance and
management of commons, social exclusion and marginalisation, issues related to complex commons and
new commons, and were blind reviewed by two reviewers each from a committee of 55 members comprising
of Aarthi Sridhar, Alyne Elizabeth Delaney, Amita Shah, Ananda Vadivelu, Andreas Thiel, Anjal Prakash,
Anne M Larson, Ashwini Chhatre, Augusta M. Molnar, Bhaskar Vira, B. V. Subbarao, Bhim Adhikari, Bryan
Randolph Bruns, Carolyn Lesorogol,  Chetan Agarwal, Chris Short, Dolly Daftary, Doug Wilson,  Ed Araral,
Esther Mwangi, Eva Wollenberg, Everisto Mapedza, Forrest D. Fleischman,  Gabriela Lichtenstein,  Ganesh
Shivakoti, Gautam Yadama, Harini Nagendra,  Harry Vincent Strehlow, Hemant Kumar Gupta, Himadri
Sinha, Himanshu Kulkarni, John Reed Powell, K.V. Raju, Krister Andersson, Kuppannan Palanisami,
Lapologang Magole,  Lars T. Soeftestad, Leticia Merino,  Madhu Verma,  Mafaniso Michael Hara, Margaret
(Peggy) Anne Smith, Michael Taylor, Minoti Chakrawarti Kaul, Nancy Johnson, Nives Dolsak, Patti
Kristjanson,  Peter Mvula,  Prateep Kumar Nayak, Purabi Bose, Purnendu Kavoori, Rita Brara, Rucha Ghate,
Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Sanjeev Prakash, Seema Kulkarni, Sergio Villamayor-Tomas,  Shambu Prasad, Sisir
Jha, Sony Pellissery, Sunil Abraham, Susan Kandel, Sushil Saigal, Tracy Yandle,  Vibodh Parthasarathi and
Xavier Basurto.
Often, commons face neglect or are unappreciated, for discussions around them fall between the cracks in
our reductionist approach to understanding natural resources, while in reality, strikingly similar issues are
faced by forests, water, pastures, and other commons regimes. To address a diversity of issues across
resources and across disciplines, we designed eleven panel series around seven sub-themes.
● The Commons, Poverty and Social Exclusion;
● Governance of the Commons: Decentralisation, Property Rights, Legal Framework, Structure and
● The Commons: Theory, Analytics and Data;
● Globalisation, Commercialisation and the Commons;
● Managing the Global Commons: Climate Change and other Challenges;
IASC 2011
● Managing Complex Commons (Lagoons, Protected Areas, Wetlands, Mountain Areas, Rangelands,
Coastal Commons);
● New Commons (Digital Commons, Genetic Commons, Patents, Music, Literature, etc.)
Categorising them under the above themes also helped us in organising the day by day and session by
session programme schedule which we hope you will find interesting. The Conference emphasises on the
one hand, the traditional and direct livelihood significance that commons hold for dependent communities,
while on the other hand it will see explorations on newer emerging global issues such as publishing,
patenting, digital commons, knowledge commons and climate change. The Conference will not only examine
the inter-linkages between poverty and commons, but shall also be a forum to understand, revise and
synthesise analytical tools while appreciating methodological challenges. The impact of globalisation on
the governance of commons is an important conference focus and affords us the chance to compare and
examine legal frameworks from across the world. The lessons learned with the local commons could be
studied to draw relevance for global concerns and transactions. Discussions across these themes will be a
fascinating intellectual journey, navigating the analysis of institutional frameworks, the influence of markets
on public policy, and the dynamics between these policies and institutions at local, regional, national and
international scales against a backdrop of global transition.
Besides paper presentations, the Conference features two keynote speeches every day, four parallel policy
fora, panel discussions, pre-conference workshops, practitioner exchange programs, field visits, poster and
video sessions. There are 14 one-day and 2 multi-day field visits for you to choose from, for you to gather
a glimpse of grassroots activity in environment and development in the region.
I take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of the various organizations in and around Hyderabad,
for giving the Conference the practitioners’ flavour that makes it somewhat different from the academic
conferences.  A word of gratitude goes to the staff of Anthra, Deccan Development Society, Anantha
Paryavarana Parirakshana Samiti (APPS), Akshara Network, University of Hyderabad, Watershed Support
Services and Activities Network (WASSAN), Centre for People’s Forestry, Centre for Sustainable Agriculture,
SOUL and Dhan Foundation for anchoring the different field visits, an integral element of the Conference.
I would like to thank the Programme and Academic Committee members  - Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Leticia
Merino, Doug Wilson, Nives Dolsak, Susan Buck, KV Raju, Anita Cheria, Edwin Daniel, NC Narayanan,
Purnendu Kavoori, Chetan Agarwal, Shambu Prasad, Kamal Kishore and MK Ramesh.
It is my pleasure to present to you the Programme of the 13
 Biennial Conference, which marks a culmination
of a long and enriching effort put in by several people within and outside FES.
Jagdeesh Rao
Conference Co-ChairVIII 13
IASC 2011
7th January , 2011
to 9th January , 2011 9:00- 18:00 hrs International Forestry Resources and Institutions  Research Iniatives
7th January , 2011
to 9th January , 2011 9:30- 18:30 hrs South Asian Exchange Programme to comemorate 40thAnniversary of
International Development Research Centre
7th January , 2011
to 9th January , 2011 9:30- 18:30 hrs Practitioners' Exchange Programme (supported by NABARD )
9th January, 2011 9:00-17:00 hrs IASC Executive Council Meeting
10th January 2011 8:30- 15:30 hrs Pre Conference Workshops
1. People, institutions and forests: Moving toward a new  governance research
2. Changing perspectives within policy processes
3. Understanding Change: Introducing Community  Driven System
Dynamics for Modeling the Commons
4. Mapping On the Ground - First Step in Revitalising  the Commons
5. Policy Discussion on Commons: lessons from recent  policy experiences in
the UK and Europe
6. Introduction to Commons in India
7. Analytical Frameworks as Learning Heuristics in
Common Pool Resource Research
8. Biocultural Community Protocols  (BCPs)- A Tool for  Securing the Rights of
Pastoralists and Livestock Keepers for In-situ Conservation and Access to
Common Property Resources
9. Naranpur Water Game
10. Introduction to Commons' Theory; Indicators for  Secure Access to CPRs;
and Communities' Based Rights over CPRs
11. Defining an applied research programme for the
UNDP-GEF Small Grants Programme on community- based natural resource
management, and the challenge of the commons.
10th January, 2011 17:00-21:30 hrs Opening Ceremony and Cultural Event at Sampradaya Vedika
IASC 2011
11th January, 2011
08:30- 10:00 hrs Key Note Speeches Ruth Meinzen-Dick
Herman Rosa Chávez
10:00-10:15 hrs Tea/Coffee
Room No. 1 A Poverty & Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No. 1 B Governance (Forest Rights)
Room No. 1 C Governance (Community Rights)
Room No. 2 A Globalisation (Diversion of CPRs)
Room No. 2 B Complex Commons (Protected Areas)
Room No. 2 C Governance (Water)
Room No. 2 D Governance (Property Rights)
Room No. 3 A Complex Commons
Room No. 3 B Climate Change
Room No. 3 C New Commons (Knowledge)
Room No. 3 D Theory, Analytics and Data
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations
11:45-12:00 hrs Tea/Coffee
Room No. 1 A Poverty & Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No. 1 B Governance (Forests)
Room No. 1 C Governance (Property Rights)
Room No. 2 A Globalisation (Forests)
Room No. 2 B Complex Commons (Coastal)
Room No. 2 C Governance (Water)
Room No. 2 D Governance (Community Rights)
Room No. 3 A Governance
Room No. 3 B Climate Change
Room No. 3 C New Commons (Knowledge)
Room No. 3 D Theory, Analytics and Data
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations
13:30-14:30 hrs Lunch and Poster Presentation at Arjuna Arcade
Room No. 1 A Poverty & Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No. 1 B Governance (Forests)
Room No. 1 C Governance (Property Rights)
Room No. 2 A Globalisation (Migration)
Room No. 2 B Complex Commons (Coastal)
Room No. 2 C Governance (Water)
Room No. 2 D Governance (Land Tenure)
Room No. 3 A Special Event (Book Panel Proposal)X 13
IASC 2011
Room No. 3 B Climate Change
Room No. 3 C New Commons (Culture)
Room No. 3 D Theory, Analytics and Data
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations
16:00-16:30 hrs Tea/Coffee
16:30-18:00 hrs
Canopy Policy Forum-1
Securing the Rights of Common Property Users -
Experiences from Latin America, Africa and Asia
Room No. 1 C Policy Forum-2
Pastoralism and Commons - Beyond Sedentarisation
and Sustainability
Auditorium Policy Forum-3
Placing (forest) Commons in a Landscape Perspective
Tungabhadra Policy Forum-4
Conference Room Governing and Managing Common Property
Resources in the Face of Climate Change
Room No. 3 A Special Event
Book Release
18:30-18:45 hrs Auditorium SAEP Awards Ceremony
18:45-19:30 hrs Auditorium IASC Membership Meeting
12th January, 2011
08:30-10:00 Key Note  Speeches David Bollier
Bina Agarwal
10:00-10:15 hrs Tea/Coffee
Room No. 1 A Poverty and Social Exclusion (Gender)
Room No. 1 B Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 1 C Governance (Decentralization)
Room No. 2 A Complex Commons (Coastal)
Room No. 2 B Poverty and Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No. 2 C Governance (Forests, Land Tenure and  Wildlife)
Room No. 2 D Globalisation (Land Rights)
Room No. 3 A Climate Change
Room No. 3 B Theory, Analytics and Data
Room No. 3 C New Commons (Digital)
Room No. 3 D Governance (Water)
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations
11:45-12:00 hrs Tea/Coffee
Room No. 1 A Poverty and Social Exclusion
Room No. 1 B Poverty and Social Exclusion (Forests)
Room No. 1 C Governance (Decentralisation)
Room No. 2 A Complex Commons (Coastal)13 XI TH
IASC 2011
Room No. 2 B Complex Commons (Protected Areas)
Room No. 2 C Governance (Forests, Land Tenure and  Wildlife)
Room No. 2 D Globalisation (Land rights)
Room No. 3 A Climate Change
Room No. 3 B Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 3 C New Commons (Genetic)
Room No. 3 D Governance (Groundwater)
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations
13:30-14:30 hrs Lunch and Poster Presentation at Arjuna Arcade
Room No. 1 A Special Event: A Commons Story: In the Rain  Shadow
of Green Revolution
Room No. 1 B Governance (Forests)
Room No. 1 C Governance (Legal framework)
Room No. 2 A Complex Commons (Coastal )
Room No. 2 B Complex Commons
Room No. 2 C Governance
Room No. 2 D Globalisation
Room No. 3 A Climate Change
Room No. 3 B Theory, Analytics and Data
Room No. 3 C New Commons (Knowledge)
Room No. 3 D Governance (Groundwater)
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations
16:00-16:30 hrs Tea/Coffee
PANEL THEMES 16:30-18:00 hrs
Conference Room Policy Forum-5
Policy shifts, Implications for Water Access
and Latitude for Water
Auditorium Policy Forum-6
Food Security, Commons and Entitlements
Towards Strategic Solutions
Room No. 1 C Policy Forum-7
How much nature can we risk privatizing?:
Potentials and dangers of valuing nature's
Canopy Panel  Discussion 1
Between the Sea and the Land: Complex Commons
at the Interface of Marine-Terrestrial Systems
Room No. 3 A Special Event
 Book Release
19:30-22:30 hrs Conference Dinner at Chowmahalla Palace
13th January, 2011 7:30  - 18:30 hrs Field Visits
1. Pastoralists and Agro-Pastoralists of the Deccan Region-Re-imagining the
Future of Commons
2. Challenges and Threats to Common Lands in the RegionXII 13
IASC 2011
3. Building Institutions for Women’s Empowerment
4. Conflicts and Collaborations in Protection and  Management of Commons
5. Securing Future of Agriculture: Sustainable Agricultural  Practices for a Better
6. Balancing Conflicting Interests While Managing CPRs.
7. Traditional Art Forms in the Face of Changing Times: A Look at the Ikkat Weavers
of Poachampally
8. Towards Achieving Sovereignty over Food, Seeds,  Markets and Media
9. Community Management of Water Resources
10. Interface Between Science and Agriculture
11. Natural History of Hyderabad
12. Overview of the Cultural and Natural Landscapes of  Hyderabad
13. Community-Managed Traditoinal Surface Irrigation Commons (Small Tanks)
in the Telangana Region of  Andhra Pradesh
10:00-14:00 hrs Special Event
Meeting on Coastal Commons
14th January, 2011
08:30-10:00 Key Note Speeches Ram Dayal Munda
Ashish Kothari
10:00-10:15 hrs Tea/Coffee
Room No. 1 A Poverty and Social Exclusion (Gender)
Room No. 1 B Governance (Forests)
Room No. 1 C Governance
Room No. 2 A Governance
Room No. 2 B Complex commons (Protected Areas)
Room No. 2 C Complex commons
Room No. 2 D Complex commons (Biodiversity)
Room No. 3 A Complex commons (Air and Water)
Room No. 3 B Governance (Forests)
Room No. 3 C Governance (Decentralisation)
Room No. 3 D Governance (Legal framework: Water)
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations
11:45-12:00 hrs Tea/Coffee
Room No. 1 A Poverty and Social Exclusion
Room No. 1 B Complex Commons (Wetlands and Forests)
Room No. 1 C Governance
Room No. 2 A Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 2 B Complex Commons
Room No. 2 C New Commons (Urban)
Room No. 2 D Complex Commons (Biodiversity)
Room No. 3 A Global Commons (Managing Uncertainties)
Room No. 3 B Governance (Legal framework)
Room No. 3 C Governance (Decentralisation)
Room No. 3 D Governance (Water)
Video Presentation Room Video Presentations13 XIII TH
IASC 2011
13:30-14:30 hrs Lunch and Poster Presentation at Arjuna Arcade
Room No. 1 A Poverty and Social Exclusion (Equity and Access)
Room No. 1 B Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 1 C Complex Commons (Fisheries)
Room No. 2 A Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 2 B Governance
Room No. 2 C New Commons (Urban)
Room No. 2 D Complex Commons (Wetlands)
Room No. 3 A Global Commons (Managing Uncertainties)
Room No. 3 B Governance (Legal framework)
Room No. 3 C Governance (Water)
Room No. 3 D -
Video Presentation Room -
16:00-16:30 hrs Tea/Coffee
16:30-18:00 hrs Canopy Policy Forum-8
Legal Recognition of Community-based
Porperty Rights
Tungabhadra Policy Forum-9
Conference Room Emerging Policies: Creating New Commons
Auditorium Policy Forum-10
Forest Right Act, Community Forest Rights
& Management/ Community Conserved Areas
Room No. 1 C Panel Discussion 2
Philanthropy and the Commons
18:00-18:30 hrs Canopy Concluding Session
15th January, 2011 Multi-day Field Visits for Conference Delegates
to 16th January, 2011 (Departure from Hyderabad on 14th evening and arrive back on 17th morning)
Field Trip 1:
State and Community Interface Through Rishi  Valley
Special Development Area “
Field Trip 2:
Governance of CPRs Through Local Peoples’
15th January, 2011 Multi-day Field Visits for South Asia Exchange Programme  Participants (IDRC supported ) and  Practitioners'
to 17th January, 2011 Exchange  Programme (NABARD supported)
(Departure from Hyderabad on 14th evening  and arrive back on 18th morning)13
IASC 2011
detailedXVI 13
IASC 2011
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Room No.1 B
Room No. 2 A
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People, institutions and forests: Moving
t owa r d   a   n ew  g o v e r n a n c e   r e s e a r c h
Changing perspectives within policy
Unde r s t anding  Chang e :   Int roduc ing
Community Driven System Dynamics
for Modeling the Commons
Mapping On the Ground - First Step in
Revitalising the Commons
Policy Discussion on Commons: lessons
from recent policy experiences in the
UK and Europe
Introduction to Commons in India
A n a l y t i c a l   F r amewo r k s   a s   L e a r n i n g
Heuristics in Common Pool Resource
B i o c u l t u r a l   C o m m u n i t y   P r o t o c o l s
(BCPs)- A Tool for Securing the Rights
of Pastoralists and Livestock Keepers for
I n - s i t u   C o n s e r v a t i o n   a n d   A c c e s s   t o
Common Property Resources
Naranpur Water Game
I n t r o d u c t i o n   t o   C o m m o n s ’   T h e o r y ;
Indicators for Secure Access to CPRs;
and Communities’ Based Rights over
D e f i n i n g   a n   a p p l i e d   r e s e a r c h
programme for the UNDP-GEF Small
G r a n t s   P r o g r a m m e   o n   c o m m u n i t y -
based natural resource management,
and the challenge of the commons.
Andrew Wardell
John Powell (CCRI, UK)  & Tasmin
Rajotte (QIAP)
Peter Hovmand and Gautam
Dr Radha Gopalan, Dr Sagari R
Ramdas, Dr Nitya S Ghotge, Mr
Sanyasi Rao, Ms Rajamma, Mr
Chris Short
N C Narayanan,
Purnendu Kavoori, Chetan Agarwal,
V Vivekanandan
Andreas Thiel Konrad Hagedorn, Jes
Weigelt, Markus Hanisch
Ilse Köhler-Rollefson and Kabir
Sunderrajan Krishnan, Shilp Verma
Ruth Meinzen-Dick & Leticia
Terence Hay and Eric Patrick
Center for International Forestry
Research (CIFOR), Bogor.
Countryside and Community
Research Institute (UK) & Quaker
International Affairs Programme
Washington University, USA
Anthra, Pune, India
Countryside and Community
Research Institute, University of
Gloucestershire (UK)
Foundation for Ecological Security,
Division of Resource Economics and
Division of Cooperative Sciences
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,
League for Pastoral Peoples and
Endogenous Livestock
Development, Rajasthan, India and
Natural Justice (Lawyers for
Communities and the Environment),
Cape Town, South Africa
Indian Natural Resources Economics
and Management (INREM)
Foundation and Foundation for
Ecological Security (FES)
CGIAR Systemwide Program on
Collective Action and Property
Rights (CAPRi) and Universidad
Nacional Autónoma de México
United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) - Small Grants
Pre-Conference Workshop Day
Location Time Themes Workshop Leader/s Supporting Organization13 XVII TH
IASC 2011
Sampradaya Vedika
Opening Ceremony
Lighting the Lamp and Invocation
Welcome Address by Nitin Desai
Welcome Address by Ruth Meinzen-Dick, President, IASC
Address by the Guest of Honour Shri Jairam Ramesh, Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Environment
and Forests, Government of India
Key Note Address by Dr. Elinor Ostrom, Nobel Laureate in Economic Sciences (2009)’Cooperating for the
Common Good: Challenging Supposed Impossibilities and Panaceas’
Vote of Thanks
Cultural Evening
A blend of Classical and Folk Indian Music and Dance performances put together by Kalatheera Dance Academy,
Dinner at Mountain Heights
IASC 2011
08:30-10:00 hrs Key Note Speeches
Ruth Meinzen-Dick
Herman Rosa Chávez
10:00-10:15 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
10:15-11:45 hrs
Poverty & Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No 1 A Panel Title Criminal, Weed and Vermin
Proposed by Nitya Ghotge, Purnendu Kavoori, Sagari Ramdas
Chair Rita Brara
Nitya Ghotge, Kaustubh Pandharipande
Unequal Rights on Common Lands
Kunjam Pandu Dora, N Madhoosudan,
P Bhudevi, S Shambhu, P Tammiya C o r r e c t i n g   H i s t o r i c a l   W r o n g s ?   U s i n g   t h e
‘Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest
Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights), Act,
2006. (FRA, 2006)’- Experiences of Adivasi
Communities in Andhra Pradesh
Sagari Ramdas, Rajamma S,
Sanyasi Rao, Radha Gopalan,
Adinarayana M Working for a Common Good: The Shepherds
and other livestock rearers of the Rishi Valley
Special Development Area.
Purnendu Kavoori,
Hitendra Chauhan Securing Dalit Livelihoods through Common
Property Resources: Collective Strategies for
A d a p t i n g   t o   C h a n g i n g   I n s t i t u t i o n a l   a n d
Environmental Conditions in western Rajasthan
Kazuyuki Watanabe From local commons to forest users’ group in
access to pastures: from the perspective of
mobile sheep herders in Nepal
Kazunobu Ikeya T h e   p i g   h e r d e r   a n d   c ommo n   r e s o u r c e s   i n
Governance (Forest Rights)
Room No.  1 B Panel Title Politics of Policy Making and Community Rights in the Commons
Proposed by Prakash Kashwan
Chair/ Coordinator Prakash Kashwan
Prakash Kashwan T h e   C o l l e c t i v e s   C o n u n d r u m :   E x p l a i n i n g
Communities’ Poor Enthusiasm for Collective
Forest Rights
Anand Vaidya The Origin of the Forest, Common Property, and
the Law
* Sanjoy Patnaik Commons and Individuals: Is the Forest Rights
Act changing the debate on Forest Commons ?
* Tushar Dash Forest Rights Act: Changing the paradigm of
conservation and natural resource governance
* Azra Musavi Park-People Relationships and its Implications
for Protected Area Management in Satpura
Conservation Area, India13
IASC 2011
Governance (Community Rights)
Room No. 1 C Panel Title Defining and Defending Community Rights: The Perpetual Making and Remaking of Forest
Proposed by Anne Larson
Chair/ Coordinator Anne Larson
Anne Larson,Peter Cronkleton Formalizing indigenous commons: the role of
‘authority’ in the formation of territories in
Nicaragua, Bolivia and the Philippines
Sushil Saigal Greening the ‘Wastelands’: evolving discourse
on wastelands and its impact on community
rights in India
Naya Paudel, Kamal Bhandari,
Shanta Ram Baral From fuelwood production to carbon sink:
C h a n g i n g   n o t i o n s   o f   c ommo n s   i n  Ne p a l ’ s
community forestry
Emmanuel Marfo Reconstructing the commons for equity and
a c c o u n t a b i l i t y   i n   f o r e s t   b e n e f i t   s h a r i n g
arrangements in Ghana: A time to reconcile law
and custom
Globalisation (Diversion of CPRs)
Room No.  2 A Panel Title INSEE PANEL : Diversion of CPLRs from Primary Uses: Exploring Policy Framework
for Sustainability and Inclusion of Local Communities
Proposed by Amita Shah
Chair Amita Shah
Gopal Kadekodi Converting Common Lands for Mining: Lessons
from India
Nirmal Sengupta Diversion of Land for Mining Activities
Sanjay Upadhyay Towards a Right-based Approach or a New
Legal Framework Required?
Nandini Sundar Tribals’ Struggles, Law and Self Governance:
Insights from Jharkahnd
Seema Purushothaman,
Sharadchandra Lele Implications of trends in Access, Benefits and
Status of Common Lands in Karnataka
Complex Commons (Protected Areas)
Room No.  2 B Panel Title Managing complex commons:Integrating local populations in the management
of Protected Areas
Proposed by Victoria Reyes -Garcia and Claude Garcia
Chair/ Coordinator Victoria Reyes -Garcia
Claude Garcia, Jaboury Ghazoul Conservation and Exclusion: Needs, Limits and
Gary Martin, Terence Hay-Edie,
Patricia Howard, Patrick Kupper Conservation Designations and the Commons:
An Evolving Relationship
Luciana Porter-Bolland, Isabel
Ruiz-Mallen,Tamara Ortiz,
C Camacho-Benavides,
Antonio de la Pena,
K Fernansez,  M. E Mendez,
E.M. Chable,  A Medinaceli,
M.C Sanchez-Gonzalez,
Conservcom Team B o t t o m - u p   b i o d i v e r s i t y   c o n s e r v a t i o n :
I n d i g e n o u s   a n d   c o m m u n i t y   m a n a g e m e n t
practices in Mexico.
Neema Pathak C o m m u n i t y   b a s e d   c o n s e r v a t i o n   o f   t h e
commons in India
Xu Jianchu Towards community-driven conservation in
southwest ChinaXX 13
IASC 2011
Governance (Water)
Room No. 2 C Panel Title IWMI Panel: Irrigation Governance: Lessons from Asia and Africa
Proposed by Everisto Mapedza
Chair Ruth Meinzen-Dick
Barbara Koppen,
Everisto Mapedza, P. Van Der Zaaa,
E. Manzungu, B. Tapela Roman water law in rural Africa: dispossession,
discrimination and weakening state regulation?
Kuppannan Palanisami,
Barbara Koppen,
Mark Giordano Enhancing tank multiple uses for improved
livelihood opportunities in rural India
Madar Samad, Kuppannan Palanisami,
Kiribanda Jinapala F r a g m e n t a t i o n   o f   P r o p e r t y   R i g h t s   a n d
Externalities: A comparative Study of Small Tank
Systems of Sri Lanka and Tamilnadu, India
Jean-Philippe Venot What Commons? Rethinking Participation in the
sub-Saharan African Water Sector
Governance (Property Rights)
Room No. 2 D Panel Title ILC Panel: Securing tenure in Common Pool Rangelands: Where to Next?
Proposed by Fiona Flinton
Chair Michael Taylor
Mary Salome Mashingo Village land Use Planning and Grazing land
Availability for Sustainable Range Management
in Tanzania
Pablo Manzano, Roba GM,
Jonathan Davies Involving local community in fully using their
participatory potential: the case of Garba Tula
in Northern Kenya
Fiona Flinton Recognising and formalising customary land
and resource tenure in the rangelands. Where
to next?
Sanjay Joshie, Pratiti Priyadarshani,
Devin Peipert,  Jagdeesh Rao,
Rahul Chaturvedi, Subrat Singh Analyzing policy environment for securing
access and legal entitlements to Grazing lands
- Rajasthan scenario
Roch Mongbo Rural land regulation and precarious rangelands
in West Africa: lessons from northern Benin
Complex Commons
Room No.  3 A Panel Title Adaptive Learning for Improved Management of Commons
Proposed by Paul Thompson
Chair Sara Ahmed
Paul Thompson S u s t a i n a b i l i t y   o f   C o m m u n i t y   B a s e d
Organisations in Bangladesh
Parvin Sultana,Paul Thompson I m p l i c a t i o n s   o f   f l o o d p l a i n   a q u a c u l t u r e
Ashitava Halder,Anisul Islam C o - m a n a g e m e n t   o f   w e t l a n d s   a n d   i t s
contribution to the livelihoods of poor people
Parvin Sultana A d a p t i v e   l e a r n i n g   n e two r k s   f o r   imp r o v e d
floodplain management13 XXI TH
IASC 2011
Climate Change
Room No. 3 B Panel Title CIFOR Panel : Adaptation to Climate Change, Natural Resources and Institutions
Proposed by Bruno Locatelli
Chair Esther Mwangi
Claudia Rodriguez Land Use Change  and Adaptation to Climate
Variability and Change
Yunita Triwardani Winarto,
Hestu Prahara, Esti Anantasari,
Kristiyanto Rural Response to Climate Change: Lessons and
Challenges from Indonesia
Jephine Ajwala,
Emily Obonyo, Joseph Tanui,
Delia Catacutan, Jeremias Mowo Strengthening Local Institutions as Avenues for
Climate Change Resilience
Eric Coleman P r o p e r t y   R i g h t s   a n d   F o r e s t   A d a p t a t i o n :
H o u s e h o l d   E v i d e n c e f r o m   B o l i v i a ,   K e n y a ,
Mexico, and Uganda
* David Michel What Good Is Protecting the World’s Climate
System? Global Public Goods and International
Public Policymakin
New Commons (Knowledge)
Room No.  3 C Panel Title Knowledge Swaraj and Knowledge Commons
Proposed by: C. Shambu Prasad
Chair Shishir Jha
C. Shambu Prasad Agriculture and the New Commons: Insights
from SRI in India
M.V. Sastri The Gadfly as a Harbinger: Exploring Gandhi’s
Hind Swaraj and Oceanic Circles
Wiebe Bijker T o w a r d s   a   K n o w l e d g e   C o m m o n s   b y
R e c o g n i z i n g   t h e   P l u r a l i t y   o f   K n owl e d g e   -
Experiences with democratic governance of
science and technology
Theory, Analytics and Data
Room No.  3 D Panel Title IFRI PANEL: Lessons and Limitations of Comparative Research on Forests and Forest Commons
Proposed by Lauren Persha
Chair/ Coordinator Lauren Persha
Harini Nagendra, Elinor Ostrom Assessing forest change in human impacted
Lauren Persha,Arun Agarwal,
Ashwini Chhatre Vegetation diversity and forest-based livelihoods
relationships in forest commons in East Africa
and South East Asia
Pranab Mukhopadhyay,
Ingela Ternstrom, Rucha Ghate W e l l - b e i n g   o r   d e s t i t u t i o n   o f   l o c a l   f o r e s t
commons? An inquiry into the sustainability of
forest commons using multi-country data.
* Eduardo Araral Property Rights, Transaction Costs and Contract
Enforcement in the Commons: Evidence from
Developing Countries
Room No. 12
Gurunathan Arumugam Restoring Livelihoods: Backwater Fishing(11
min 43 sec)
Blake Ratner C a t a l y z i n g   c o l l e c t i v e   a c t i o n   i n   T o n l e   S a p
fisheries (Cambodia)(18 min)
11:45-12:00 hrs Tea/Coffee BreakXXII 13
IASC 2011
12:00-13:30 hrs
Poverty & Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No. 1 A Panel Title Addressing Pastoralist Concerns in the Highlands
Chair Vasant Saberwal
Undarga Sandagsuren Changing resource access and its impact on
pastureland management in Mongolia
Nurzhan Dzhumabaev Towards the multi-scale governance of the
‘commons’: a case from the Kyrgyz Republic
Gubo Qi, Fengyang Li,
Zhipu Long, Xiuli Xu, Tang Lixia Beyond environmental policy impacts: jointefforts on improving the effectiveness of pasture
management in Northwest China
Nabi kant Jha The Future of Pastoralism in Central Himalaya
u n d e r   C h a n g i n g   S c e n a r i o s   o f   N a t u r e
Changqing Yu Pastoralism and Rangeland Management in
China: Between Commons and Privates
Wenjun Li, Yanbo Li Managing Rangeland as a Complex Commons:
How Interventions on One Component Impact
the Whole
Governance (Forests)
Room No.  1 B Panel Title Contesting Rights and Reclaiming the Forest Commons
Proposed by Sirisha Naidu and Viren Lobo
Chair/ Coordinator Sirisha Naidu and Viren Lobo
Viren Lobo,
Rajesh Ramakrishna Implication of Forest Rights Act in the context
o f   s u s t a i n a b i l i t y   o f   f o r e s t s   a n d   r i g h t s   o f
individuals and communities - Special reference
to implementation of community rights
Sirisha Naidu The Local and the National: Analyzing the
Economic Implications of the Forest Rights Act,
* Sweta Mishra Chang ing  Cons e r v a t ion Pa r adi gm wi th  the
Enactment of Forest Rights Act: Scope and
* Jyothis Sathyapalan Interactions between the Implantation of Forest
Rights Act 2006 and the Participatory Forest
Management Programmes: A study from the
Western Ghats of India
* Rahul Saxena F a c i l i t a t i n g   C o m m u n i t y   C o n t r o l   a n d
Governance of Forest Resources in Himachal
Governance (Property Rights)
Room No.  1 C Panel Title IFRI-CIFOR co-hosted panel: Tenure reform, Resource Access and Conflict Resolution
in Forest  Commons
Proposed by Esther Mwangi
Chair Esther Mwangi
Johanna Clerc Tenure security and oil palm expansion on
customary lands in Indonesia, case study in
West Kalimantan
Moira Moeliono, Godwin Limberg The visible and invisible layers of tenure and
rights in National Parks: Cases from Indonesia13 XXIII TH
IASC 2011
Esther Mwangi, Heru Komarudin,
Emmanuel Luoga, Max Toxede,
Petrus Gunarso The struggle to defend resource rights: Actors,
strategies and outcomes in biofuels expansion
in Africa and Asia
Catherine Tucker A g a i n s t   t h e   o d d s :   C r e a t i n g   a   c ommu n i t y -
managed protected area on disputed land
Dianne Rocheleau Entangled Roots in Multiple Forest Commons
and Communities
Globalisation (Forests)
Room No.  2 A Panel Title Large-Scale Investments in the Forest Frontier: Customary Rights and Societal Stakes
Proposed by Laura German and Esther Mwangi
Chair/ Coordinator Laura German
Laura German A  Framework for Evaluating the Impacts of
Expanded Trade and Investment on Forests:
Customary Rights and Societal Stakes
George Schoneveld Customary Rights and Societal Stakes of Jatropha
Expansion in Ghana
Alois Mandondo Customary rights and societal stakes relating to
t h e   e x p a n s i o n   o f   t o b a c c o   i n   t h e  mi omb o
woodlands with particular reference to Malawi
Heru Komarudin,
Krystof Obidzinski, Rubeta Andriani,
Agus Andrianto Environmental and Social Impacts from Palm
based Biofuel Development in Indonesia
Jacob Mwitwa,
Fiona Paumgarten,
Laura German Evaluating the Impacts of Expanded Trade and
Investment in Mining on Forests: Customary
Rights and Societal Stakes in the Copper Belt of
Complex Commons (Coastal)
Room No.  2 B Panel Title EEPSEA-SANDEE Panel on Coastal Commons
Proposed by Herminia Francisco
Chair/ Coordinator Herminia Francisco
Alice Ferrer Evaluation of Fisheries Management Options for
the Visayan Sea, Philippines: The Case Of
Northern Iloilo
Prasenjit Sarkhel Behind New Barrier Walls: Private Contribution
f o r   E m b a n k m e n t   C o n s e r v a t i o n   i n   I n d i a n
Orapan Nabangchang,
Jin Jianjun, Truong Dang Thuy,
Anabeth Indab, Dieldre Harder,
Rodelio Subade. M o b i l i z i n g   R e s o u r c e s   f o r   M a r i n e   T u r t l e
C o n s e r v a t i o n   i n   A s i a   -   A   C r o s s - c o u n t r y
* Gazi Md Islam, Kusairi Noh, Tai Yew Assessing the Impact of Marine Protected Areas:
A case study of the Redang Island Marine Park
* Moenieba Isaacs Formalising the informal fishers - Small-scale
Fisheries Policy, Marine Protected Areas and its
impacts on fisher livelihoods in South Africa,
Case studies of Struisbaai and Arniston, South
Africa.XXIV 13
IASC 2011
Governance (Water)
Room No.  2 C Panel Title IWMI PANEL: Irrigation Governance : Lessons from Asia and Africa
Proposed by Everisto Mapedza
Chair Jesse Ribot
Aditi Mukherjee Irrigation reform in Asia: A review of 108 cases
of irrigation management transfer
Floriane Clement, Amare Haileslassie,
Madar Samad, Saba Ishaq Intersecting Water Productivity and Poverty:
Lessons from Ganga Basin
Everisto Mapedza, Fitsum Hagos,
Tilaye Deneke, Seleshi Bekele,
Aster Denekew,Barbara van Koppen The  Pol i t i c a l   E conomy  of   I r r i g a t ion  in  the
Amhara Region of Ethiopia
* Eduardo Araral What is the effect of decentralization in a large
scale common pool resource?
Governance (Community Rights)
Room No.  2 D Panel Title Dimensions of Collective Rights over CPRs
Chair/ Coordinator
Jose Lopes C ommo n l a n d s   a n d   L o c a l  De v e l o pme n t   i n
Northern Iberian Peninsula
An Le Van, Chuong Huynh Van Situation and Property Rights in Agricultural and
unused Lands Upland Of Vietnam
Lourdes Romero, Maria Rojas The   col l e c t i v e   r i ght s  of   l and  and wa t e r   in
Mexico, public policy and social resistance.
Suvarna Chandrappagari,
Venkat Raj Dyda Restoration of common lands for enhancing
livelihoods of rural communities: a case study
of GO-NGO collaboration in Andhra Pradesh
Elmien du Plessis African Customary Land Rights in a Private
Ownership Paradigm: Can the Commons help
secure tenure?
Room No.  3 A Panel Title Commons and Well-being: the Role of Governance
Proposed by Grant Murray, Lance Robinson, Christophe Bene, Leslie King
and Nireka Weeratunge
Chair/ Coordinator Grant Murray
Grant Murray, Leslie King First Nations Values in Processes and Outcomes
of Protected Area Governance
Lance Robinson Contingent Devolution and Community-Based
Conservation: When Values Align or Conflict
Fikret Berkes C o m m u n i t y - b a s e d   c o n s e r v a t i o n   a n d
livelihoods: what motivates communities?
* Lynn Palmer, Margaret (Peggy) Smith,
Chander Shahi Towards new institutional arrangements for
managing forest commons in northwestern
Climate Change
Room No. 3 B Panel Title IFRI-CIFOR co-hosted panel: Forests, Climate Change Mitigation,  and REDD: The Voice of
Local People
Proposed by William Sunderlin
Chair/ Coordinator William Sunderlin
Amy Duchelle,
Maria Fernanda Gebara, Raissa Guerra,
Galia Selaya, Simone Bauch, Jan Borner,
Peter Cronkleton, Peter May, Tadeu Melo,
Erin Sills, Sven Wunder Learning from first generation REDD projects
in Brazil and Bolivia13
IASC 2011
Prakash Kashwan, Rob Holahan Missing the Woods for the Carbon? Scrutinizing
C a r b o n   F o r e s t r y   P r o g r ams   f o r   S u s t a i n a b l e
Ida Aju Resosudarmo,
Andini Desita, Stibniati Atmadja,
William Sunderlin, Thu Ba Huynh,
Pangestuti Astri, Yayan Indriatmoko,
Dian Y Intarini L e a r n i n g   f r o m   R E D D :   f i e l d   i n s i g h t s   f r o m
Indonesia and Vietnam
Abdon Awono, Therese Dokken,
William Sunderlin REDD+ : A new support tool for improved
conservation and livelihood in Africa
Elizabeth Shapiro Is  De c e n t r a l i z a t i o n   E n o u g h ?   L e s s o n s   f r om
Mexico’s National Payments for Ecosystem
Services Program for the Targeting of REDD+
Leticia Merino For e s t  Communi t i e s   and  For e s t  Pol i c i e s   in
Mexico and their Contribution to the Mitigation
of the Globate Climate Change Process
New Commons (Knowledge)
Room No.  3 C Panel Title Traditional Knowledge and the Commons
Proposed by Gino Cocchiaro
Chair/ Coordinator Gino Cocchiaro
Gino Cocchiaro, Kabir Bavikatte I m p l e m e n t i n g   A   T r a d i t i o n a l   K n o w l e d g e
Commons: A Community Approach to Ensuring
the Local Integrity of Environmental Law and
Krishna Ravi Srinivas T r a d i t i o n a l   K n owl e d g e   A s / A n d   C ommo n s :
Where Do We (Want To) Go From Here
Kabir Bavikatte Environmental Law as Political Ecology: The
Roots of Biocultural Rights
* Margaret (Peggy) Smith Applying Indigenous Traditional Knowledge in
Forest Management in Canada: Moving Beyond
Theory, Analytics and Data
Room No. 3 D Panel Title Community Conservation and Livelihoods: Complimentary or Tradeoffs?
Chair K. V. Raju
L. I. Magole and L. Magole From Community Based to Community Driven;
The Evolution of the Commons Management
in the Okavango Delta, Botswana
Sanjukta Das Community Effort to Environment Protection
and Poverty Reduction in a Backward Area in
Iwen Ismarson,Shigeaki Fujisaki An  Institutional Analysis of Deforestation: A
Case Study on a Village Inside Bukit Barisan
Selatan National Park, West Lampung Regency,
Lampung Province, Indonesia
Manish Kumar, Poyyamoli Gopalsamy Vegetation surveys and institutional analysis for
understanding the selected Van-panchayats
systems in the Kumaun Himalayas
Verina Inram Governing Forest Commons in the Congo Basin:
Non-Timber Forest Product Value Chains
Bhaskar Vira Beyond Win Win: Interrogating the Evidence
on Ecosystem Service Related Synergies and
TradeoffsXXVI 13
IASC 2011
HM Ravnborg When New Water Users Emerge(10 min 29 sec)
Bitra Sada Siva Lifelines for Livelihoods (19 min 39 sec)
13:30-14:30 hrs Lunch and Poster Presentation at Arjuna Arcade
14:30-16:00 hrs
Poverty and Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No. 1 A Panel Title Dryland Pastoralists and their Rights
Chair Saverio Krätli
Mara Goldman P a s t o r a l i s t s  Un d e r   P r e s s u r e :  mo b i l i t y   a n d
property management in Tanzanian and Kenyan
Julie Snorek Diverse views of the causes of environmental
migration amongpastoralists in Northern Niger
Carolyn Lesorogol Grazing rights and practices in a privatized
commons in Kenya
Salaton Tome, John Kioko Envisioning communal use beyond communal
ownership: The future of Kenya’s Maasailand
after group ranch subdivision
Fiona Flinton, Adrian Cullis Participatory rangeland management: a solution
to problems in defining communal land tenure
in pastoral areas?
Han Wei, Du Ling S u p p o r t i n g   c o l l e c t i v e   a c t i o n   t h r o u g h
C o m m u n i t y   D e v e l o p m e n t   F u n d s :   A n
ins t i tut iona l   innov a t ion  for  he rde r  pov e r t y
reduction in Sichuan, China
Governance (Forests)
Room No.  1 B Panel Title Role of Community  in Forest Governance
Chair Sushil Saigal
Annamalai Venkatraman Gaon Ganrajya (Village Republic) Movement
in Rajasthan: Asserting Traditional Rights of
Tribes over Community Resources through
Legal Framework
Ayumi Sugimoto Decentralization and Ignored Local Dynamics:
a case study on CBFM in the Philippines
Abebe Beyene Forest Dependency, property rights and local
l e v e l   ins t i tut ions :   Empi r i c a l   e v idenc e   f rom
Mitul Baruah NGOs and Institutional Sustainability in Joint
F o r e s t   M a n a g e m e n t :   C a s e   S t u d i e s   f r o m
Banikanta Mishra, Birendra Nayak Effect of Joint Forest Management Programme
on Community Forest Management in Odisha
Governance (Property Rights)
Room No.  1 C Panel Title IFRI-CIFOR co-hosted panel: Tenure Reform, Resource Access and Conflict Resolution
in Forest Commons
Proposed by Esther Mwangi
Chair Esther Mwangi
Guillaume Lescuyer,
Samuel Assembe Mvondo,
Julienne Nadège Essoungou,
Vincent Toiso, Jean-François Trébuchon,
Nicolas Fauvet Logging Concessions and Domestic Forests in
Cameroon: Incompatibility, Indifference or
Peter Cronkleton Commons Diversity in Bolivia’s Forest Tenure
R e f o r m :   L e s s o n s   l e a r n e d   a n d   c o n t i n u e d
challenges for forest dependent people13 XXVII TH
IASC 2011
Jes Weigelt, Theo Rauch Truncated and Fragile Victories: On the
Outcomes of Forest Tenure Reform in Western
Purabi Bose Identity-based exclusion: tribal women’s forest
tenure rights in semi-arid Rajasthan
Paul Mathieu, Kirsten Andersen,
Julien Dupuy Legalization and certification of communal
rights to resources (land and forests): the difficult
path from intentions to implementation.
Globalisation (Migration)
Room No.  2 A Panel Title Rural out-migration and resource dependent communities in a globalized world
Proposed by Jim Robson and Prateep Nayak
Chair Jim Robson
Ana Martinez Demo g r a p h i c   f a c t o r s   imp a c t i n g   c ommo n s
management in Mexico
Ayari Pasquier Out-migration, local governance and collective
action in Southern Mexico
Silva Larson, Alex Smajgl From globalisation to local migration: System
study of the Greater Mekong Region
Aurelie Delisle, Natalie Stoeckl,
Helene Marsh M a i n t e n a n c e   o f   o n e ’ s   c u l t u r e   a n d   i t s
consequences on the management of traditional
sea resources
Jim Robson, Prateep Nayak Transforming ways of life: How out-migration
affects change in resource dependent societies
Complex commons (Coastal)
Room No.  2 B Panel Title The Man and Sea Interface: Lessons in Coastal Governance
Chair Doug Wilson
Neha Vaddiparti, Sheela Prasad Endangering the Commons- Special Economic
Zones Act, 2005: A Case Study of the Coastal
Belt of Andhra Pradesh, India
John Powell Maximising policy opportunities to enhance
c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d   m a r i n e   r e s o u r c e
Ho Van Thu, Simon Woodley,
Alison Cottrell Ba r r i e r s   to  e f f e c t i v e  mul t i l e v e l   gov e rnanc e
process in Marine Protected Areas in Vietnam.
Oscar Schmidt, Insa Theesfeld Elite Capture in Local Fishery Management –
Post-socialist Experiences from Albania
Mafaniso Hara Ecosystem Approach to Management in South
African Small Pelagic Fisheries
Governance (Water)
Room No.  2 C Panel Title Legal and Institutional Aspects of Water Governance
Chair Phillipe Cullet
Anne MacKinnon M a k i n g   t h e i r   o w n   w a y :   R e c o g n i z i n g   t h e
commons in water management, Wyoming
Paula Novo, Alberto Garrido,
Ruth. Meinzen-Dick Challenges in getting off the ground the new
Nicaraguan Water Law: from farmer groups to
formalized irrigation districts?
Govinda Basnet Delinking of water rights from landholding size
i n   a   f a r m e r ’ s   m a n a g e d   i r r i g a t i o n   s y s t e m :
Question of efficiency and equity
Sanjay Gupta,
Satya Prakesh Tucker,Humera Anjum The Public Trust Doctrine and Water as a PublicXXVIII 13
IASC 2011
Ruth Yabes, Sosima Demandante Multi-scalar Planning Processes and the Impacts
on Zanjeras
Claas Meyer,Andreas Thiel Ins t i tut iona l   chang e   in wa t e r  mana g ement
cooperation: implementing the European Water
Framework Directive in the Eastern German
Odra basin
Governance (Land Tenure)
Room No. 2 D Panel Title Land tenure - Issues and Solutions
Chair Liz Alden Wily
Betsy McCann Increasing Collaboration between Agricultural
D e v e l o p m e n t   a n d   L a n d   T e n u r e   R e f o r m
I n i t i a t i v e s   t o   P r o m o t e   I n d i g e n o u s   P u b l i c
Nimisha Shukla,Sudarshan Iyengar Governing of Commons: The Bhoodaan Way
Navita Sharma P a t t e r n s ,   U t i l i z a t i o n   a n d   M a n a g e m e n t   o f
Common Land: A Case Study of District Una,
Himachal Pradesh, India
Manoj Potapohn, Mana Southichack Socioeconomic consequences of large land
concessions in Southern & Northern villages of
Celia Futemma Property Rights, Social Movements, and Access
a n d  Us e   o f  Na t u r a l   R e s o u r c e s :   T h e   A f r o -
B r a z i l i a n   C o m m u n i t i e s   a n d   t h e   L a n d l e s s
Settlements, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Special Event (Book Panel Proposal)
Room No.  3 A Panel Title Long-term Performance of Innovative Development Interventions
Proposed by Wai Fung Lam
Wai Fung Lam Introduction and Background
Prachanda Pradhan H i s t o r i c a l   P e r s p e c t i v e s   o n   I n n o v a t i v e
Elinor Ostrom Institutional Opportunities and Constraints in
the Performance of Farmer-Managed Irrigation
Wai Fung Lam Evaluating an Innovative Design for Irrigation
Ganesh Shivakoti Post-Intervention Dynamics of Farmer-Managed
Irrigation Systems
Elinor Ostrom, Wai Fung Lam,
Prachanda Pradhan and Ganesh Shivakoti Synthesis and Conclusion
Climate Change
Room No. 3 B Panel Title Carbon, Livelihoods and Governance in the Forest Commons
Proposed by Sango Mahanty,  Suich Helen and Luca Tacconi
Chair/ Coordinator Sango Mahanty
Sango Mahanty, Luca Tacconi,
Suich Helen A c c e s s   a n d   B e n e f i t s   i n   P a y m e n t s   f o r
Environmental Services, Forest Conservation
and Climate Change: Lessons from a Global
Kate Schreckenberg, Leo Peskett,
Jessica Brown Help or hindrance? Impacts of carbon funding
o n   p a r t i c i p a t i o n   b y   t h e   p o o r   i n   f o r e s t
development activities
* Isilda Nhantumbo Ca rbon  c r edi t s :   a   r enewed oppor tuni t y   for
securing resources rights in Africa
* Craig Thorburn The REDD Rush in Indonesia13
IASC 2011
New Commons (Culture)
Room No.  3 C Panel Title Where Cultures are Held Together
Chair C. Shambu Prasad
Laura Dick, Ruth Meinzen-Dick The Congregational Commons
Walter Santagata, Enrico Bertacchini,
Giangiacomo Bravo, Massimo Marrelli Cultural Commons and Cultural Communities
Joseph Satish Indigenous Arts and Creative Commons
Francesca Cominelli Governing Cultural Commons: The Case of
Traditional Craftsmanship in France
Theory, Analytics and Data
Room No.  3 D Panel Title Political Economy of the Commons
Chair Chris Short
Yahua Wang Di a g n o s e   C omp l e x i t y   i n   S o c i a l - E c o l o g i c a l
System: Understanding Irrigation Institutional
Changes in Imperial China
Sony Pellissery, Benjamin Davy Social construction of commons: How could
‘mi x ed’  prope r t y   r e l a t ions  be come   subj e c t
matter of social policy arenas?
Jordan Levine, Edward Slingerland H o m o   e c o n o m i c u s   o r   H o m o   a n a l o g i c u s ?
Integrating Findings on Human Cognition into
the Study of Social-Ecological Systems
Eric Patrick, Terence Hay-Edie Resource rights, landscape designations and
e m p o w e r m e n t :   t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s   i n   t h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p   b e t w e e n   c o m m u n i t i e s   a n d
Abdullah Hossain,
Mazlin Mokhtar,
Mohd Ekhwan Toriman S o c i a l   l e a r n i n g   i n   f a c i n g   c h a l l e n g e s   o f
sustainable development: a case of Langat River
Basin, Malaysia
Brij Mohan Singh Rathore S e e i n g   b e y o n d   b o u n d a r i e s :   L a n d s c a p e
a p p r o a c h   t o   c o n s e r v a t i o n   a n d   l i v e l i h o o d
16:00-16:30 hrs Jesse Ribot Double Bladed Axe(49 min 41 sec)
16:30-18:00 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
Canopy Policy Forum-1
Coordinated by Securing the Rights of Common Property Users - Experiences
Michael Taylor from Latin America, Africa and Asia
Ben Cousins
Fiona Flinton
Liz Wily
Michael Taylor
Neelima Khetan
Sudarshan Iyengar
Paul Mathieu
Room No. 1 C Policy Forum-2
Coordinated by Pastoralism and Commons -
Purnendu Kavoori Beyond Sedentarisation and Sustainability
Kabir Bavikatte
Kazunobu Ikeya
Nurzhan Dzhumabaev
Purnendu Kavoori
Sagari Ramdas
Saverio KrätliXXX 13
IASC 2011
Policy Forum-3
Auditorium Coordinated by Placing (forest) Commons in a Landscape Perspective
Mike Smith
Andrew Wardell
Herman Rosa Chávez
Klaus Deininger (*TBC)
Mike Smith
Sharadchandra Lele
Conference Room Policy Forum-4
Coordinated  by Governing and Managing Common Property Resources
Ashwini Chhatre in the Face of Climate Change
A Damodaran
Ashwini Chhatre
Gopal Kadekodi
Jesse Ribot
William Sunderlin
Room No. 3 A Special Event
Book Release Disputing the Floodplains
Edited by Tobias Haller
18:30-18:45 hrs SAEP Award Ceremony
18 : 45 -19:30 hrs IASC Membership Meeting13 XXXI TH
IASC 2011
08:30-10:00 hrs Key Note Speeches
David Bollier
Bina Agarwal
10:00-10:15 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
10:15-11:45 hrs
Poverty and Social Exclusion (Gender)
Room No. 1 A Panel Title Commons from a Gender Perspective -an Essential Approach
Chair Amita Shah
Rachel DeMotts Weaving and Leading: A Gendered View of
Community-Based Conservation in Namibia
Archana Jetti Mi c r o f i n a n c e ,  Ge n d e r   a n d   t h e   C ommo n s :
Current Challenges and Future Possibilities.
Diaminatou Sanogo, Innocent Butare,
Celestin Kabatou, Patrick Gomis The challenge of ownership in the communal
management of natural resources by the local
political decision makers and that of taking
gender into account: the case of protected areas
in Senegal
Sita Zougouri C o m m o n   r e s o u r c e   m a n a g e m e n t ,   p o w e r
dynamics among local actors: how women
struggle for their access to wood market in
Burkina Faso
Deepshikha Mehra Lead role of women in local forest governance
guarantee gender equity in costs and benefits
from forests? A study of four case studies from
Vidarbha Region in Maharashtra
Governance (Institutions)
Room No.  1 B Panel Title IFRI PANEL : Understanding Commons Institutions and Interactions across Scales
Proposed By Ashwini Chhatre
Chair/ Coordinator Ashwini Chhatre
Lekha Knuffman S o c i a l   C a p i t a l   a n d   C o o p e r a t i o n   o n   t h e
C o m m o n s   -   G r o u n d w a t e r   G o v e r n a n c e   i n
Central and Western India
Dil Bahadur Khatri P a y m e n t s   f o r   E n v i r o n m e n t a l   S e r v i c e s   i n
Kulekhani Watershed of Nepal: An institutional
a n a l y s i s   o f   m e c h a n i s m s   f o r   s h a r i n g
hydroelectricity revenue
Hemant Ojha, Naya S Paudel The Evolution of Institutions for Cross-scale
Interactions in the Management of Commons:
The Case of Community Forest User Groups
Federation in Nepal
Krister Andersson, Jean Paul Benavides,
Patricia Uberhuaga, Rosario Leon Forest Decentralization and property rights: an
analysis of comunity forestry in BoliviaXXXII 13
IASC 2011
Governance (Decentralization)
Room No. 1 C Panel Title IFRI PANEL: Dynamics of Natural Resource Policy Decentralization in Asia
Proposed by Ganesh Shivakoti
Chair/ Coordinator Ganesh Shivakoti
Mahdi Mahdi, Ganesh Shivakoti Decentralization of Forest Management, Local
Institutional Capacity and its Effect on Access
of Local People to Forest Resources: the Case
of West Sumatra, Indonesia
Om Katel, Dietrich Schmidt-vogt Forest, People and Livelihoods: The need for
pa r t i c ipa tor y  mana g ement   in  J i gme   S ing y e
Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan
Thang Tran, Makoto Inoue Changes in Property Rights, Forest Use and
Forest Dependency of Katu Communities in
Nam Dong District, Thua Thien Hue Province,
Ganesh Shivakoti, Birendra K. Karna Evaluating decentralized, semi-decentralized
and centralized forest management regimes in
Zhu Ting, Chen Haiyun, Ganesh Shivakoti Community-based Co-management Mechanism
o f   F o r e s t   R e s o u r c e s :   A   C a s e   S t u d y   o f
Baishuijiang National Natural Reserve, China
Complex Commons (Coastal)
Room No.  2 A Panel Title Coastal Lagoons as Complex Human-Environment Systems: Implications for Sustainability
Proposed by Prateep Nayak and Sarah Coulthard
Chair/ Coordinator Prateep Nayak
Prateep Nayak, Sarah Coulthard L a g o o n   s y s t e m s   a s   p l a t f o r m s   f o r   s h a r i n g
knowl edg e :   Soc i a l - e colog i c a l   r e spons e s   to
reduced access to commons, and dynamic
environmental changes
Erwin Rathnaweera, Jayantha Gunasekara L o s s   o f   a c c e s s   r i g h t s   l e a d s   t o   c o l l a p s e   o f
traditional fisheries governance and rise of
conflicts: A case from Malala and Ebillakela
lagoons in Sri Lanka
Truong Tuyen Property rights analysis and rights allocation for
co-management in Tam Giang lagoon, Vietnam
Hari Ragavan C o m m u n i t y - b a s e d   M a n g r o v e   E c o s y s t e m
Regeneration: A case study in Malaysia.
* Maria Zita Toribio,
Marie Antonette Menez Value of good governance in governing the
I l l a n a   B a y   c o a s t a l   a n d   m a r i n e   c o m m o n s :
e x p e r i e n c e s   a n d   l e s s o n s   l e a r n e d   f r om  t h e
Philippine Environmental Governance Project
* Fiona Nunan,
Caroline Kirema-Mukasa Property rights and regimes: implications of
managing capacity through co-management on
Lake Victoria, East Africa
Poverty and Social Exclusion (Pastoralism)
Room No.  2 B Panel Title Challenges in Grazing Land Management
Chair Carolyn Lesorogol
Laamari Abdelali Adaptive management of common rangeland
in Morocco: A case study
Ayalew Cheru Resource-Based Inter-Group Conflict, the Role
of Pastoral Youths and Small Arms Proliferation
in Nomadic Areas of Ethiopia: The Case of the13 XXXIII TH
IASC 2011
Karrayu and Their Neighbors in the Upper
Awash Valley Region
Eric Coleman Mitigating the tragedy of the anti-commons:
Institutions and resource access after rangeland
privatization in Kenya’s Maasailand
Isaac Nkote Rational Choice Model: A Collective Action to
Managing CPR among the Conflicting Prune
Pastoralists - Farming Communities in Western
Prabhjyot Chhabra,
Abhijeet Phadkule, Abhay Anturkar,
Prashant Shivaranjan,
Raghav Chakrovarthy An alternative model for Governance of Gairan
(Grazing Land) in Maharashtra : A case study
Anil Kumar, B Trivedi Having no community land in resource poor
region creates a sustainable system: case study
of Kangayam grassland
Governance (Forests, Land Tenure and Wildlife)
Room No.  2 C Panel Title Commons Research in Latin America
Proposed by Gabriela Lichtenstein and Jim Robson
Chair/ Coordinator Gabriela Lichtenstein
Gabriela Lichtenstein, Jim Robson C ommo n s   R e s e a r c h   i n   L a t i n   Ame r i c a :   A n
David Bray The Enchantment of Community: The
Commons and Forest Enterprises in Mexico
Anne Larson, Iliana Monterroso T h e  Dy n ami c   F o r e s t   C ommo n s   o f   C e n t r a l
America: Research and Practice
* Concepcion Alvarez,
Miguel Garcia,Hilda Hernandez,
Sebastiao Kengen Sustainable Forestry Development Based On
Community Forestry: Trends and Efforts of
Chang e   Suppor t ed By   the   For e s t  Pol i c y   in
Globalisation (Land Rights)
Room No.  2 D Panel Title Land Grabbing and Pressures to Commercialize: Experiences and Responses
by Rural Communities
Proposed by Ruth Hall
Chair/ Coordinator  Ruth Hall
Ruth Hall The Many Faces of the Investor Rush in Southern
Africa: Towards a Typology of Commercial Land
Deals and Implications for the Commons
Poul Wisborg Transnational land deals and the citizenship of
* Ahmad Dermawan An evaluation of timber plantation development
targets and implementation in Indonesia
* Masayuki Kawai Moderate Industrialization• and Commons:
Alternative Development Strategy to Oil Palm
Plantation in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
* Guillaume Lestrelin,
Jean-Christophe Castella,
Jeremy Bourgoin Territorialising sustainable development: The
politics of land-use planning in the Lao PDR
* Adrian Parr T h e   c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n   o f   c o m m o n - p o o l
resourcesXXXIV 13
IASC 2011
Climate Change
Room No. 3 A Panel Title Coping with Climate Change
Proposed by Insa Theesfeld and Edella Schlager
Chair/ Coordinator Insa Theesfeld
Insa Theesfeld, Oscar Schmidt Best practices to cope with climate change
i n d u c e d   c h a l l e n g e s   i n   a g r i c u l t u r a l   w a t e r
agencies. The cases of California, Germany, and
Ilona Otto-Banaszak, Piotr Matczak,
Justus Wesseler, Frank Wechsung T h e   R o l e   o f   S h a r e d   M e n t a l   M o d e l s   f o r
Adapt a t ion Pol i c i e s :  The  Re sul t s  of   E xpe r t
* Jiangyue Luo Ac t i v e  Adapt a t ion  to  the  Cl ima t e  Chang e :
Agency and Social Organization -A case study
in dry land rural community in China
* Desi Suyamto, Herry Purnomo,
Ratna Akiefnawati, Lutfy Abdullah Harnesing the Climate Commons: An agentbased modelling approach to reduce carbon
emission from deforestation and degradation
* Lysete Sandra Hernandez-Gamez Mov ing   f rom  Env i ronment a l   E conomi c s   to
Ecological Economics: what difference does it
make for forest management under the carbon
market framework?
Theory, Analytics and Data
Room No. 3 B Panel Title Theoretically Grounded and Grounded Theory
Chair N.C. Narayanan
Makoto Inoue Prototype design guidelines for ‘collaborative
governance’ of natural resource
Erling Berge, Margherita Pieraccini A  t h e o r e t i c a l l y   g r o u n d e d   c l a s s i f i c a t i o n   o f
European commons
Tine de Moor From common pastures to global commons. An
h i s t o r i c a l   p e r s p e c t i v e   o n   i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y
approaches to commons
Giangiacomo Bravo, Elena Vallino An  e x p e r i m e n t a l l y   g r o u n d e d   m o d e l   o f
common-pool resource management
Ulf Narloch, Unai Pascual, Adam Drucker S o c i a l   P r e f e r e n c e s   i n   C o n s e r v a t i o n   u n d e r
e x t e r n a l   r e w a r d s   a n d   t h e   r o l e   o f   g r o u p
h e t e r o g e n i t y   a n d   m a r k e t   o r i e n t a t i o n   :
Experimental evidence from the Andes
Hannu Autto A n t i - n o r m   a g r e e m e n t s   -   w h e n   t o   e x p e c t
New Commons (Digital)
Room No. 3 C Panel Title Access in new commons
Chair/ Coordinator
Padini Nirmal Understanding global knowledge-dynamics: A
c a s e - s t u d y   o f   N F S C ’ s   p r o j e c t ,   D i g i t a l
C ommu n i t y   A r c h i v i n g -   d o e s   i t   ‘ p r o t e c t   o r
plunder’ the indigenous knowledge of the Nari
Kurava community?
Vyakaranam Kameswari Computer Mediated Communities: Stretching
the boundaries?
Peter Hovmand,Gautam Yadama Digital Commons for Modeling Commons
Melanie Dulong de Rosnay Access to digital collections of public domain
works: an analysis of libraries and museums
contractual and technical restrictions to the
IASC 2011
Governance (Water)
Room No. 3 D Panel Title SANDEE Panel: Water Commons - Homogeneity, Dependence and Sustainability
Proposed by Arabinda Mishra
Chair/ Coordinator Arabinda Mishra
Devarajulu Suresh Kumar D o e s   D e v o l u t i o n   l e a d   t o   S u s t a i n a b i l i t y ?
E v i d e n c e   f r o m   P a r t i c i p a t o r y   W a t e r s h e d
Management in Southern India
Ram Chandra Bhattarai T r a n s a c t i o n   H a r d l y   C o s t s :   U n d e r s t a n d i n g
Collective Action in Farmer - Managed Irrigation
Systems in Nepal
Arabinda Mishra, Pranab Mukhopadhyay Dependence and Sustainability in Common
Groundwater Use in Maharashtra, India
* Andreas Thiel C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g   R e - s c a l i n g   o f   W a t e r
Governance in Portugal, Spain and Germany
* Sango Mahanty, Trung Dinh Dang Protecting the Water Commons in Vietnam’s
Craft Villages
Esther Blanco Experiments in the Colombian Fields (23 min
50 sec)
Purabi Bose Forest Rights:Jung Jungle aur Jungle ke Logon
ka (12 min)
11:45-12:00 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
12:00-13:30 hrs
Poverty and Social Exclusion
Room No. 1 A Panel Title Commons as a Source of Livelihood
Chair Jos Mooij
Dolly Menon C o l l e c t i o n s   f r o m   C o m m o n s   -   A   c r u c i a l
component of survival strategy of the poor
Klaus Seeland Poverty and Food Security in Indian Forests -
how to tackle both with what the commons
Bhaskar Sinha Achieving Conservation and Livelihood : A Case
Study from Orissa, India
Himadri Sinha Halting The Forest Degradation: Search for
Livelihood Based Forest Conservation in India
Ram Prakash, Khetra Mohapatra Contribution of Common Property Resources
to Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study
of Uttar Pradesh
Prince Adjei C o m b a t i n g   P o v e r t y   I n   D e p r i v e d   R u r a l
C o m m u n i t i e s   T o w a r d s   A c h i e v i n g   T h e
Millennium Development Goals: The Impact
A n d   C h a l l e n g e s   O f   L o c a l   G o v e r n m e n t
Structures of Ghana
Sushanta Sarma, Ishan Agrawal Commons for Internally Displaced Persons
(IDPs): Excluded from Policy
Poverty and Social Exclusion (Forests)
Room No.  1 B Panel Title IFRI Panel : Inequality in Forest Commons
Proposed by Krister Andersson
Chair/ Coordinator Krister Andersson
Krister Andersson Elite Capture in Forest Commons: Testing Ideas
about Mitigating Factors
Basundhara Bhattarai Rhetoric  and Reality: Enacting gender-based
inclusion in managing the Commons in NepalXXXVI 13
IASC 2011
Tadesse Gole, Getaneh Shoddo Social discrimination and forest resources use:
t h e   c a s e   o f   B o n g a   f o r e s t   i n   s o u t hwe s t e r n
Bishnu Sharma Contribution of Leasehold Forestry in Reducing
Poverty among Participating Households in
Bhim Adhikari Social Inequality and Collective Efficacy in
C o m m u n i t y - B a s e d   N a t u r a l   R e s o u r c e
Governance (Decentralisation)
Room No. 1 C Panel Title IFRI Panel : Dynamics of Natural Resource Policy Decentralization
Proposed by Arun Agarwal
Chair Ashwini Chhatre
Amy Poteete, Jesse Ribot Repertoires of Domination: Decentralization as
Process in Botswana and Senegal
Tom Koontz, Sucharita Sen C o m m u n i t y   R e s p o n s e s   t o   G o v e r n m e n t
Defunding of Water Projects: A Comparative
Study in India and the USA
Rucha Ghate, Suresh Ghate C o n s e r v a t i v e   a t t i t u d e   o f   f o r e s t   d w e l l i n g
c o m m u n i t i e s :   H o p e   f o r   J F M   t o   s u c c e e d -
Evidence from repeated field experiments in
Central India
Fred Nelson D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n   o r   R e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ?
I n s t i t u t i o n a l   T r e n d s   i n   N a t u r a l   R e s o u r c e
Governance in East and Southern Africa
Dharam Uprety,
Hemant Ojha and Kalpana Giri I n n o v a t i o n   s y s t e m s   i n   f o r e s t   r e s o u r c e s
management: Lessons learned from community
forestry programme of Nepal
* Dinesh Pratap Have the repeatedly modified community forest
management rules in Uttarakhand Himalaya
really empowered the community? A critical
Complex Commons (Coastal )
Room No.  2 A Panel Title Public Policies and Transnationalsation of Coastal Commons in India:
Implications for Governance
Proposed by Thomson Kaleekal
Chair/ Coordinator Thomson Kaleekal
Thomson Kaleekal State policies Transnational Adaptation and
Development future of coastal commons in
Antony Thomas The Impacts of Migration on Common Property
Management: A Study of Migrant Fishing Fleet
in India
Baiju Korankutty Institutional Dynamics of Local Self Governance
Systems in the Malabar Coast, Kerala
Joy Rosewine N a t i o n a l i s a t i o n ,   p r o p e r t y   r i g h t s   a n d   t h e
dilemmas of Coastal commons management in
Complex Commons (Protected Areas)
Room No.  2 B Panel Title Exclusive wilderness areas - a management approach
Chair David Bray
Papa Faye C o m m o n   P r o p e r t y   R i g h t s   a n d   C o l l e c t i v e
mobilization in the Somone Commune Natural
Reserve Management.13 XXXVII TH
IASC 2011
Esther Blanco, Gunn Elin Fedreheim National Parks in Norway as Socio-Ecological
S y s t e m s :   W i l d l i f e ,   C o n f l i c t   i n   U s e   a n d
Participatroy Planning
Daisaku Shimada How Can Societies Create Common Access to
Nature? The Roots and Development Process
of the Bruce Trail, a Canadian Case Study
Xavier Basurto Can Local Autonomy Contribute To Increase
Prot e c t ed Ar e a s ’  Pot ent i a l   For  Biodi v e r s i t y
Elvira Duran,David Bray,
Fernando Mondragon M u l t i - s c a l e   g o v e r n a n c e   a n d   I n d i g e n o u s /
Community Conserved Areas in Mexico
Samjhana Bista Impact Analysis And Decision Making Process
In Indigenous Park Management Under The
Valdivian Ecoregion, Southern Chile
(Forests, Land Tenure and Wildlife)
Room No. 2 C Panel Title Commons Research in Latin America
Proposed by Gabriela Lichtenstein  and Jim Robson
Chair/ Coordinator Jim Robson
Gabriela Lichtenstein S o u t h   Ame r i c a n   C ame l i d  Ma n a g eme n t   i n
Andean Countries: From Research to Policy
Pablo Pacheco Customary Rights and Societal Stakes Associated
with Competing Rights and Land-use Options
in Lowland Bolivia
Gabriela Ortiz,Leticia Merino C o m m o n s   T h e o r y   a n d   C o l l e c t i v e   F o r e s t
Property in Mexico. When formal recognition
of local rights is important, but not enough
* Maria Legorreta Diaz,
Conrado Marquez Rosano The Collective and the Individual: Social and
P o l i t i c a l   c h a l l e n g e s   t o   t h e   s u s t a i n a b l e
management of protected areas in Chiapas,
Globalisation (Land rights)
Room No.  2 D Panel Title The Fate of Commons under Global Commercial Pressures
Proposed by Michael Taylor
Chair/ Coordinator Lalji Desai
Dennis Fernandez Calvan H i g h l y   e x t r a c t i v e   f i s h i n g   a c t i v i t i e s   a n d
privatization of foreshore lands impacts on the
e v e r y d a y   l i v e s   o f   m u n i c i p l a   f i s h e r f o l k s   ,
Michael Odhiambo T h e   C ommo n s   u n d e r  Gl o b a l   C omme r c i a l
Pressures: Trends in Africa
Liz Wiley The Tragedy of Public Lands: The fate of the
commons under Global Commercial Pressure
Michael Taylor Responding to increased Commercial pressure
on the commons
Ward Anseeuw Commercial pressures on land within their
global context
Gine Zwartz Impact Analysis And Decision Making Process
In Indigenous Park Management Under The
Valdivian Ecoregion, Southern ChileXXXVIII 13
IASC 2011
Climate Change
Room No. 3 A Panel Title Confronting the Threats and Challenges of Climate Change
Chair Jesse Ribot
Katar Singh Tr a g edy  of   the  Globa l  Commons :  Caus e s ,
Impacts and Mitigation
Dorothea Konstantinidis,
Marco Gonzalez Challenges in Confronting Climate Change:
Rural communities, Commons, and Resilience
Aminur Rahman C l i m a t e   C h a n g e ,   G l o b a l   C o m m o n s   a n d
C o r r u p t i o n   i n   t h e   c o n t e x t   o f   S u n d a r b a n
Mangrove Forest in Bangladesh
Rajeswar Jonnalgadda,VP Jauhari,
Sanjay Gadhalay The Changing Climate of Carbon Accounting
at Commons
Richard Lloyd, Klaus Schmitt,
Hiep Trinh E f f e c t i v e  ma n a g eme n t   o f   c omp l e x   c o a s t a l
commons and increasing their resilience to
climate change through co-management - A
practical case study from the Mekong Delta
region, Vietnam
Achim Schlueter, Roger Madrigal,
Maria-Claudia Lopez C l i m a t e   c h a n g e   a n d   a d a p t a t i o n   o f   l o c a l
institutions in coastal areas of Costa Rica
Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 3 B Panel Title Customizing Commons: Methods for Diversifying Institutional Design
Proposed by Bryan Bruns
Chair/ Coordinator Bryan Bruns
Bryan Bruns De s i gn Pa t t e rns   for  Cus tomi z ing   I r r i g a t ion
Hijaba Ykhanbai, Samdan Tserendash,
Huyag-oshir Altantsetseg Community based Co-management of Pasture
and Forest Resources in Mongolia
Ananda Vadivelu Evolution of Property Rights Regimes in the
Groundwater Economy of India
* Philippe Cullet Regulation of Drinking Water Supply in Rural
Areas in India - from ‘Provision’ of Water by
the State to ‘Access’ through Decentralized
* Banikanta Mishra, Sagarika Mishra Participative Water Management in Industrial
a n d  No n - i n d u s t r i a l  Di s t r i c t s   o f  Od i s h a :   A
Comparison of Pre-1991 and Post-1991 Period
* Tine De Moor Participating is more important than winning.
The   Impa c t  of   Soc io- E conomi c  Chang e  on
Commoners’ Participation in 18th-19th-Century
New Commons (Genetic)
Room No. 3 C Panel Title Storehouses of genes - whose property?
Chair Kabir Bavikatte
Tom Dedeurwaerder Designing global genetic resource commons in
the digital age
Poonam Singh, Lalit Tyagi, Kuldeep Lal Global Genetic Resource Commons:Conflicting
regulatory framework in Intellectual Property
IASC 2011
Elena Lazos A g r o - b i o d i v e r s i t y   i n   M e x i c o :   a   c o m m o n
resource of rural communities or a property of
the transnational industry?
Katharina Glaab Sustainability and Legitimacy in Governance of
Agricultural Biotechnology
Vanaja Ramprasad Genetic Diversity in Seeds as Global Commons
Alternatives to protect the genetic diversity from
IPRs than by IPRs
Governance (Groundwater)
Room No. 3 D Panel Title Challenges to Groundwater Governance
Chair Himanshu Kulkarni
Manjunatha Arahalli Venkataronappa Can groundwater markets promote efficiency
in agricultural production?
Christian Kimmich Challenged commons: electricity governance
and provision for groundwater irrigation and the
impact on common-pool tank irrigation in dryland agriculture in Andhra Pradesh, India
Vikram Patil, Chandrakanth Mysore,
Gangadharappa N Decentralized Natural Resource Management:
Equi t y   Impa c t s  On Groundwa t e r  Re cha r g e
Through JFPM in India
Kaustubh Mahamuni,Devdutt Upasani Spr ing s :  A Common  Sour c e  of   a  Common
Room No. 13 Rika Harini Survival of Javanese Furniture (19 min 40 sec)
Kim Nong Clear as Mud (22 min)
13:30-14:30 hrs Lunch and Poster Presentation at Arjuna Arcade
14:30-16:00 hrs
Special Event
Room No. 1 A Panel Title A Commons Story: In the Rain Shadow of Green Revolution
Study Presentation and Panel  Discussion
Governance (Forests)
Room No. 1 B Panel Title Inside the natural resource bureaucracy: How does the internal organization of bureaucracies
affect natural resource management?
Proposed by Forrest Fleischman
Chair/ Coordinator Forrest Fleischman
Pushpendra  Rana Changing mandates but fixed mindsets: Forest
Bureaucracy in Western Himalayas
Gwen Arnold Assessing Wetland Assessment: The Role of
Bureaucratic Networks
Forrest Fleischman Un d e r s t a n d i n g  wh y   I n d i a n   f o r e s t   o f f i c i a l s
implement Joint Forest Management and the
F o r e s t   R i g h t s   A c t   d i f f e r e n t l y :   C a s e s   f r o m
Maharashtra & Andhra Pradesh
* Rohini Chaturvedi G r e e n i n g ’   F i s c a l   F e d e r a l i s m   i n   I n d i a :
Negotiating incentives for forest conservation
* Kalpana Giri D e v o l u t i o n ,   B u r e a u c r a c y   a n d   E c o n o m i c
I n n o v a t i o n s   i n   C o m m u n i t y   F o r e s t r y :
Emboldened rights or infra-politics?
* Nethmini Perera, Athula Senaratne Financing the Management of the Commons:
A case of the forestry sector in Sri LankaXL 13
IASC 2011
Governance (Legal framework)
Room No. 1 C Panel Title Boundaries of Authority, Identity and Space at the Interface between Formal State Law and
Local ‘Customary’ Law in Soth Africa
Proposed by Ben Cousins
Chair/ Coordinator Ben Cousins
Ben Cousins The politics of scale: Nested land rights and
flexible boundaries in Msinga District, South
Aninka Claassens C o n t e s t e d   p o w e r   a n d   a p a r t h e i d   t r i b a l
boundaries: Recent laws and struggles over land
Sindiso Mnisi Layers of Authority, Boundaries of DecisionMaking: Controversies around the Traditional
Courts Bill
Mazibuko Jara C o n t e s t e d   b o u n d a r i e s :   C o n t r a d i c t i o n s   o f
democratic change and reassertion of traditional
power in a former apartheid homeland
* Munyaradzi Saruchera, Frank Matose Land Rights, land reforms and community based
Natural Resources Management: Insights from
South Africa
* Ward Anseeuw, Emmanuelle Bouquet Policy Making  and the Demand from Below:
P o s i t i o n s   a n d   P a r t i c i p a t i o n   T o w a r d s   t h e
Development of the Communal Land Rights Act
in South Africa
Complex Commons (Coastal )
Room No.  2 A Panel Title Governing Coastal Resources - All the Stakes
Chair V. Vivekanandan
Astrid Meilasari-Sugiana Community Dynamics and Natural Resource
Governance: Building Adaptive Management
Capacity for Increased Social Capability
Shimpei Iwasaki C r o s s - S c a l e   L i n k a g e s   f o r   E n v i r o n m e n t a l
Conservation and Its Potential: A Focus of
Natural Resource Management Network in
Kuraburi Estuary, Thailand
Martin Robards, Randall Reeves Governance of Marine Mammal Harvests for
Human Consumption
Maria Espinosa Involving stakeholder values and science for the
marine resources management
DG Webster International Fisheris: How do we get ther from
Audun Sandberg Harnessing complexity - European approaches
to governing coastal commons
Complex Commons
Room No. 2 B Panel Title Commons-In the argument of managing and mismanaging
Chair Xavier Basurto
Salla Rantala, Heini Vihemaki Human impacts of displacement from protected
areas: lessons from the establishment of the
Derema Corridor, north-eastern Tanzania
Lucy Rist, Charlie Shackleton,
R Uma Shaanker Dich o t o m i e s   i n   F o r e s t   M a n a g e m e n t :   t h e
C o n t r a s t i n g   P e r s p e c t i v e s   o f   C ommu n i t i e s ,
Managers and Scientists
Zelealem Ashenafi S h a r e d   G o v e r n a n c e   i n   C o n s e r v a t i o n   o f
B i o d i v e r s i t y :   C ommu n i t y   C o n s e r v e d   A r e a
Protecting the Endangered and Rare Biodiversity
Andrea Davis Consequences of ‘Conservation’: A Critical
Look at Namibian Communal Conservancies13 XLI TH
IASC 2011
Mohammad Khan Chevron’s seismic survey, USAID’s Nishorgo
P r o j e c t ,   t h e   L a w a c h a r a   N a t i o n a l   P a r k   o f
Bangladesh: a critical review
Jorge Maldonado,
Rocio Moreno-Sanchez E v a l u a t i n g   t h e   r o l e   o f   c o - m a n a g e m e n t   i n
improving governance of marine protected
a r e a s :   a n   e x p e r i m e n t a l   a p p r o a c h   i n   t h e
Colombian Caribbean
Asuncion Asetre, Sonia Vargas The Management of and Conservation Practices
a t   A g o j o   M a r i n e   P a r k   a n d   S a n c t u a r y   i n
Catanduanes: Convergence of Initiatives for EcoGovernance
Room No.  2 C Panel Title CPR Governance: The North Eastern Indian Scenario
Proposed by Walter Fernandes
Chair/ Coordinator Walter Fernandes
Mahendra Lama C l i m a t e   C h a n g e   a n d   N a t u r a l   R e s o u r c e s
M a n a g e m e n t   i n   E a s t e r n   H i m a l a y a s :   A
Livelihood Perspective
Walter Fernandes,
Melvil Pereira, Gita Bharali Common Resources, Community Management
and Tribal Administration in Northeast India
Gita Bharali Common Property Resources in the Northeast
Walter Fernades Tribal Commons and Conflicts in Manipur and
Tripura in Northeast India
* Wati Walling Legal Pluralism and the Commons in the NorthEast India: Reading the Emerging Landlessness
Issue in Nagaland
* Neena Rao Globa l i z a t ion,  Comme r c i a l i z a t ion  and  the
Commons: Nagaland (India) - A Case Study
Room No. 2 D Panel Title Commons under Threat
Chair Fiona Flinton
Sudhir Pattnaik, Banikanta Mishra,
Devendra Sahoo S u k i n d a   P a t a :   A   C a s e - S t u d y   o n   C h a n g i n g
P e r s p e c t i v e s   o f   C o m m o n s   a n d   C o m m o n s
Management due to Industrialization in Odisha
Prajna Mishra, M Gopinath Reddy T h r e a t   t o   F o r e s t   C o m m o n s :   M a p p i n g   t h e
Livelihoods of Mining induced Communities
Himadri Sinha, Shailendra Mishra Forest Management in Central India: Conflicting
A g g l o m e r a t i o n   o f   M a o i s t ,   D i s p l a c e m e n t ,
Poverty and Conservation of Forest
Jennifer Baka Is There Such A Thing as Wasteland? Biofuels
and Wasteland Development in Tamil Nadu,
Torsten Krause W h o s e   v a l u e s   a n d   v a l u a b l e   f o r   w h o m ?
Biodiversity as global commons and the YasuniITT initiative
Miles Kenney-Lazar T h r e a t s   t o   c o m m o n   f o r e s t   r e s o u r c e s   a n d
resource regimes: plantation development in
LaosXLII 13
IASC 2011
Climate Change
Room No. 3 A Panel Title Carbon Incentives across Continents
Chair Anne Larson
Maria Gebara Benefits Sharing Mechanisms for REDD+: How
t o   e q u i t a b l y   s h a r e   b e n e f i t s   a m o n g   f o r e s t
Thi Hong Nhung Nghiem O p t i m a l   F o r e s t   M a n a g e m e n t   f o r   C a r b o n
Sequestration: A Case Study of Household
Forest Owners and State Enterprises in Yen Bai
Province, Vietnam
Gamma Galudra, Ujjwal Pradhan, Suyanto Hot Spot Emission and Confusion: Property
R i g h t s   I n s e c u r i t y ,   C o n t e s t e d   P o l i c i e s   a n d
Competing Claims in the Central Kalimantan
Ex-Mega Rice Project Area
Purity Osumba, Roxventa Ongugo,
Esther Njagi, Vienna Owich Pa y  Ba c k  Ant i c ipa t ion:  A Dr i v ing   For c e   in
C o m m u n i t i e s ’   P a r t i c i p a t i o n   t o   F o r e s t
G. Chandrashekar Reddy I n t e g r a t i o n   o f   C l ima t e   C h a n g e   A d a p t a t i o n
Strategy with the Watershed Based Sustainable
Rural Livelihood Approach
Bhaskar Sinha, Anoma Basu,
Anuj Katiyar Adapting to climate change: Opportunities
under NREGA
Theory, Analytics and Data
Room No. 3 B Panel Title What does it really take to do system dynamics with communities? Lessons from the field
Proposed by Peter Homvad
Chair/ Coordinator Peter Homvad/ Gautam Yadama
Kumar Rupam, Yash Shethia, Venkat Raj System dynamics modeling in Rajasthan: NGO
Dan Conner S y s t e m   d y n a m i c s   m o d e l i n g   i n   R a j a s t h a n :
student perspective
Gautam Yadama, Peter Hovmand,
Nishesh Chalise, Venkat Raj System Dynamics Modeling of Livelihoods and
Forest Commons in Dryland Communities of
Andhra Pradesh, India
Peter Hovmand System dynamics modeling with communities:
modeler perspective
Gautam Yadama S y s t em  d y n ami c s  mo d e l i n g   a t   t h e  Wi n t e r
Institute: faculty perspective
Gautam Yadama, John Peipert Disentangling Drivers of Fuelwood Collection
f r o m   F o r e s t   C o m m o n s :   I m p r o v e d   S t o v e
P r o g r a m s   v e r s u s   P a r t i c i p a t o r y   F o r e s t
New Commons (Knowledge)
Room No. 3 C Panel Title Where Knowledge Knows No Barriers
Chair Shiv Visvanathan
Shishir Jha Towards Examining A Spill Over Economy
Vibodh Parthasarathi Advocacy on Knowledge Commons: Framing
Information, Institutions, Infrastructure
Mai Phillips E n v i r o n m e n t a l   a n d   S u s t a i n a b i l i t y   O n l i n e
Courses-A New Common
Senthil Ganesh U n r a v e l i n g   t h e   I d e a   o f   ‘ C o m m o n s ’ •   i n
Employment Relations13 XLIII TH
IASC 2011
Anita Cheria C o n s t r u c t i n g   m i n d s c a p e s :   V o c a b u l a r y   o f
George Por F r amewo r k   f o r   a u gme n t i n g   t h e   c o l l e c t i v e
intelligence of the ecosystem of commons-based
Governance (Groundwater)
Room No. 3 D Panel Title Approaches to Participatory Groundwater Management
Chair Himanshu Kulkarni
Himanshu Kulkarni, PS Vijay Shankar,
Sunderrajan Krishnan G r o u n d w a t e r   g o v e r n a n c e :   b a c k i n g   C P R
principles with a process-based approach
Chandrakanth Mysore Groundwater conservation and management in
India: Application of IoS and Wade frameworks
Nagaraj Nareppa, Koichi Fujita Water crisis in India: Innovative Approaches and
Policy Imperatives for Sustainable Management
of Groundwater Resource
Harshvardhan Dhawan,
Himanshu Kulkarni, Devdutt Upasani,
Amit Upamanyu T y p o l o g i c a l   A p p r o a c h   f o r   G r o u n d w a t e r
Ma n a g eme n t :   P r o t o c o l s   d e v e l o pme n t   a n d
Neha Singh, N C Narayanan Efficacy of Ground Water as Commons’ An
E n q u i r y   i n t o   t h e   I m p l e m e n t a t i o n   o f
Groundwater (Control and Regulation)Bill of
1992 in selected States in India
Daniel Matz, Stephen Moysey,
Ravindranath Rangoori Investigation of the Impact of the Commonland
Protection on Water Resources in Rural India
using Geo-hydrological Methods’
Himanshu Kulkarni G r o u n d w a t e r   m a n a g e m e n t   t h r o u g h   t h e
‘commons’ lens: recognizing complexity
Kusum Athukorala,Ranjith Ratnayake Us e   o f   V i s u a l  me d i a   f o r   p r o t e c t i n g   r i v e r s
endangered by illicit river sand mining in Sri
16:00- 16:30 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
16:30-18:00 hrs
Conference Room Policy Forum-5 Policy Shifts, Implications for Water Access and Latitude for Water
Coordinated by
N.C. Narayanan Daniel Chavez
NC Narayanan
Ramaswamy Iyer
SP Tucker
Sunita Narain
Auditorium Policy Forum-6 Food Security, Commons and Entitlements - Towards Strategic Solutions
Coordinated by
P. Soma Kishore Jos Mooij
Kavita Srivastava
Regina Birner
Satheesh PV
Tasmin Rajotte
Tom ArnoldXLIV 13
IASC 2011
Room No. 1 C Policy Forum-7 How Much Nature Can We Risk Privatizing?: Potentials and Dangers of Valuing Nature’s
Coordinated by
Haripriya Aban Marker Kabraji (*TBC)
Gundimeda Haripriya Gundimeda
Hem Pandey (*TBC)
Pavan Sukhdev
Canopy Panel Discussion-1 Between the Sea and the Land: Complex Commons at the Interface of
Marine-Terrestrial Systems
Coordinated by
Prateep Nayak Arun Agarwal
Elinor Ostrom
Fikret Birkes
John Kurien
Maarten Bavinck
Room No. 3 A Special Event Book Release
Commercial Pressures on Land : Global Research Series
International Land Coalition (Michael Taylor)
Organised by: Kalpavriksh
Chair:  Ashish Kothari
Room No. 2 E 10.30 – 10.45 hrs Milind Wani Welcome and Introduction
10.45 – 16.00 hrs Neema Pathak Introduction to ICCAs, and issues facing them
in India and Globally
Fred Nelson ICCAs as politically contested commons, recent
trends in South Africa
Devaji Tofa/Mohan Hirabai Hiralal Use of Forest Rights Act (FRA) for strengthening
Ingrid Hartmann Somaliland - Between privates and common
Claudia Isable ICCAs – A Mexican Experience
Aranyak Kokaijana Forests in Assam
Naya Paudal   ICCAs in Nepal, a process towards federation
Tushar Dash CCA Federations in Orissa
Gary Martin A  rights based approach to manage complex
commons – Malaysia
Terence  Nancy Support to ICCAs experiences from the Small
Grants Programme (SGP partner)
Ashish Kothari Open Discussion and Concluding Remarks
19:30-22:30 hrs Conference Dinner at Chowmahalla Palace13
IASC 2011
Sheep and Goat Rearers’ Associations;
People’s rights over forest lands; Rev e g e t a t i o n   o f   c u s t o m a r y   c o m m o n
g r a z i n g   s p a c e s ;   I P R   r e l a t e d   i s s u e s
(Knowledge Commons)
Bio- fuel s   and GM Crops ;   food-fuel -
energy linkages; Community mobilization
a g a i n s t  Ge n e t i c a l l y  Mo d i f i e d   (GM)
Crops and Bio-fuel cultivation; Goat
and Sheep Rearers’ Associations.
Role of Self Help Groups(SHGs) and
their federations in ensuring financial
inclusion of women, especially those
from backward classes; role of these
institutions in strengthening livelihoods
o f  wome n ;   q u a l i t y   a s s e s sme n t   a n d
q u a l i t y   e n h a n c e m e n t - c r i t i c a l
component s  of   ins t i tut ion bui lding;
effective livestock management and
e c o - f a r m i n g ;   N o n - p e s t i c i d e
Management (NPM).
Joint Forest Management in Andhra
Pradesh; Community institutions and
t h e i r   F e d e r a t i o n s   e n g a g e d   i n
g o v e r n a n c e   o f   F o r e s t s ;  Ha r n e s s i n g
t r a d i t i o n a l   s k i l l s   o f   t h e   t r i b a l
c o m m u n i t i e s   t o   e n h a n c e   t h e i r
Introduction of GM Cotton-a challenge
t o   f a rme r s ;   A g r a r i a n   c r i s i s   a n d   t h e
e x t r eme   d i s t r e s s   f a c e d   b y   f a rme r s ;
C o m m u n i t y   i n i t i a t i v e s   t o   p r o m o t e
sustainable agricultural practices like
shunning pesticides, Refraining from
GM crops, etc; Organic agriculture.
Tank Management Practices; Conflicts
b e t w e e n   f i s h i n g   c o m m u n i t i e s   a n d
down- s t ream  f a rming  communi t ies ;
Role played by different stakeholdersfishermen, farmers, political leaders-in
governance of the tank; restoration of
fish production and marketing to the
local communities.
‘Ikkat’ Weaving-traditional knowledge;
weavers’ cooperatives, state of weaversc u r r e n t   c h a l l e n g e s   f a c e d   b y   t h em;
B h o o d a n  Mo v eme n t - l a n d   d o n a t i o n
m o v e m e n t   w h i c h   s t a r t e d   i n
P o c h a m p a l l y ,   u n d e r s t a n d i n g   t h e
genesis of the movement and its impact
on the different farming communities;
tank management-rules, regulations and
norms in place, how they have evolved,
challenges and threats.
Pastoralists and Agro-Pastoralists
o f   t h e   D e c c a n   R e g i o n — R e -
imagining the Future of Commons
C h a l l e n g e s   a n d   T h r e a t s   t o
Common Lands in the Deccan
Building Institutions for Women’s
Conflicts and Collaborations in
Protection and Management of
Securing Future of Agriculture:
Sustainable Agricultural Practices
for a Better Tomorrow
Ba l anc ing Conf l i c t ing  Interes t s
While Managing CPRs
Traditional Art Forms in the Face
of Changing Times: A Look at the
Ikkat Weavers of Poachampally
for People’s
Center for
Nalgonda and
70 kms, 1.5
110 kms, 2
180 kms, 3.5
70 kms, 2
100 kms, 2.5
120 kms, 2.5
45 kms, 1 hour
Field Visit Time: 7:30 AM - 6:30 PM
Title of the Field Visit Key Points to be Highlighted Coordinated
Location Distance & Time
EstimatedXLVI 13
IASC 2011
The issues of food and seed sovereignty
are absolutely critical to the poor and
the ma rgina l i sed of   Indi a ;  Working
towards achieving bio-diversity in food
g r a i n s ;   e c o l o g i c a l   p r a c t i c e s   o f
produc ing  food produc t ion  thereby
r e d u c i n g   d e p e n d e n c e   o n   c h emi c a l
inputs; Alternative public distribution
s y s t e m s ;   O n - f a r m   d i v e r s i t y ;   S e e d
shrines and bio-fertilizers, are some
issues that would be highlighted. In
a d d i t i o n ,   c o m m u n i t i e s ’   e f f o r t s   t o
a c h i e v e   s o v e r e i g n t y   o v e r   m e d i a
through community radio will also be
I n s t i t u t i o n s   i n v o l v e d   i n   t h e
management of lift irrigation systems;
Tank management by different usergroups viz. fishermen, farmers, etc;
S t a t u s   o f   g r o u n d w a t e r   a n d   t h e
mechanisms in place to manage the use
of the same; Use of State schemes like
M a h a t m a   G a n d h i   N a t i o n a l   R u r a l
E m p l o y m e n t   G u a r a n t e e   A c t   t o
rehabilitate the tank.
Integr a ted Wa ter shed Management ;
efficient and sustainable use of natural
r e s o u r c e s   l i k e   s o i l ,   r a i n w a t e r   a n d
g r o u n d w a t e r ;   t e c h n i c a l   i n p u t s   f o r
effective management of the watershed;
economic and social benefits that have
resulted from the interventions.
The city of Hyderabad is known for its
lakes and rock formations. A visit to
some of the lakes to understand the
impact of increasing encroachment and
r e c l a i m i n g   f o r   c o n s t r u c t i o n ;   R o c k
f o rma t i o n s   o f  Hy d e r a b a d—a n o t h e r
n o t a b l e   f e a t u r e   o f   t h e   c i t y — t o
understand their ecological and cultural
significance and the impact on them of
development activities.
H e r i t a g e   W a l k   f r o m   C h a r m i n a r   t o
Chowmahalla and a halt at Lal Bazaar—
the market for lac bangles; a visit to
Salarjung museum to understand the
times of the Nizams; and a visit to
Shilparamam. The aim of this field visit
is to gain an appreciation of the rich
culture and heritage of Hyderabad.
Small Tanks as CPRs, improtance of
s m a l l   t a n k s ,   c h a n g i n g   m a n a g e m e t
practicces with respect to small tanks,
r e v i v i n g   a n d   s t r e n g t h e n i n g   o f
community management of small tanks,
c r i t i c a l i t y   o f   s m a l l   t a n k s   t o w a r d s
strengthening local livelihoods.
Towards Achieving Sovereignty
over Food, Seeds, Markets and
C o m m u n i t y   M a n a g e m e n t   o f
Water Resources
Interface Between Science and
Natural History of Hyderabad
Ov e r v i ew  o f   t h e   C u l t u r a l   a n d
Natural Landscapes of Hyderabad
Community-Managed Traditoinal
S u r f a c e   I r r i g a t i o n   C o m m o n s
(Small Tanks) in the Telangana
Region of Andhra Pradesh
Save Our
Center for
and Chaityal
110 kms, 2
70 kms, 1
60 kms, 1
75 kms, 1 hr
Title of the Field Visit Key Points to be Highlighted Coordinated
Location Distance & Time
Estimated13 XLVII TH
IASC 2011
08:30-10:00 hrs Key Note Speeches
Ram Dayal Munda
Ashish Kothari
10:00-10:15 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
10:15-11:45 hrs
Poverty and Social Exclusion (Gender)
Room No. 1 A Panel Title CIFOR PANEL: Gender Dimensions in Forestry Research: Experiences and New Directions
Proposed by Yen Mai
Chair/ Coordinator Yen Mai
Yen Mai, Melinda Wan Gender analysis in forestry research: Looking
b a c k   a n d   m o v i n g   a h e a d   i n   i n t e r n a t i o n a l
Houria Djoudi, Maria Brockhaus Is adaptation to climate change gender neutral?
A case study from Northern Mali
Rika Irawati, Achmad Fauzan,
Melati Melati, Herry Purnomo Understanding Gender Role in Furniture Value
Chain Governance
Susan Nansereko Is Gender Relevant in Enhancing the Economic
C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s   o f   S m a l l - S c a l e   F u r n i t u r e
Enterprises? Exploring the Central Javanese
S m a l l - S c a l e   F u r n i t u r e   V a l u e   N e t w o r k s   i n
Governance (Forests)
Room No.  1 B Panel Title Contested and Negotiated Domains
Chair Gary Martin
Thomas Sikor, Son Hoang Forest commons? Smallholder tree plantations
in Vietnam
Alka Sabharwal Contested High Himalayas: State Conservation,
Tourism, Pastoralism and Borders
Rubina Nusrat Adaptation and Coexistence of Van Gujjars in
the Forests: A Success Story
Fiona Paumgarten The role of NTFPs in coping with crop shortfalls
and loss in two villages in South Africa
Brenda Parlee, Angela Angell D e c o n s t r u c t i n g   t h e   ‘ w i c k e d   n a t u r e ’   o f
unmanaged recreational land use in a rapid
resource development context: A case-study in
northeastern, Alberta, Canada
Preeta Dhar,Shalini Iyengar Treading an Uncommon Path
Room No. 1 C Panel Title Evolution from Tradition to Contemporary Commons in Japan
Proposed by Margaret McKean
Chair Margaret McKean
Margaret McKean, Gaku Mitsumata Changing Scholarship on Changing Commons
in Contemporary Japan
Haruo Saito A d m i n i s t r a t i v e   c e n t r a l i z a t i o n   t h r e a t e n s
commons-owning municipal sub-units: Property
Wards (zaisanku) in Toyota City, JapanXLVIII 13
IASC 2011
Gaku Mitsumata B u i l d i n g   S u s t a i n a b l e   C o m m u n i t i e s   o n   a
Foundation of Natural Resources: Examples
from the use and management of geothermal
hot springs
Tomohiko Ohno New institutions for managing watersheds: a
comparative analysis of watershed committees
in Japan
Room No. 2 A Panel Title Governing Environmental Resources Democratically
Chair Susan Buck
Regina Birner Towards Better Global Governance for Food
and Agriculture - How to Solve the Collective
Action Problem?
Ngeta Kabiri Democracy and Environmental Governance in
Giovanna Ricoveri Commons vs Commodities
Maurice Makoloo,Kevin Mugenya Projecting Voices from the grassroots: the case
f o r   C o m m u n i t y   B a s e d   N a t u r a l   R e s o u r c e s
Management in Kenya
Geetanjoy Sahu Dahanu Environmental Justice Movement in
Maharashtra, India
Anju Helen Bara Whose forest, Whose voices? Discriminatory
Practices in Forest Management
Complex commons (Protected Areas)
Room No. 2 B Panel Title Adaptive Management and Commons: Assessing the Linkages across Natural Resource Projects
Proposed by Chris Short
Chair Chris Short
Esther Blanco, Javier Lozano An evolutionary approach to wildlife damage
of economic activity
Doug Wilson I m p l i c a t i o n   o f   M a n a g e m e n t   S t r u c t u r e   f o r
Forging a Common Knowledge Base
Toshio Meguro Management of wildlife as a fugitive natural
resource: A case of wildlife conservation in a
savanna ecosystem in Africa
Chris Short Drainage, biodiversity and a landscape-scale
solution: reviewing a UK delivery model
* Felipe Montoya-Greenheck Marine Turtle Conservation and Community
Wellbeing in a Globalized Coastal town of
Costa Rica: Methodological Contributions
* Sonia Merino Community-Based Marine turtle’s conservation,
a complexity analysis
Complex commons
Room No. 2 C Panel Title Complex Commons, Land Tenure and Fisheries Reform Measures in South Africa and Elsewhere
Proposed by Henk Smith
Chair/ Coordinator Henk Smith
Wilmien Wicomb L a w   a n d   c o m p l e x   s y s t e m s :   f a c i l i t a t i n g
meaningful engagement between state law and
living customary law
Henk Smith Complex commons under threat of mining and
development: the process for and content of a
community veto13
IASC 2011
Tembeka Ngcukaitobi Customary Law as an incomplete theory: the
impact of land tenure reform law
* Dennis Calvan, Jay Martin Ablola C o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n   o f   C o a s t a l   A r e a s   i n
Calabarzon Area, Philippines
Complex commons (Biodiversity)
Room No. 2 D Panel Title Going Beyond Polarised Discourse: Integrating Biodiversity and Livelihood Concerns in
Riparian Ecosystems in Developing Countries
Proposed by Joy Kallarakal and Geoffrey Gooch
Chair/ Coordinator Joy Kallarakal and Geoffrey Gooch
Geoffrey Gooch L i v e D i v e r s e   -   O v e r c o m i n g   C o m b i n e d
Biophy s i c a l ,   Soc io- E conomi c   and Cul tur a l -
Spiritual Vulnerability
Geoffrey Gooch, Alistair Rieu-Clarke Institutions, value based strategies and policy
instruments for integrating biodiversity and
livelihood concerns in the context of developing
Yumiko Yasuda M a i n s t r e a m i n g   C o m m o n   P o o l   R e s o u r c e s :
Analysis of Integrated Policy Implementation
Farhad Mukhtarov Interpretative Analysis and Adaptive Capacity:
Local Communities in the Face of Conservation
Complex commons (Air and Water)
Room No. 3 A Panel Title SANDEE Panel: Air and Water Commons: Valuing Changes in Quality in South Asia
Proposed by Maddipati Narasimha Murty
Chair Maddipati Narasimha Murty
Usha Gupta Estimation of Welfare Losses from Urban Air
Pollution Using Panel Data from Household
Health Diaries
S C Gulati, Maddipati Murty A  Gene r a l i z ed Me thod of  Hedoni c  Pr i c e s :
Measuring Benefits from Reduced Urban Air
Pollution in City of Hyderabad in India
Jahangir Alam Children in the slums of Dhaka - Diarrhoea
Prevalence and its Implications
M Zakir Khan,Enamul Haque Red Wells, Green Wells and the Costs of Arsenic
Contamination in Bangladesh
* Nyoman Vipriyanti, I Tamba,
Agung Yadnyawati Model of Pollution Management on Badung
Governance (Forests)
Room No. 3 B Panel Title Facilitating Sustainability of Commons: Integrating Knowledge and Practice
Proposed by Nihal Jain
Chair/ Coordinator Nihal Jain
Nihal Jain P r o v i d i n g   i n c e n t i v e s   f o r   s u s t a i n a b i l i t y :
rationality beyond economic considerations
Nihit Jain, Kalpana Jain Or g a n i s a t i o n a l   c u l t u r e   s u i t i n g   t o
impl ement a t ion of  pa r t i c ipa tor y   s t r a t e g i e s :
lessons from management sciences
Kalpana Jain, Nihit Jain Promoting sustainable collective action: lessons
from behavioural sciences
* Krishna Singh Scientific Management of Private Forests under
the Lok Vaniki Act
* M. M. Roy Fodder from forests for livestock: future outlook
in the Indian contextL 13
IASC 2011
Governance (Decentralisation)
Room No. 3 C Panel Title IFRI-IFLEA Co Hosted PANEL: Forest Policy Decentralization in East Africa: Institutional and
Livelihoods Change in East African Forest Landscapes
Proposed by Franz Gatzweiler
Chair/ Coordinator Franz Gatzweiler
Abwoli Banana,G. Kajembe,
S. Tumwebaze,E. Luoga,M. M. Forest governance reforms in East Africa: A
comparative analysis of institutional, livelihood
and forest sustainability outcomes
Samuel Kimani,Paul O. Ongugo Ongugo,
Emily Kamau Conflicting Policies: Institutional Approaches
Towards Decentralization and Governance of
Common Pool Resources in Kenya
George Okwaro, Paul Ongugo,
Bernard Ngoda Institutions, livelihoods and forest dynamics:
The case of Ramogi and Mau forests In Kenya
Roxventa Ongugo Traditional Forest Use and Institutional Change:
Case Study of Loita Community Forest, Narok
South District, Kenya
* Joseph Bahati B r i d g i n g   t h e   g a p   b e t w e e n   F o r e s t r y   a n d
Agriculture: The Case for Mpigi District in
Governance (Legal framework:Water)
Room No. 3 D Panel Title Comprehending the complexities of Water Governance
Chair Everisto Mapedza
Paula Novo, Alberto Garrido The new Nicaraguan Water Law in context:
I n s t i t u t i o n s   a n d   c h a l l e n g e s   f o r   w a t e r
management and governance
Nitin Bassi, Dinesh Kumar R e f o r m s   f o r   E n d - u s e r s   b a s e d   I r r i g a t i o n
Management: Insight from Central India
Shilp Verma, Sunderrajan Krishnan River basin management and decentralized
water harvesting: The case of Meghal River
basin, Gujarat
Badra Kamaladasa Protecting of Reservations in Irrigation SchemesLegal, institutional and social Issues
Dinesh Kumar, Nitin Bassi, Harish Kumar Institutional Change Needs for Sustainable
Urban Water Management in India
Anjal Prakash Urbanization and the Rural Commons: Periurban water resources under transition in South
Room No. 12 Shri Prakash Delayed Justice (59 min 31 sec)
Helle Munk Ravnborg The Challenge of Local Water Governance
(11 min 30 sec)
11:45-12:00 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
12:00-13:30 hrs
Poverty and Social Exclusion
Room No. 1 A Panel Title Authority, Power and Social Exclusion: Conceptual & Methodological Perspectives
Proposed by Jes Weigelt and Prakash Kashwan
Chair/ Coordinator Jes Weigelt and Prakash Kashwan
Craig Johnson Violence and the Commons: An Epistemology
of Rights, Access and Exclusion13 LI TH
IASC 2011
Prakash Kashwan, Achim Schluter Sensing Subjectivities’: Methods for a Thick
U n d e r s t a n d i n g   o f   C o m p l e x   I n s t i t u t i o n a l
Thomas Sikor Viol enc e   and  the  Commons :  Dynami c s  of
Property and Authority
Sirisha Naidu T ime  Us e   a n d   L a b o r   C o n t r i b u t i o n s :   F o r   a
D i f f e r e n t   U n d e r s t a n d i n g   o f   C o l l e c t i v e
Jes Weigelt Tacit Knowledge Matters for the Reproduction
of Institutions (and Inequality): But How to
Actually Get a Grip on it Empirically?
Complex Commons (Wetlands and Forests)
Room No. 1 B Paner Title Rural Livelihoods and Protected Landscapes: Co-management in the Wetlands and
Forests of Bangladesh
Proposed by Jefferson Fox and Md Golam Mustafa
Chair/ Coordinator Md Golam Mustafa
Masud Momi Soc io- e conomi c  bene f i t s   for   r e sour c e  us e r
groups through the co-management in Alua
Beel, Bangladesh
Mahmudah Sultana I m p a c t s   o f   c o - m a n a g e m e n t   a c t i v i t i e s   o n
livelihoods in Satchari National Park
Rokeya Begum People’s livelihoods and involvement in coma n a g eme n t   o f  Ma d h u p u r  Na t i o n a l   P a r k ,
Afrin Akter People’s perceptions of environmental pollution
in Mokosh Beel, Bangladesh
Room No. 1 C Panel Title Goals for the Commons in an Urbanized and Industrialized Contemporary Japan
Proposed by Margaret McKean
Chair/ Coordinator Margaret McKean
Aiichiro Mogi The evolution of reservoir irrigation systems as
c o m m o n s   i n   t h e   d r y   c l i m a t e   r e g i o n   o f
contemporary Japan
Hiroe Ishihara Why Does Under-use/ Abandonment of CPRs
Matter to the Local Community?: Case study of
Tai district, Toyooka, Japan
Takeshi Murota F i s h e r y   C o m m o n s   i n   J a p a n :   T h e i r   L e g a l
Framework and Recent Crises
Norie Tamura Forests for the Fish: tree-planting by fishing
cooperatives for community environmental
Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 2 A Panel Title Collective Approaches to Sustaining Commons - The Inevitable Way Forward
Chair/ Coordinator
Ramana DV Addressing the Tragedy of Commons- through
‘social Capital’: Experiment and Experience
from India
Carmen Legorreta Daaz,
ConradoMarquez-Rosano The ‘trust factor’ in the management of forest
r e s o u r c e s   i n   r u r a l   c ommu n i t i e s   i n   c e n t r a l
MexicoLII 13
IASC 2011
Nicola Francesconi An Empirical Diagnostic of Collective Action
in Rural Ghana
Dimitrios Zikos, Alevgul Sorman E x p l o r i n g   t h e   P o l i t i c a l   I m p l i c a t i o n s   o f
Experiments on Common Pool Resources
Vivek Vyas, Shailendra Tiwari Whither Common Properties : Learnings from
the field
Christine Werthmann, M Kirk Experiences in collective action influence trust
and reciprocity Experimental findings from
Cambodia and Vietnam
Complex Commons
Room No. 2 B Panel Title ‘Valuing’ Ecosystem Services
Chair Fred Nelson
Sylvain Pioch, Julien Hay E c o s y s t e m   s e r v i c e s   a s   c o m m o n   p r o p e r t y
Chetan Agarwal Relooking incentives for environmental services
at multiple scales in India
Victor Phillips P a y m e n t s   f o r   E c o s y s t e m   S e r v i c e s   i n   t h e
Anita Paul, Kalyan Paul Fore s t s   a n d  Wa t e r :   S e c u r i n g   a   B a l a n c e   i n
Mountain Ecosystems
Sarah Klain Spatial stakeholder engagement method related
to marine ecosystem services
Nuhu Sulemana Incentives for Farmers for the Management of
On-Farm Timber Trees in Ghana
New Commons (Urban )
Room No. 2 C Panel Title Analysing governace dilemmas in Megacity development -a case of Hyderabad
Proposed by Markus Hanisch, Konrad Hagedorn, Dimitrios Zikos and Christine Werthmann
Chair/ Coordinator Christine Werthmann
Kai Rommel, Julian Sagebiel D e - c e n t r a l   p o w e r   g e n e r a t i o n   a s   s u i t a b l e
s u p p l e m e n t   t o   u r b a n   p o w e r   d i s t r i b u t i o n
systems? Results from a consumer behaviour
analysis in Hyderabad
Rajeshwari Mallegowda,
Zakir Hussain and Markus Hanisch Pesticide Residues in Urban Water BodiesO r g a n i c   F a r m i n g   a s   a   C o m m u n i t y   B a s e d
Mitigation Strategy in Hyderabad Peri-Urban
Angela Jain,Hans Dienel Ro a d   s p a c e   i n   H y d e r a b a d   a s   a n   U r b a n
Common: Otto von Gierke’s cooperative law
applied to the discussion on the use of road
space in Hyderabad
Bhuvanachithra Chidambaram V e h i c l e   Emi s s i o n   S imu l a t i o n  Mo d e l   f o r   a
sustainable’greener’ transport system
Ruhi Gandhi, Konrad Hagedorn Climate change impacts on the food chain in
case of emerging megacities
Complex Commons (Biodiversity)
Room No. 2 D Panel Title Going Beyond Polarised Discourse: Integrating Biodiversity and Livelihood Concerns  in
Riparian Ecosystems in Developing Countries
Proposed by Joy Kallarakal and Geoffrey Gooch
Chair/ Coordinator Joy Kallarakal and Geoffrey Gooch
Karen Nortje, Marius Claassen,
Nikki Funke, Maronel Steyn Understanding the role of public belief systems
in perceptions of bio-physical, socio-economic
and cultural-spiritual vulnerabilities through the
use of an emergent analytical framework13 LIII TH
IASC 2011
Jetske Bouma, KJ Joy, Vu Cong Lan,
Alexander Lopez Ramirez
and Maronel Steyn Poverty, livelihoods and the conservation of
nature in biodiversity hotspots around the world
Geoffrey Gooch I n n o v a t i v e   A n a l y t i c a l   F r a m e w o r k   a n d
Methodology for the Study of BiodiversityVulnerability-Livelihood Nexus
Joy Kallarakal, Suhas Paranjpe E x p l o r i n g   I n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s   b e t w e e n
Biodiversity and Cultural-Spiritual Diversity and
De v e l o pme n t   o f  Dr i v e r   S p e c i f i c   C u l t u r a l -
S p i r i t u a l   V u l n e r a b i l i t y   I n d i c e s   i n   R i p a r i a n
Systems in Some developing countries
Global Commons (Managing Uncertainties)
Room No. 3 A Panel Title SANDEE PANEL: Commons and Natural Disaster Management - Natural Barriers,  Adaptive
strategies, Insurance and Aid
Proposed by Priya Shyamsundar
Chair/ Coordinator Priya Shyamsundar
Saudamini Das S u s t a i n i n g   m a n g r o v e   f o r e s t s   t o   r e d u c e
vulnerability from climate change
Sakib Mahmud, Edward Barbier Are Private Defensive Expenditures against
Storm Damages Affected by Public Programs
and Natural Barriers? Evidence from Bangladesh
Coastal Areas
Santadas Ghosh Ma n g r o v e s ,   C r e e k s   a n d   R e s e r v e   F o r e s t   a s
Natural Insurance: Findings from the Indian
Asha Gunawardena N a t u r a l   D i s a s t e r s   R e c o n s t r u c t i o n   A i d   a s
Commons Management Issue: Implications for
Governance (Legal framework)
Room No. 3 B Panel Title Legal Perspectives on Commons
Proposed by Owen Lynch
Chair/ Coordinator Owen Lynch
Marcel Rutten Selling Wealth to Buy Poverty: 20 years of titling
experiences in semi-arid Kenya
Owen Lynch Mandating Recognition: International Law and
Aboriginal/Native Title
Shivani Chaudhry Cont e s t i n g   D i m e n s i o n s   o f   ‘ L e g a l i t y ’ :
Occupation of the Commons in India and Brazil
* Maurice Makoloo, Benson Ochieng R e t h i n k i n g   F o r e s t   G o v e r n a n c e   i n   K e n y a :
E v a l u a t i n g   a n d   R e - n v e n t i n g   T r a d i t i o n a l
Governance Systems
* Bjorn Vollan, Michael Propper Self-Governance Under Weak Rule of Law: An
Experimental Study among Kavango Forest
* Yance Arizona In  S e a r ch of  Re cogni t ion  in Cons t i tut iona l
C o u r t :   C o m m u n i t y ’ s   R i g h t s   o n   N a t u r a l
Resources in Indonesia’s Constitutional Court
DecisionsLIV 13
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Governance (Decentralisation)
Room No. 3 C Panel Title IFRI-IFLEA Co Hosted PANEL : Forest Policy Decentralization in East Africa: Institutional and
Livelihoods Change in East African Forest Landscapes
Proposed by Franz Gatzweiler
Chair/ Coordinator Franz Gatzweiler
Jephine Ajwala, Emily Obonyo The  Rol e  of  Tr adi t iona l   Ins t i tut ions   in  the
Conservation of Kenyan Forests
Tadesse Gole, Melaku Merga Demographic and Socio-Economic Correlates
of Participatory Forest Management and the
Local People’s Perception: The Case of Chilimo
Paul Ongugo, George Okwaro,
Samuel Kimani Forests, Communities and Urban Markets: Can
they Co-exist in a Devolved Structure?
William Gombya-Ssembajjwe,
Daniel Waiswa, Abwoli Banana Local Communities - Participation in Forest
M a n a g e m e n t   a n d   t h e i r   A c c e s s   t o   F o r e s t
Re sour c e s  unde r   For e s t  De cnt r a l i z a t ion  in
Uganada Resources
* Emmanuel Nzunda,Emmanuel Luoga,
Tumaini Mahuve C o m m u n i t y - B a s e d   F o r e s t   M a n a g e m e n t   i n
Tanzania: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities
and Threats
Governance (Water)
Room No. 3 D Panel Title Institutions for Water Governance
Chair Insa Theesfeld
Armelle Caron,Valerie Boisvert Institutional Analysis of the Niger Basin Water
Sophie Allain Ne got i a t ing  Wa t e r   a s   a  Commons   through
Participatory Watershed Planning. Lessons from
the French Water Management Plans
Sunderrajan Krishnan, Rajnarayan Indu A r r i v i n g   a t   P r i n c i p l e s   f o r   E f f e c t i v e   W a t e r
Management by the Panchayats: Evidences from
studies in ten states across India
Beatrice Marelli Linking Sustainability of Institutions and the
Commons: the Process of Self-Governance for
Water Management in Northern Italian Farming
Roger Madrigal, Francisco Alpizar,
Achim Schluter Institutional determinants of performance of
community based drinking water organizations
David Groenfeldt Looking Beyond (and Below) Institutions: The
Role of Cultural Values in Sustaining Water
13:30-14:30 hrs Lunch and Poster Presentation at Arjuna Arcade
14:30-16:00 hrs
Poverty and Social Exclusion (Equity and Access)
Room No. 1 A Panel Title Debates and Struggles of Equity and Access
Chair Leticia Merino
Dixon Gevena, Josefina Dizon,
Juan Pulhin, Rex Victor Cruz, Sang-Jun Im Assessment of Equity in Two Community Based
Forest Management Regimes in the Philippines13
IASC 2011
Smriti Das Power, Institutions and Social Exclusion - Case
study of Nabarangpur, Orissa
Mikkel Funder, Signe Cold-Ravnkilde,
Abdoulaye Cisse,Moussa Djire,
Carol Mweemba S t rug g l e s  ov e r   a c c e s s   and  author i t y   in  the
governance of new water resources: Evidence
from Mali and Zambia
Bir Chhetri I n e q u a l i t y   a n d   f o r e s t   d e p e n d e n c e   o n
community forest resources in Kaski, Nepal
Devanathan Parthasarathy Hunters, Gatherers and Foragers in a Metropolis:
Commonizing the Private and Public in Mumbai
Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 1 B Panel Title Participatory Governance in the Commons in Bangladesh
Proposed by Emdad Haque
Chair/ Coordinator Emdad Haque
Emdad Haque, Munjurul Khan Mobilization of Stakeholders in Partnership
P r o j e c t s :   L e s s o n s   L e a r n e d   f r o m   W e t l a n d
Management and Knowledge Advancement
Programs in Bangladesh
Mizan Khan Action Research in Academia: The Case of the
Project ‘Building Environmental Governance
Capacity in Bangladesh’ (BEGCB)
SM Munjurul Khan, Emdad Haque Participatory Wetland Resource Governance:
Role of Local Resource Users in Cross-Scale
Decision-Making Arrangement - A Case Study
of Hakaluki haor in Bangladesh
Mokhelsur Rahman, Anisul Islam Can greening the micro credit contribute to
nature conservation and adaptation to climate
change impacts? A case from Bangladesh
Complex Commons (Fisheries)
Room No. 1 C Panel Title Coastal and Inland Fisheries - Perspectives and Lessons
Chair John Powell
Alyne Delaney Community Sustainability and Resource Rights
in North Sea Fishing Communities
Manish Chandi, Mohan Arthur Comparing the structure of common property
resource systems based on social organization
and resource availability in the Nicobar Islands
Boubacar Ba, Aaron Russel Fisheries management at the Korientze Lake :
Belly politics, corruption and local conflict : A
case study in central Delta of Niger- Mali
Amalendu Jyotishi I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s i n g   c ommo n   p o o l   r e s o u r c e s
Insights from Tawa Fisheries Co-operative
Jharna Pathak P o v e r t y   A l l e v i a t i o n   t h r o u g h   F i s h e r i e s
M a n a g e m e n t :   A n   A n a l y s i s   o f   F i s h i n g
Cooperative Practice in Gujarat and Madhya
Tiago Jacauna T h e   d i l e m m a s   o f   t h e   s y s t e m   o f   c o m m o n
ownership of fishing lakes in Brazilian AmazonLVI 13
IASC 2011
Governance (Institutions)
Room No. 2 A Panel Title Collective Approaches to Sustaining Commons - The Inevitable Way Forward
Chair Frank Matose
Hayato Kobayashi Conditions of ‘bricolage’in community-based
for e s t r y   -   improv ing   adapt i v e   c apa c i t y   and
Marco Antonio Gonzalez Local certification of community production as
a   w a y   t o   r e b u i l t   l o c a l   c o m m o n s   a n d
communities ties
Blake Ratner,Ruth Meinzen-Dick,
Eric Haglund Conflict, collective action, and resilience in
na tur a l   r e sour c e  mana g ement :   L e s sons   for
development policy and governance
Gimbage Mbeyale, George Kajembe,
Tobia Haller The   rol e  of   loc a l   gov e rnanc e   s t ruc tur e s   in
m a n a g i n g   a n d   m i t i g a t i n g   r e s o u r c e   u s e d
conf l i c t s .  A  c a s e  of   E a s t e rn  S ame  Di s t r i c t ,
Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
Jennifer Meyer-Ueding, Jens Rommel,
Markus Hanisch The role of social capital and further assets for
collective action and user participation to solve
water resource problems in future megacities -
Results of a household survey on water use in
Emmanuel Luoga, Emmanuel Nzunda Grasping at Development? Community Rights
and Economic Implications of Biofuel Expansion
in Tanzania
Room No. 2 B Panel Title A Commons Construct in Agrarian Landscapes
Chair/ Coordinator
Regina Birner, Shashi Kolavalli T h e   C o m p r e h e n s i v e   A f r i c a   A g r i c u l t u r e
Development Program (CAADP) as a Regional
Collective Institution
Sindhu Dhungana, Haripriya Rangan A g r o - f o r e s t r y   v e r s u s   b a r r e n   p u b l i c   l a n d s :
Emerging new commons on open access in
Nepal’s downsouth
Bimal Sarma Changing Pattern of Agricultural Productivity in
Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India
Priyanie Amerasinghe,
Chenna Basappa Yadav,
Marielle Dubelling, Henk de Zeeuw A  c o m m u n i t y   a p p r o a c h   t o   i n n o v a t i v e
agriculture production and marketing among
urban/periurban, small, and marginal farmers
in growing cities: A case study from Magadi,
Bangalore, India
Chia-Nan Lin, Bor-Wen Tsai Agrarian landuse change and constructions of
the commons: A case of indigenous agricultural
development in Taiwan’s mountain area
Kai Mausch, MCS Bantilan D e f i n i t i o n s   o f   h o m o g e n o u s   g r o u n d n u t
p r o d u c t i o n   d o m a i n s -   a   t o o l   t o   a s s e s s
transferability and spillover effects from ICRISAT
groundnut technologies13 LVII TH
IASC 2011
New Commons (Urban)
Room No. 2 C Panel Title Commons of the Urbs
Chair Usha Ramanathan
Bart Neuts Determining the External Social Costs of Public
Space Crowding : Life in a tourist Ghetto
Kate Herrod Creating New Urban Commons, A Baltimore
Case Study
Vinay Sreenivasa Streets as Urban Commons
Mansee Bal,Jacko van Ast,Jan Bouma Sustainability of Urban Lake Systems in India:
Role of Values and Governance
Complex Commons (Wetlands)
Room No. 2 D Panel Title Wetlands Caught in Conflict
Chair N C Narayanan
Nirvia Ravena, Romulo de Sousa,
Voyner Canete, Sousa Cleide,
Canete Thales Common Pool Resources Management in the
A m a z o n : A   F u z z y   A p p r o a c h   o f   P u b l i c
Bureaucracy Role
Muhammad Huq The Role of Leadership and Management in the
G o v e r n a n c e   o f   F r e s h w a t e r   W e t l a n d s   i n
Bangladesh: An Evaluation of Performance
Jeena Srinivasan Property Rights Issues in Seasonally Altering
M u l t i p l e   U s e   W e t l a n d s :   A   S t u d y   o f   K o l e
Wetlands, India
Global Commons (Managing Uncertainties)
Room No. 3 A Panel Title Social Responses to Natural Calamities
Chair Sandeep Virmani
Arvind Susarla Taking Account of Social Risk at Devastated
Places: A case study of ‘recovery’ of commons
in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
Andreas Neef, Iven Schad, Peter Elstner F lood di s a s t e r s ,   loc a l   commons ,   col l e c t i v e
action and individual responses: Lessons from
the Thai and Vietnamese hillsides
Anisha Modi Drought Mitigation : Study of factors in adoption
of community based conservation of commons
Aline Kohli, Joachim Schmerbeck,
Klaus Seeland The social and political context of forest fires:
A case study in Andhra Pradesh, South India
Kato Shaban Stonewall, Mutonyi Bud T h e   C h a l l e n g e s   o f   M a n a g i n g   L a n d s l i d e s
V u l n e r a b i l i t y   i n   M o u n t   E l g o n   e c o s y s t e m ,
U g a n d a :   A   C a s e   o f   C o l l a p s i n g   H u m a n
Interactions with its Environment
Armi Susandi, Dwi Resti Pratiwi,
Titania Suwarto A d a p t i v e   B e h a v i o r   A s s e s s m e n t   B a s e d   o n
Climate Change Event: Jakarta’s Flood in 2007LVIII 13
IASC 2011
Governance (Legal framework)
Room No. 3 B Panel Title The Politics of the Commons: Legal Complexity and Political Contestation of Natural Resources
in Changing Societies
Proposed by Dik Roth, Maarten Bavinck
Chair/ Coordinator Dik Roth, Maarten Bavinck
Fabio de Castro The challenge of formalizing informal rules in
t h e   Ama z o n i a n   f l o o d p l a i n :   L i n k i n g   l o c a l ,
regional and national politics
Jyothi Krishnan, Abey George Losing Sight of the Commons: The Case of
Decentralisation in Kerala, India
Evelyn Pinkerton, Melanie Wiber,
Courtenay parlee P o l i t i c i z i n g   t h e   C ommo n s :   C a n a d a ’ s   F i r s t
Nations and Privatization of Coastal Resources
Dik Roth, Maarten Bavinck Political contestation of common pool resources
unde r   condi t ions  of   r apid  chang e :   a   l e g a l
pluralist enquiry
* L Ciro Marcano Self-management and Self-government in the
Venezuelan process of communalization of the
Governance (Water)
Room No. 3 D Panel Title How Institutions Deal with Irrigation Problems
Chair Anjal Prakash
Torsten Berg Swords of Damocles and Idealized Worlds:
How Relevant are the Myths of Tragedy and
Threats in Commons Scholarship?
Muhammad Kamran, Ram Bastakoti External disturbances and Institutional responses
in management of small-scale irrigation systems
in Pakistan and Nepal
Sada Bitra Multi Functions of People Institutions and their
Sustainability: Role of Tank Associations and
their Nested Institutions for the Sustainability
of Tanks
Maryam Nastar, Mine Islar,
Vasna Ramasar Decentralization: Resolve or Hide the Problem?
A   c o m p a r a t i v e   c a s e   s t u d y   o f   W a t e r   U s e r
Associations in Turkey and India
MVK Sivamohan, Dinesh Kumar Pampered Views and Parrot Talks: In the Cause
of Well Irrigation in India
16:00-16:30 hrs Tea/ Coffee Break
16:30-18:00 hrs
Canopy Policy Forum-8 Legal Recognition of Community-based Porperty Rights
Coordinated by
Owen Lynch Bhaskar Vira
Kate Ashbrook
Liz Wily
Owen Lynch
Ritwick Dutta
Ramaswamy Iyer
Sanjay Upadhyay
Usha Ramanathan13
IASC 2011
Conference Room Policy Forum-9 Emerging Policies: Creating New Commons
Coordinated by
C. Shambu Prasad C. Shambu Prasad
David Bollier
MV Sastri
Shiv Visvanathan
Wiebe Bijker
Auditorium Policy Forum-10 Forest Right Act, Community Forest Rights and Management/ Community Conserved Areas
Coordinated by
Neema Pathak Ashish Kothari
Fred Nelson
Gary Martin
Ilse Köhler-Rollefson
MD Madhusudan
Room No. 1 C Panel Discussion-2 Philanthropy and the Commons
Coordinated by
Ruth Meinzen-Dick Jayant Sinha
Jeff Campbell
Sanjeev Phansalkar (TBC)
Tom Arnold
Vasant Sabherwal (TBC)
*Owing to the withdrawals of a few papers from the original panel submission,  the Programme Committee has accodomated these papers
with relevant themes from the pool of abstracts submitted.13
IASC 20112 13
IASC 201113
Abdelali, Laamari
Adaptive Management of Common Rangeland in Morocco: A Case Study
Research on adaptive management of collective rangelands in Morocco (the case of Rhamna region) is a new
opportunity to investigate the other dimension of common property management. The project aims to contribute
to the promotion of new alternative technologies, policies and organizational measures to limit the degradation
of rangelands and enhancing capacities of local communities in rangelands management. The research
methodology is based on the participation of community members through an interactive process. Social learning,
gender and other research issues were targeted in order to identify the form or forms of adaptive management to
be adopted. Finally, the social diversity of rangeland users, conflicts and other socioeconomic factors have
contributed to enrich research outputs. A social experiment was conducted to measure the government impact
on common rangeland management in comparison to other alternatives (private or association).
Keywords: adaptive management, community, rangelands, social learning
Adhikari, Bhim
Di Falco, Salvatore
Social Inequality and Collective Efficacy in Community-Based Natural Resource Management
While the role of social capital has been acknowledged for addressing a wide range of social problems and
facilitating local level collective action, very few empirical studies examine whether the cultural inequalities
within the community hinder or facilitate the emergence of social capital. Particularly, the mechanisms linking
social capital to socially constructed inequalities such as caste and gender have not been fully elucidated. Further,
empirical evidence that explores the relationship between social capital and resource extraction is rare. This
paper investigates the impact of ethnic heterogeneity such as caste on social capital formation. We further
complement the analysis by presenting an empirical assessment of the impact of social capital on resource
extraction using household level data from Nepal. Admittedly, we narrow our focus on one specific dimension:
bonding social capital. This relates to the connectedness of the household with the rest of the community. We
found that the more bonding social capital is associated with lower levels of resource exploitation. Caste seems
to play a very important role on social capital creation. For instance, upper caste and more educated households
do participate more in social capital formation compared to their less privileged counterparts. Although caste
inequality seems to be facilitating the collective action with higher contributions from the socio-economically
privileged members, our results suggest that the presence of inequality in social structure can be detrimental for
the sustainability of collective action in the long-run. We argue that these inequities have to be addressed for
win-win options through institutional interventions in order to maintain equities across communities and ethnicities.
Keywords: social inequality, caste, community forestry, collective action, social capital, participation, resource
extraction, Nepal
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Adhikari, Jay Ram
Community- Based Forest Management and the Maoist Conflict: the Impacts of the Decade- Long
Armed Conflict on Environmental Governance and Livelihood Security in Nepal
This investigates the impact of the decade-long Maoist armed insurgency on three major aspects of communitybased forest management (CBFM) in Nepal:  governance, livelihoods, and environment sustainability. The paper
compares these outcomes in two time frames i.e. during pre/early and late periods of armed insurgency. Three
Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) were selected for the case studies, with three different characteristics of
conflicts during the insurgency: i) Community forest (CF) in an area dominated by security forces, ii) CF in an
area dominated by Maoist insurgents and, iii) CF dominated by neither the Security forces nor the Maoists. Forty
five households were selected from each CFUG, representing 15 households each from upper-income, middleincome and low-income groups respectively. The research combined documentary analysis and field research to
collect primary data. Field studies combined qualitative (participant observation, focus group discussions and
interviews) and quantitative methods, including the household survey, as well as analysis of CFUG records and
data available from government and donor agency forestry project sources.
Although during the period of armed insurgency, there was destruction of forestry infrastructure and a crisis of
governance affecting government agencies, this study found that that there was no marked impact on the local
governance regime of CFUGs, nor on access to forest products. The central government was dysfunctional
during much of the insurgency, but local forest management by CFUGs continued to operate effectively. Although
the study reported a few incidents of cutting of community forests for security purposes, there was no marked
decline during the period of political instability in terms of community forest based environmental services with
respect to biodiversity conservation, watershed protection, erosion and landslide control or to household income.
These results underscore the relative independence of these local governance mechanisms from formal government
structures. It further indicates that the shift in forest management authority to community-based governance
provided the local community with more bargaining power as well as resilient capacity to absorb shocks and
cope with the adverse impacts of the conflict. The paper argues that the resilience of local forest management
institutions was crucial in coping with the armed conflict during the period of Maoist conflict.
Adjei, Prince Osei-Wusu
Combating Poverty in Deprived Rural Communities towards  Achieving  the Millennium
Development Goals: The Impact and Challenges of Local Government Structures of Ghana
The world still stands challenged by the millions of people who die namelessly in rural communities because of
poverty and its multiple faces on our environment, health and human capital development (Sachs, 2005; Maxwell,
2000). After a decade into the millennium declaration, several developing countries are still lagging behind in
their efforts towards actualizing the millennium development goals (MDG’s). Since independence however,
successive governments of Ghana have pursued diverse forms of decentralization policies and programs as key
development strategy for enhanced local governance and community development. Indeed, the period after
1987 to date has witnessed significant improvement in the institutionalization and capacity building of local
government structures (District Assemblies) of Ghana to be responsible for the overall development of local
communities. However, much less effort has been made over the years to evaluate the impact of the District
Assemblies on poverty reduction and community development. The paper has been developed from research
projects in some selected districts of Ghana. It examines the role and impact of district assemblies in poverty
reduction and community development. The paper further highlights key obstacles saddling the local government
structures in their efforts towards ensuring sustainable development in Ghanaian communities
Keywords: poverty, governance, rural
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Agarwal, Chetan
Relooking Incentives for Environmental Services at Multiple Scales in India
Maintaining forest cover to sustain the flow of environmental services has been the primary focus of forest policy
in India. India claims to have stabilized its forest cover over the last decade or so. A variety of instruments have
been utilized have helped achieve this state – from promoting Joint Forest Management, to judicial activism, as
well as increased private sector forestry and the freeing of wood imports. At the same time efforts have been
made to provide incentives for environmental services – ranging from JFM on the one hand, to re-jigging the
financial incentives in center-state financial transfers as well monetary disincentivisation of diversion of forest
lands through charging a price for the loss of forest ecosystem function. This paper will examine three instruments
– zoning, community management and tenure, and Payments for Environmental Services (PES) as there have
been applied for securing the supply of environmental services at the local level. The primary focus will be on
the approach of PES pilot projects focusing on hydrological services at inter-village scale in Kuhan micro-catchment
and across the urban-rural continuum for the town of Palampur will be analysed for their effectiveness. These
will be situated in the larger context of incentivizing local communties for forest protection on the one hand as
well and zoning for protecting forest environmental services on the other. Finally, the large scale financial
incentives proposed or provided between states and centre – through linking the 12 and 13th financial commission
transfers from centre to state to forest cover, and the payments for the loss of forest function due to diversion of
forest lands, will be analysed to see how they can percolate to the ground to local institutions and how the
principles of PES in general and REDD in particular might be adapted to enhance the equity and biophysical
impacts of local and national financial flows.
Keywords: forests, PES
Ajwala, Jephine Mogoi
Obonyo, Emily; Tanui, Joseph; Catacutan Delia; Mowo, Jeremias Mowo
Local Institutions in Natural Resource Management for Resilience against Climate Change Effects
In Africa, poverty and food insecurity is pervasive due to intertwined factors including, declining crop yields,
land degradation, and inadequate policy and institutional support. With ever increasing populations, climate
change effects will be intensified, and a major crisis is inevitable unless measures to sustain land resources are
urgently taken. Weak grassroots institutions characterized by low capacity, failure to exploit collective capital
and poor knowledge sharing and access to information, are common barriers to sustainable land management
and improved food security. This paper argues that vibrant rural institutions are necessary to ensure food security
and environmental protection, consequently contributing to climate change resilience. It demonstrates the role
of institutions by evaluating two types of institutions and their impacts the ‘status quo’ and ‘hybrid’ institutions
using case studies from the African Highlands Initiative in Uganda and IFRI in Kenya. It further discusses a model
that highlights factors affecting smallholder investment in natural resources management and how these can be
used to strengthen local institutions in building their resilience against climate change effects.
Keywords: climate change, local institutions, resilience
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Akter, Afrin
People’s Perceptions of Environmental Pollution in Mokosh Beel, Bangladesh
This study examines people’s perceptions of environmental pollution in Mokosh Beel. Mokosh is a perennial
beel in Gazipur District, located approximately fifty five kilometers north of Dhaka, Bangladesh. I conducted
case studies in two villages to investigate the perceptions of residents concerning the impacts of environmental
pollution on drinking water, agricultural lands, crop production, and human health. Local residents believe the
cause of Mokesh Beel’s pollution is industrial in nature, rather than due to agricultural pesticides. Though happy
with ongoing projects that have empowered women and helped communities, residents wish for additional
interventions to address pollution. They question why the ‘polluters pay principle’ is not used and think local
employment in industries should increase. They want to be involved in activities that protect them from
environmental pollution. Although the mandate to control industrial pollution is with the Department of
Environment (DoE), I argue that this department alone cannot solve the pollution problem. Rather, combating
pollution requires community participation. In this paper I investigate environmental changes in Mokosh Beel
and explore co-management as a viable option for sustainable management. I conclude with policy
recommendations to improve Mokosh Beel’s environment and the livelihoods of its residents.
Keywords: Bangladesh, environmental changes, public policy, Mokosh beel
Alam, Jahangir
Children in the Slums of Dhaka–Diarrhoea Prevalence and Its Implications
Diarrhoea is common water borne disease among slum children in Bangladesh. This study seeks to identify the
engineering, behavioral and socio-economic determinants of childhood diarrhoea and its duration, and to compute
the resulting costs borne by slum dwellers. The study is based on a survey of 480 households in 32 slums in
Dhaka. Nearly 50 percent of slum households reported diarrhoea episodes during the recall period of 15 days,
with an average duration of 3.76 days of diarrhoea. The cost of child diarrhoea per episode ranges from BDT 124
(USD 1.81) to BDT 276 (USD 4) and the annual cost from BDT 296 (USD 4.29) to BDT 656 (USD 9.51) based
on assumptions about the value of leisure time lost by care givers. The yearlys cost to a representative household
from child diarrhoea ranges from BDT 378 (USD 5.49) to BDT 837 (USD12.15) or 0.6 percent to 1.3 percent of
annual household income. Participation in NGO hygiene activities, owning a radio and television and mother’s
education and hand washing reduces the probability of childhood diarrhoea. Participation in NGO hygiene
awareness activities, hand washing and semi pucca house structure reduces the duration of childhood diarrhoea.
The study suggests that NGO and media campaigns should focus on water storage and hand washing issues and
the government should try to provide 24 hour access to clean water to control childhood diarrhoea.
Keywords:  engineering, behavioral, socio-economic determinants, childhood diarrhoea
Allain, Sophie
Negotiating Water as a Commons through Participatory Watershed Planning. Lessons from the
French Water Management Plans
While traditional self-governing institutions have been able to manage water resources for many years, they are
generally concerned with a single use or activity, such as irrigation or flood protection. Therefore, they cannot
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manage the variety of modern uses and tackle the complex problems, which affect the water resources today.
However, the intricacies of water management do require collective action to define new rules. We hold that
participatory watershed planning represents a means to organize collective action and come to agreements likely
to manage water as a commons, and will therefore rely on the analysis of the French experience of participatory
watershed planning. Created by the 1992 Water Law, the Water Management Plan procedure aims to define
management rules at the level of watersheds and institutes a specific multipartite body, the Local Water
Commission, in charge of the definition and implementation of the plan. We will present lessons from an
empirical study of 10 cases of Local Water Management plans conducted for the French Ministry of the Environment
and the Water Agencies and on consulting experiences concerning other plans. We will especially show that
participatory planning gives the possibility to break statu quo and to negotiate new rules of management through
defining clearly boundaries, developing a shared perception of interdependence around the problems, building
cooperative scenarios of the future and establishing a governance system
Keywords: participatory planning, water, watershed, France, negotiation
Alvarez, Concepcion Lujan
Garcia, Miguel Olivas; Hernandez, Hilda Gonzalez; Kengen, Sebastiao
Sustainable Forestry Development Based On Community Forestry: Trends and Efforts of Change
Supported By the Forest Policy in Mexico
Based on the global context, Mexico forest policy considers forests and water as a national priority according to
the Law of Sustainable Forestry Development and the 2025 Mexico Forest Strategic Program. Traditionally,
forest management has focused on wood production, and the biodiversity has been affected in its components.
In México, about 80% of forests lies within ejidos (common property land). Even though ejidos are the owner
lands, they have not obtained benefits based on sustainability criteria. Ejidos have harvested the forests for
subsistence and they have limited capitalization. This is a reason why ejidatarios have not considered the
environmental values and others services as a priority for their development. If ejidos are who live with the
consequences of actions carried out in their communities, they must be involved in the decision making process
based in the participatory democracy. In summary, Mexico has started a structural process to address efforts
toward a new paradigm based on the sustainable community forestry for achieving sustainable forestry development
with vision-action in long term and competitiveness. The current forest policy applies strategies such as community
forestry development, environmental services, competitiveness and ecotourism, among others. Therefore,
sustainable community forestry is an effort with vision-action toward a sustainable forestry development in the
global context.
Keywords: sustainable forestry development, multidimensional strategy, common forest resources, forest policy
Mexico, forest ejidos
a a8 13
Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.
Yadav, ChennaBasappa Gangappa; Dubelling, Marielle; Zeeuw, Henk de
A Community Approach to Innovative Agriculture Production and Marketing among Urban/
Periurban, Small, and Marginal Farmers in Growing Cities: A Case Study from Magadi, Bangalore,
Magadi is a rapidly developing town in South India, with a current population of 25,000. 45% of the township
area is agricultural land, and most are cultivated by marginal farmers, with land holdings less than 1 ha. Recent
plans for township development (2025) have threatened the livelihoods, with high prices being offered for land
towards township development. The community has practised a leasing system for generations which will soon
die out, unless innovations with high returns are established. This study describes how the town municipal
council, local partners and the community have attempted to combine city’s “Ecocity concept” to innovate
agricultural production and marketing strategies to safeguard livelihoods, while greening and feeding the city in
a rapid development setting.
Ninety four farmers formed neighbourhood groups to innovate their production and marketing systems. Of
these, 87 seven (92%) were small and marginal farmers (range: 0.025 to 0.96 ha; average 0.31 ha) with an
average income per annum of INR 49,870.45. Community action and support of the municipality and departments
of agriculture and horticulture, served to strengthen their capacities, build group saving schemes, innovate
production systems and marketing strategies, recycle natural resources (organic waste), and secure government
grants which were not accessible to them before. Organizational strengthening and technical innovations increased
the profit margin of a unit of crop.
This study describes a novel approach to enhance opportunities for agriculture production and marketing amidst
town planning (eco-zoning), where a good mix of development, livelihood activities, and food security can be
maintained in building resilient cities. It is envisaged that the city authorities will utilise uncultivable land, for
development allowing innovative farmers to benefit from urbanization to realise new markets and opportunities.
It is seen as a win-win situation to safeguard common interests and property, at the same time build healthy and
resilient cities.
Keywords: agriculture, innovation, marginal farmers, ecocity, common property
Andersson, Krister P
Elite Capture in Forest Commons: Testing Ideas about Mitigating Factors
The sustainability of local efforts to govern forest commons is threatened when local elites capture an inequitable
proportion of the benefits that flow from management activities. This paper analyzes the institutional arrangements
that may reduce the risk for elite capture in forest commons. We begin the paper by presenting two in-depth case
studies from India and Bolivia. From this qualitative comparison, we develop an empirically-grounded argument
about the institutional arrangements that may influence the degree of equity in community decision outcomes.
We proceed to test these hypotheses using data from the IFRI database for all the research sites in the world that
have been visited at least twice by the IFRI program. In these empirical tests, we pay particular attention to the
effects of changes in the community decision making processes on the distributions of benefits from forest use.
We are especially interested in the effects of administrative transparency, popular participation in provision and
production decisions, third party involvement in resource governance, and the internal divisions of power.
Keywords: forest commons, local governance, institutions, equity, heterogeneity, sustainability
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Anseeuw, Ward
Bouquet, Emmanuelle
Policy Making and the Demand From Below: Positions and Participation towards the Development
of the Communal Land Rights Act in South Africa
The Government of South Africa voted the Communal Land Rights Act (CLaRA), whose purpose was to “give
secure land tenure rights to communities and persons who occupy land that the apartheid government had
reserved for occupation by African people known as the communal areas” (Department of Land Affairs, 2004).
Although this tenure reform was hailed as highly participative in its elaboration process, no consultation was
found to take place at the local level with the main stakeholders, including the community members themselves.
There is very little information regarding the “demand from below” with regards to communal land tenure and
communal governance reform. 
Based on comprehensive qualitative interviews with 100 community members in two communities in South
Africa and key interviews with main actors engaged in CLaRA’s development process, the purpose of this paper
is threefold: (1) to characterize the perceptions of community members with respect to their bundles of rights
under the communal land tenure system (with an aim to provide insights into the extent of de facto individualization
and commoditization of communal land), and the perceptions of security that are attached to it; (2) to identify
their positions towards the two features of the ClaRA that have been identified as salient and controverted,
namely the issuance of an individual land title by the State, and the role of the chief and tribal authorities in land
matters; (3) to analyze CLaRA’s development process in order to better understand how these perceptions and
positions have been taken into consideration for the definition of the content of the Act. The objectives imply
understanding the local context, the stakes and conflicts around land and power, the way local people perceive
and formulate those stakes and how they are integrated in the policy development process in order to develop
more sustainable and equitable land policies.
Keywords: South Africa, CLaRA Act, policy processes, inclusiveness, communal land reform, perceptions
Arahalli, Venkataronappa Manjunatha
Speelman, Stijn; Chandrakanth, M.G.; Nuppenau, E.A;
Van Huylenbroeck, G
Can Groundwater Markets Promote Efficiency in Agricultural Production
In the hard rock areas of India overdraft of groundwater is resulting in negative externalities such as cumulative
well interference. This increases the costs of groundwater irrigation and results in inefficiency and welfare losses.
In the area informal groundwater markets are slowly emerging with the potential of improving water distribution
and mitigating scarcity. This study aims to demonstrate how groundwater markets can improve efficiency in
agricultural production. The technique applied to quantify input use efficiency or, more speciûcally, surplus
inputs applied, is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The efficiency was estimated for three groups of famers: (i)
Control group: farmers not selling or buying groundwater, (ii) Water sellers: farmers selling groundwater and (iii)
Water buyers: farmers buying groundwater. The results indicate that, water buyers are more efficient followed by
sellers and the control group in using inputs in general and water in particular. Hence, groundwater markets
promote efficiency among those participating in water markets. Differences in efficiencies between the groups
are shown to be significant using a Kruskal-Wallis test. The information provided by this study can be used by
policy makers to determine their attitude towards the emerging groundwater markets.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, groundwater markets, efficiency, externalities, India
a a10 13
Araral, Eduardo
What Is the Effect of Decentralization in A Large Scale Common Pool Resource?
Decentralization has often been prescribed as the institutional panacea to a wide range of problems facing
developing countries. Does decentralization actually matter to collective action in a large scale common pool
resource? This question is important because most studies on the commons are limited to small scale resources.
Using econometric analyses on a data set of 362 irrigation associations from the Philippines and employing
institutional analyses, the study finds that decentralization in a large scale (75,000 ha) common pool resource
can indeed facilitate collective action. Specifically, compared with centralized large scale irrigation systems,
decentralized systems are more likely to 1) have greater farmer participation in group work; 2) solve conflicts
among themselves without resorting to external assistance; 3) implement operation and maintenance plans and
4) enforce rules. These findings in general are consistent with the empirical literature but the study illustrates the
application of institutional analysis to highlight the role of credible enforcement as central to solving collective
action problems in a decentralized context.
Keywords: institutions, governance, irrigation
Araral, Eduardo
Property Rights, Transaction Costs and Contract Enforcement in the Commons: Evidence from
Developing Countries
The conventional literature on property rights tend to classify those rights broadly in terms of ownership such as
state, private, common and open access property. This approach, while useful for some purposes, is overly
simplistic. I employ instead a more nuanced analysis – using Weimer and Vining’s framework – to isolate those
features of property rights most relevant for understanding incentives and behavior of agents. These features
focus on the completeness of allocation, cost of alienation, security from trespass, credibility of persistence, and
the degree of autonomy enjoyed by owners of those rights. I test this framework with a meta-analysis of 26 case
studies of a common pool resource from 18 countries. I find the framework useful for categorizing the different
types of decentralization of property rights in natural resource management but with caveats in the use of data
from meta-analysis.
Keywords: property rights, irrigation
Arizona, Yance
In search of Recognition in Constitutional Court: Community’s Rights on Natural Resources in
Indonesia’s Constitutional Court Decisions
This paper aims to describe how and why the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia has recognized
or undermined  the legal rights of communities over natural resources; then, it analyses the role of this Constitutional
Court to Indonesia’s legal reform through its authority of legal review, in this case are Laws concerning natural
resources. Due to the enhanced role of Constitutional Court in legal reform of developing countries, it is central
to examine the extent to which Indonesia’s Constitutional Court would have a positive role in natural resources
legal reform. This paper consists of four sections. Firstly, an introductory section that describes Indonesian
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political transition and its impact on the legal framework on natural resource; Secondly, a legal analysis on
natural resources laws and their stipulations on communities; property rights; the extent to which the agenda of
neo-liberalism has infiltrated into these laws. Thirdly, an analysis of the decisions of the Constitutional Court and
their contributions to strengthen communities’ rights over natural resources. The last part concludes trends and
factors determining Indonesia’s Constitutional Court to recognize or undermine communities’ rights on natural
Keywords: Indonesia, constitutional court, legal framework, community rights to natural resources
Arnold, Gwen
Assessing Wetland Assessment: The Role of Bureaucratic Networks
State-level environmental bureaucrats charged with wetland regulation in the United States struggle to find and
use sound tools for evaluating wetland functions and services. Wetlands provide complex, fundamentally nonexcludable benefit streams, offering myriad amenities at different geographic and temporal scales. This complexity
often frustrate bureaucrats’ attempts to employ tools meant to quantify wetland benefits in a manner that usefully
informs regulatory decision-making. Although more than 100 such wetland assessment methodologies exist in
the United States, research suggests that state bureaucrats apply these tools to regulatory decisions with marked
infrequency. This paper explores the conditions under which sustained, successful implementation of wetland
assessment tools by state environmental bureaucracies is more or less likely. Specifically, it examines the influence
on sustained, successful implementation exerted by the characteristics of a state bureaucrat’s professional networks
and the bureaucrat’s relationships with those networks. Focusing on state wetland regulators in the United
States’s Mid-Atlantic region, the paper employs interviews, case studies, and social network analysis to reveal
how the strength and number of a state bureaucrat’s ties with wetland bureaucrats in other states, developers of
assessment tools, and national wetland policy experts affect the course of assessment tool implementation. The
paper highlights how the networks in which bureaucrats are embedded can facilitate or inhibit the adaptative
management arguably necessary to achieve sustained, successful implementation of wetland assessment tools.
Keywords: multi-method research, United States, wetlands, bureaucratic behavior, adaptive management
Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera
Shared Governance in Conservation of Biodiversity: Community Conserved Area Protecting the
Rare and Endangered Biodiversity
Community conserved areas are a sophisticated form of governance for protected areas. The Guassa area of
Menz (central highlands of Ethiopia) has always been a valuable natural resource for the local communities,
which depend on it primarily for thatching grass, firewood and grazing. The indigenous governance system used
to coincide with an institution known as Qero,, based on descent groups from founding fathers who agreed
dividing the land in 17
 century.  The Qero system, supported by the authority of the church, ensured the
equitable distribution of natural resources among the members of the user communities by enacting and enforcing
various bye-laws.  The Qero system was declared illegal in 1975, following the 1974 revolution, but was picked
up by the communities under changed name and circumstances.  This indigenous governance system was not
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designed to conserve wildlife, but it certainly achieved this goal.  Its highly regulated use of natural resources
promoted the survival of the rodents that constitute the main pray of the critically endangered Ethiopian wolf
(Canis simensis) and the rare and globally threatened Gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada). The Guassa
Community Conserved Area represents a model of community led natural resource management system that
supported rare and endangered biodiversity and in improved the livelihood of rural community in fighting
poverty and food insecurity.
Keywords: governance, community-based conservation, Ethiopian wolf
Autto, Hannu
Anti-norm Agreements – Collusion Against the Sanctioning Mechanism
Despite the rather grim traditional predictions of rational choice theory, empirical studies have repeatedly shown
that common-pool resource users can themselves enforce norms and rules, thus preventing the resource overuse.
However, free-riding behavior is also regularly observed. This working paper aims to provide tools to understand
a specific form of free-riding, that is, free-riding that stems from collusion. For this end, we define anti-norm
agreements. Anti-norm agreements are agreements of mutual no-sanctioning between some actors of a norm
community. These agreements make it possible for all agreement parties to deviate from the norm. Using Coleman’s
system of linear action we show that anti-norm agreements are never efficient against the norm under perfect
social system. However, when the assumption of perfect social system is dropped anti-norms can be efficient
against the norm. We then give simulation results on how vulnerable some simple sanctioning mechanisms
enforcing a norm are against these agreements, and when we should expect to observe collusion. We conclude
with empirical discussion.
Keywords: norms, enforcement, collusion
Awono, Abdon
Dokken, Therese; Sunderlin, William
REDD+: A New Support Tool for Improved Conservation and Livelihood in Africa
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing forest carbon stocks in developing
countries (REDD+) has been given increasing international attention. REDD+ is based on the idea that funds are
provided to developing countries to reduce carbon emissions, compensating the gap created by heavy polluters,
through the implementation of various types of policies. We have selected 4 REDD+ projects in Africa (2 in
Cameroon and 2 in Tanzania) under CIFOR’s GCS-REDD, to assess their implementation through interviews
with project proponents and implementers, along with village and household-level surveys from March through
July 2010. The lessons and recommendations from this work will be useful for informing the development of
second generation REDD+ projects. At this early stage, this paper will look into the participation of local
populations in the design and implementation of REDD+ projects, the perception of actors on the impact of
REDD+ funds on conservation of target forests and livelihoods of rural dwellers, and the distribution plan for
benefits among different stakeholders.
Keywords: institutions, governance, forests
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Ba, Boubacar
Russel, Aaron
Fisheries Management at the Korientze Lake: Belly Politics, Corruption and Local Conflict: A
Case Study In Central Delta of Niger- Mali
The lake Korientze localized in the Korombana commune (circle of Mopti, Mali, with a population of 20,000
inhabitants and 32 villages) is located at a hundred of kilometers downstream and in the North of the city of
Mopti. The lake is fed by a short channel of the right bank of the river Niger. For several years a conflict has
supplied the management of fishing resources of this lake with corruption, political manipulations and the
stacking of often unsuitable and ineffective multiple legal texts and institutions, as consequence. This conflict
asks the question of mechanisms of shared governance and of intermediation around the idea of the right of
exclusive use or of the users’ delegated mastery. Various explanations have been given to clear up the conflict
origins. We can notice among others the successive droughts, the weakness of the river risings, and the damage
of environment. With the involvement of new social actors (elects, civil society technical services and chiefs of
village), a forum on consultation for the re-reading of local convention of fishing in commune has been organized
with the adoption of a commission of supervision. We noticed, bit by bit, an increase of antagonism among
natives/strangers with non democratic choices. The process of fishing supervision has been contested with
corruption at the level of law. In the absence of adapted ways of resort open to respond to the users’ expectations
of the fishing resource ; opportunism, and even populism and corruption that have become daily aspects. With
the evolution of the process of conflict management, we noticed an institutional and legal pluralism. Thus, the
dynamics of fishery management in the Korientze lake in the Niger Central Delta despite well-known contradictions
caused by corruption and belly politics and the impact of climatic risks is moving towards an awareness about
the idea of “commons” with the beginning of a local governance approach.
Keywords: commons, conflict, corruption and fisheries, decentralization, institutional pluralism in Mali
Bahati, Joseph B.
Bridging the Gap between Forestry and Agriculture: The Case for Mpigi District in Uganda
The Republic of Uganda in Eastern Africa is 236,040 sq km with different land tenure regimes and has a history
of competitive land use, particularly between agriculture and forestry. The research “Bridging the gap between
forestry and agriculture” drew on the lessons learned and experience gained from the International Forestry
Resources and Institutions (IFRI) /Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources Management (SANREM) case
studies conducted in the Uganda during the last two decades. Biophysical data, GIS technologies and both
Participatory Action Research (PAR), and Community Risk Assessments (CRA) were carried out at community
and household levels. Stakeholder workshops were conducted. Driven by different motivations, a range of
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actors, stakeholders, individuals, households, communities and civil society organizations engaged in diverse
efforts and invested in tree growing, crop and/or animal husbandry for their livelihood. Currently, efforts are
being made to protect, restore, afforestate or rehabilitate degraded forests and to encourage tree growing on
private land, but degradation persists in favour of agriculture. Therefore, operating alone or in partnership with
others, these actors and stakeholders have undertaken forest management on privatively owned, communally
owned and government-owned land. On private and communally owned land a proportion of the land is allocated
to agriculture, some leveling of disparities in capabilities, information, and influence among partners and
stakeholder groups exist. The scale and degree of organization, the types of knowledge brought to bear, and the
manner by which these are mobilized to pursue common interests are a central concern. How to best create an
environment of trust that will mitigate the internal conflicts of the diverse range of decisions in land use between
forestry and agriculture are discussed. Policies that do not take into account the common interests of individuals,
households and collectives if not clearly discuss are doomed to failure. However, in Mpigi District efforts are
being made to bridge the gap. It is very possible to create sustainable forest policies through the collaboration of
all parties involved and plan for the long-term. How responsible institutions are held accountable, share power,
provide a competitive playing ground for all stakeholders and ensures the equitable distribution of beneficial
results is essential to the success of sustainable development.
Keywords: bridging, gap, forestry, agriculture
Baka, Jennifer
Is There Such A Thing as Wasteland? Biofuels and Wasteland Development in Tamil Nadu, India
India’s recently enacted biodiesel law promotes the use of non-edible oilseeds grown on wastelands. By restricting
biofuel production to degraded landscapes, India asserts its policy avoids the food versus fuel dilemma and can
empower rural communities. However, the ability of wastelands to support commercial biofuel production and
improve rural welfare has been under explored. First, wastelands in India are often common property lands and
there is limited data on how biofuel production might compete with the rural livelihood activities the wasteland
commons support. Second, as feedstock yields on arable lands are likely to exceed those of wastelands, it is
unclear whether India’s biofuel industry will in fact be established in degraded environments.
This paper will critically examine these two issues using data from Jatropha curcas biodiesel production in Tamil
Nadu, India. Jatropha is perhaps the most prominent non-edible oilseed being grown for biodiesel production
and Tamil Nadu is one of the world’s leading cultivation areas. Although fieldwork is still in progress, preliminary
farmer surveys and key stakeholder interviews indicate that despite government assistance targeted at wasteland
production, Jatropha cultivation is primarily occurring on arable lands. Additional fieldwork throughout 2010
will more critically examine why the Jatropha industry appears to be bypassing the wasteland commons, how
producers may be benefiting from this occurrence and what implications this has for the rural poor.
Keywords: biofuels, wastelands, Jatropha, India, climate change
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Bal, Mansee
Jacko, Antony Van Ast; Jan, Jaap Bouma
Sustainability of Water Resource Systems in India: Role of Value in Urban Lake Governance in
One of the ongoing discussions on water governance in urban India is the revival of the old river systems and
lake systems as an important component of the current physical and social infrastructure. These water systems
are acting as the connectors of the urban development today as they did in the times of old and traditional water
management practices. Rivers and lakes have different socio-cultural, ecological, economical, and political values
at different periods of societal developments. One of the core challenges documented in the governance of rivers
and lakes in India is addressing the rapid changes in these value systems. The PhD research on ‘Sustainability of
Urban lake systems in India’ is an attempt to look at the governance pattern, particularly the interactions and
outcomes of the spatial and temporal dynamics of urban systems and the lake systems especially those that
sustain the institutional and ecological memory. The paper looks at the relation and the role of value systems
between the institutional arrangements (social systems) and the urban lakes systems (ecological systems) and
highlights how sustainability of both the systems is at the core of diverse sectors and scales of governance. The
multitier framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SESs) that is developed by Elinor Ostrom is used as
foundation to elaborate upon how urban lake systems and the institutional arrangements are linked to the values
Keywords: sustainability, urban lake systems, India, values, governance
Banana, Abwoli
Ongugo, Paul; Gombya-Ssembajjwe, W.S; Tadesse, W. G; Senbeta,
Feyera; Namaalwa, J; Luoga, Emmanuel and Bahati Joseph;
Mbwambo, L.A; Gatzweiler, Franz
Forest Governance Reforms in East Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional, Livelihood
and Forest Sustainability Outcomes
There is an increasing recognition of community participation in the management of forests and woodlands in
the eastern African region. Unlike Tanzania, decentralization reforms in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are still in
their infancy. The three countries are still searching for appropriate institutional arrangements and structures to
deliver benefits to local communities while at the same time assuring forest sustainability. Currently, there is
limited empirical data on the outcome of forest sector reform on rural livelihoods and forest sustainability in the
region and yet the primary objectives of governance reforms are improvements in rural livelihood and forest
health. This paper assesses whether positive outcomes in rural livelihoods and forest sustainability have been
achieved as a result of the recent forest sector reforms. It is based on the IFRI study on “Decentralization Reforms
and Property Rights: Potentials and Puzzles for Forest Sustainability and Livelihoods in E. Africa
Keywords: forest institutional reforms, livelihoods, forest health, East Africa
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Bara, Anju Helen
Whose Forest, Whose Voices? Discriminatory Practices in Forest Management
Forest resources have always been used by people who are staying near to it, mostly tribals for their livelihood.
It is also closely associated with their cultural and social identity. The new forest bill passed by the government
of India gives more rights to the scheduled tribes and other traditional forest-dwelling communities over land
that they have occupied for cultivation or residence, and also over forest produce and traditional knowledge. It
gives legal empowerment to communities to manage and protect forests that they have traditionally managed in
a de facto manner. There are not only tribals who are using forest, but groups like scheduled caste and higher
caste, who stay near the forested area and use forest products. In this background this paper reflects on the
exclusion processes which happen in the society where the poor and marginalized communities are excluded
from taking part in decision making in the local village forest committees which are formed to manage forest
protection. From the case studies of Orissa, this paper looks into the issue of power relations, dominance and
exclusion in the everyday practices of forest management. It argues that despite the dependence of all groups in
the forest for livelihood and resources, the caste, religion and gender factor plays a major role in the actual
allocation and distribution of resources and henceforth it further pushes them to destitution.
Keywords: forest, tribals, exclusion, power, Orissa
Baruah, Mitul
NGOs and Institutional Sustainability in Joint Forest Management: Case Studies from Rajasthan
Despite various legal and operational constraints, Joint Forest Management (JFM) has spread across much of
India, making considerable contributions towards restoring degraded forestlands through collective action.
Although a sizeable literature on JFM exists, little attention has been paid to the critical role of nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs) in strengthening the practice of joint forest management. This paper explores how NGOs
facilitate the institutional sustainability of JFM, and how the influence of the JFM institutions expands into issues
other than forests in local governance. Working inductively, I present a comparative analysis of four JFM institutions
located in Udaipur, Rajasthan.  While all four share similar geographical and socio-economic conditions, their
institutional form varies: two of them are directly supported by the government agency, the Forest Department,
and two others facilitated by an NGO. My participant-observer experience over several years as a staff member
of the NGO enriches my research on these JFM institutions. I argue that JFM institutions with active NGO
presence perform much better than those without any NGO presence, especially concerning: breadth of
participation, decision-making processes, management systems, conflict resolutions, and larger role of the institution
in local governance. The paper concludes that the Forest Department should recognize this critical role played
by NGOs in strengthening JFM, and there should be effective integration of NGO participation in JFM in order to
build a resilient and sustainable local institution. The paper also provides recommendations for NGOs so that
they continue to be self-reflective and innovative, and make JFM a sustainable initiative
Keywords: Joint Forest Management, institution, sustainability, NGO; Rajasthan
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Basnet, Govinda Bahadur
Delinking of Water Rights from Landholding Size in a Farmers’ Managed Irrigation System: Question
of Efficiency and Equity
Water rights in terms of allocation in most of the farmers managed irrigation system are closely related and
proportional to the landholding size of farmers. Unlike such common cases, water allocation in Chherlung
irrigation system in Palpa district in mid hill of Nepal is based on the marketable water share which is proportional
to the contribution made during the construction of the canal. This ethnographic research, combining historical
and comparative approaches with spatial methods, investigated the efficiency of irrigation system when water
rights are delinked from the landholding size. The study investigated how property rights system has evolved
over the years in relation to social changes taking place in the village. It was found that prior rights holders, in
such property right systems, have incentives to use water more efficiently and trade the surplus water share, thus
increasing the command area of the irrigation system. This case study shows that this structure of water rights not
only increases the efficiency of the system but also enhances the equity among the farmers.
Keywords: water rights, efficiency and equity, irrigation, land, institutions
Bassi, Nitin
Kumar, Dinesh
Reforms for End-Users Based Irrigation Management: Insight from Central India
The irrigation sector plays a vital role in food production and rural economy. Realizing this, reforms are undertaken
world over to modernize irrigation systems. One of the approaches followed in modernization is decentralization
of irrigation management functions. This paper discusses the implementation of Irrigation Management Act in
Central India where the responsibility of irrigation management was partially transferred to the end users through
formation of farmers’ organizations. Emphasis is given to the administrative, governance, institutional and financial
reforms carried out as per the act, and the impact these reforms had on irrigation management. The paper shows
that the success of such reforms is highly dependent on the effectiveness of program execution and the financial
resources available with the government. Such programs will reap intended benefits, if the end users for managing
irrigation functions are involved in more effective manner with greater autonomy and delegation of powers. Also
in lieu of paucity of government funds to carry out such programs on large-scale, alternative institutional models
can be considered to further improve the overall efficiency and management of the irrigation systems.
Keywords: Central India, reforms, decentralization, irrigation management transfer, end users
Basurto, Xavier
Can Local Autonomy Contribute To Increase Protected Areas’ Potential for Biodiversity
In the last few years natural resources managers and conservation advocates’ interest in integrating local
communities in the management of protected areas has dramatically increased with the purpose of making local
inhabitants the main recipients of the benefits and costs created by the presence of protected areas. Often the
case is made of the need of giving local stakeholders significant levels of control over protected areas’ management.
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However there is little empirical evidence of how common-pool resources fare once local institutions have
autonomy to conduct their own decision-making processes. To gain a better understanding of the relationship
between greater levels of local autonomy from the central government and the performance of locally based
institutions for biodiversity conservation, this paper tests the proposition that the “more autonomy local institutions
have to govern their biodiversity conservation efforts, the more they will increase the biodiversity conservation
potential of their protected areas.” I test this proposition in the context of the Costa Rican reforms to decentralize
their national protected area system into eleven regionally-based conservation areas. Using the conservation
area as the unit of analysis, I conducted a two-way comparison of conservation areas’ autonomy levels and
developed an index measuring net gain of conservation areas’ potential for biodiversity conservation after
decentralization. Findings are mixed. Some conservation areas increased while others decreased their potential
for biodiversity conservation after decentralization. Discussion will be focused on explaining such variance.
Keywords: governance, Protected Areas, biodiversity conservation, local institutions
Bavikatte, Kabir
Environmental Law as Political Ecology: The Roots of Biocultural Rights
This paper examines the phenomenon of ‘biocultural rights’ that have arisen through multilateral environmental
agreements since the coming into force of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1993. The paper identifies
biocultural rights as emerging from the confluence of three of the most significant social movements of the last
two decades i.e. the political ecology, the commons and the indigenous peoples movements. The paper concludes
with a short history of biocultural rights and its future trajectory.
Keywords:  biocultural rights, indigenous peoples, political ecology, post-development, commons
Begum, Rokeya
People’s Livelihoods and Involvement in Co-Management of Madhupur National Park, Bangladesh
Natural forests in Bangladesh have been severely degraded due to over exploitation, encroachment, fire,
uncontrolled and wasteful commercial logging, illegal felling, overgrazing, and the collection of fuelwood to
support the energy needs of a large population. In 2003 the Forest Department with assistance of USAID launched
the Nishorgo Support Project (NSP) to test a participatory co-management approach to protected area management.
The project lasted until 2007 and was followed in 2008 by the Integrated Protected Area Co-management (IPAC)
project with the aim of improving local people‘s livelihoods through greater access to and control over local
forest resources. This study sought to understand the livelihoods of local people and their involvement in
management of Madhupur National Park. I collected primary data between September and December 2009
from two villages, the IPAC site office, forestry officials at the Madhupur National Park beat office, and key
informants through personal interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. My findings showed that farmers
in both villages are heavily depending on forestry-related activities (55% and 72%) to support their livelihoods.
All households from both villages collect their fuelwood from the national park and some collect fuelwood to
sell..The study concluded that potential exists for various alternative income generating activities such as bamboo
and cane cultivation, handicrafts, medicinal plant nurseries, poultry, bee cultures, and cattle fattening. Introducing
these activities could help improve the livelihoods of the local people and the management of Madhupur National
Keywords: forests
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Benavides, Jean Paul
Andersson, Krister Par; Wright, Glenn; Leon,
Rosario Juana; Uberhuaga, Patricia
Forestry Decentralization: Control of Illegal Activities and Poverty in Municipal Management of
At 15 years of decentralized forestry regime in Bolivia are pessimistic assessments. The pendulum of
decentralization seems to go against the process. One of the major shortcomings noted by many is the lack of
control activities by the central level and municipal level. These general findings are confirmed in the forestry
sector. Based on data from a unique representative sample of municipalities we have tested the main factors
commonly associated with lack of control over illegal activities in the forestry sector at the municipal level. The
lack of control is usually associated with lack of economic, financial, technical capacity and political will. We
use three measures of rules implementation in the forestry sector: we find that poverty, more precisely the
dependence on forests, and the political affiliation of the municipal authorities are related to the level of control.
The authorities placed in a pro-poor line, politically speaking, have a different pattern from those of other parties.
The former tend to apply the rules less strictly than the other depending on the poverty level and the presence of
other social groups in the municipality. Thus the control problem of illegal activities can not be taken as a
criminal problem and it brings serious challenges to the decentralized strategies of governance.
Keywords: institutions, governance, forest, illegal logging
Berg, Torsten Rodel
Swords of Damocles and Idealized Worlds: How Relevant are the Myths of Tragedy and Threats in
Commons Scholarship?
Notions of ‘tragedy’ and ‘threats’ are pervasive themes in research on resources that are governed as common
property regimes. In this paper I explore the underlying assumptions, as wells the origins and manifestations of
these themes. I argue that the appeal of these notions, across a range of academic disciplines contributes to
explaining the continuing popularity of cooperative arrangements in community-based natural resource
management, among researchers and policy makers.
I use the case of irrigation in the hills of Nepal, to suggest that while common property regimes as tenure
arrangements are eroding indeed, as a result of livelihood and crop diversification, cooperative arrangements are
actually on the increase.  These arrangements include women’s vegetable marketing cooperatives, farmer’s groups
and informal networks that navigate in the wider institutional landscape.
Given this situation why would changes from one tenure arrangement to another constitute ‘tragedy’? What is it
that is actually under ‘threat’ and from what? The paper concludes that the use of the rather fuzzy notions of
‘tragedy’ and ‘threats’ need rethinking. Not least because they connote implicit assumptions about the workings,
the dynamics and the direction of cooperative governance and tenure arrangements that are problematic, given a
rapidly changing rural reality.
Keywords: tragedy, threats, irrigation, crop diversification
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Berkes, Fikret
Community-Based Conservation and Livelihoods: What Motivates Communities?
There are many debates around the joint goals of alleviating rural poverty and ensuring environmental sustainability.
One important debate is about the nature of community objectives and benefits regarding environmental
sustainability. What are the objectives or benefits that the communities themselves consider important? What
makes the local people want to manage/conserve resources? The paper is based on our experience with ten cases
from the UNDP Equator Initiative that holds biennial searches to find and reward entrepreneurship cases that
seek to reduce poverty and conserve biodiversity at the same time. Our findings indicate that community objectives
that create incentives for conservation are complex. They can be sorted (for our purposes) as economic,
environmental, political, social and cultural objectives, but these categories are interrelated. In each case, there
is a mix of objectives, and the actual mix is case-specific. Economic objectives are in the forefront in most cases;
they include both monetary and non-monetary objectives. In many cases, environmental (such as reversing
resource declines; protection of species and ecosystems important for livelihoods) and political (participation in
decision-making, empowerment in general) objectives are in the forefront.  In particular, with indigenous groups,
the political objective of control of traditional territories and resources are of prime importance because such
control is seen as the first step to cultural survival and to social and economic development. Thus, conservation
benefits and incentives seem to have been much too narrowly conceived in conservation and development
literatures. Characterizing the benefits as merely “poverty reduction” or “poverty alleviation” is too simplistic;
“livelihood” or “well-being” capture the complexity of community objectives more fully.
Keywords: community-based conservation, sustainability, poverty, livelihoods, well-being
Beyene, Abebe Damte
Forest Dependency, Property Rights and Local Level Institutions: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia
Empirical evidences from developing countries indicated that forest products play an important role as a source
of income for rural households, particularly for the rural poor. This study aims at analyzing the role of property
rights regimes and local level institutions on forest resource use in the south Western part of Ethiopia in Gimbo
Woreda. We used a household survey conducted in the region to examine the link between forest and poverty
under different property right regimes. A sample selection model is employed to account for both participation
and extent of forest resource use. We estimated the labour allocation of households for different types of property
right regimes. The various socioeconomic factors that affect forest resource use in a community forest were also
examined empirically. The findings of our study show that community forest enhances forest access and use by
the poor and reduce dependency of the relatively rich households. It is also found that local level institutions do
not have any significant impact on level of forest dependency. Natural asset-based poverty alleviation policies
will have to include measures that expand its current management practices to other open access forest areas so
that the poor will have equal opportunity to benefit from the resource.
Keywords: property rights, forest dependency, labor allocation, heckman, Ethiopia.
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Bharali, Gita
Extent of CPRs in the North East
The Common Property Resources (CPRs) are important sources of livelihood to rural households in general and
to the rural poor in particular. They are the livelihood both tangible and intangible of thousands of people. Far
from being an exception to this, since most North Eastern States are on a hilly terrain inhabited by tribals, the
CPRs play a more important role in people’s livelihood in this region than in the rest of India.
That is the background of the present paper whose main objective is to explore the status of the CPRs in the
seven states of Northeast India. An effort will be made in it to define the CPRs in the context of the region, study
their legal status and legal changes over the years. The paper will then describe how the communities of the
region are using the CPRs. It will then analyse the threats to the CPRs and the social implications of their loss. It
will end with some suggestions for the protection and proper management of the CPRs.
Keywords: North East India, CPRs, livelihoods
Bhattarai, Basundhara
Rhetoric and Reality: Enacting Gender-Based Inclusion in Managing the Commons in Nepal
Despite the rapid expansion of community- based forest governance in the recent years, there are limited cases
where women’s meaningful participation has been realized. In Nepal, participation of women in communitybased forestry is limited to increasing the numerical presence of women in its user groups and federations. A
recent policy amendment has even required 50 percent women participation in its decision making bodies.
Forestry being one of the primary livelihood strategies of village women, meaningful participation of women in
their respective governance systems is indispensable. In this context, it is crucial to understand how effectively
reservation policies have been able to enhance women’s participation in actual sense.
Analyzing the cases of two participatory forestry programmes - community forestry and leasehold forestry, this
paper explores whether, how and to what extent reservation policies have worked to augment women’s meaningful
participation. It will also identify factors and conditions that contributed to or constrained meaningful participation
of women. The paper argues that i) reservation policy has been able to bring some women in the policy making
forums but it does not necessarily mean that women are empowered and that they have been able to influence
the decisions; ii) prevalent social norms and unequal power relations that hinder women to be recognized
socially as a individual agency need to be taken into account while dealing with women’s empowerment; iii) the
level of freedom that women enjoy at household level is crucial determinant of their participation at community
level governance; and iv) promoting women’s network and helping to establish the linkages with other women’s
institutions can help women to gain collective strength to influence formulating gender sensitive policies and
Keywords: commons, gender, community based forest governance, meaningful participation, Nepal
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Bhattarai, Ram Chandra
Transaction Hardly Costs: Understanding Collective Action in Farmer -Managed Irrigation Systems
in Nepal
The major determinants of the transaction cost in FMIS in Nepal are farm location, area under cultivation,
external support and infrastructure quality. Transaction cost increases with the increase in the size of cultivated
area and with the increase in chances of cultivating the land at downstream of the canal. Similarly transaction
cost decreases with the improvement of the quality of canal infrastructure and increases with the chances of
getting external support. It also shows that there is a possibility of improvement in maintenance and water
allocation of the canal if farmers are able to bear more transaction cost for the payment to water guard, for the
meetings and communication and by which the watching waiting and negotiating cost may decrease. Since the
transaction cost is very low it is not the reason for the non performance of the institutions.
Keywords: transaction cost, institutions, FMIS, Nepal
Bijker, Wiebe
Towards A Knowledge Commons by Recognizing the Plurality of Knowledge—Experiences With
Democratic Governance of Science and Technology
What could “knowledge commons” mean? One interpretation would be: The best knowledge made commonly
available to all. In this interpretation, it is implicitly assumed that there is one best type of knowledge, and
typically this one best type is then taken to be modern scientific knowledge. Bijker will argue for a second
interpretation: “knowledge commons” is the common sharing of a variety of knowledge. This interpretation
builds on the recognition that a plurality of knowledge systems exists; and one of these systems is scientific
knowledge; and that a variety of ‘common’ people also have valuable forms of knowledge and expertise.
An international project with participants from India, Africa and Europe is proposing to give more recognition to
the plurality of knowledge. This paper traces some of the roots for such a proposal in current practices of
democratic governance of science and technology in Europe. The role of different forms of expertise in technology
assessment and in the governance of nanotechnologies will be elaborated as examples.
Keywords: knowledge commons
Birner, Regina
Towards Better Global Governance for Food and Agriculture - How to Solve the Collective Action
Following the food price crisis of 2008, agriculture is back on the international development agenda. There is
also a renewed recognition that agricultural development requires the effective provision of the global public
goods on which world agriculture depends, such as ensuring global food security; conserving of agro-biodiversity;
facilitating welfare-enhancing agricultural trade; mitigating the impact of climate change on agriculture; preventing
the cross—border spread of crop- and livestock diseases; making agriculture environmentally sustainable and
managing the potential competition between bio-energy and food production.
Providing these global public goods requires international collective action, which involves the typical free-rider
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problem. The experience of two world wars in the first half of the twentieth century generated incentives to
overcome this problem and create some of the major global institutions that dominate global agricultural
governance until today, in particular the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and
the World Bank. Some other international organizations were created later on in response to food crises, such as
the World Food Program. Towards the end of the 20th century, new players emerged in the international agricultural
arena, such as global non-governmental organizations, multi-national enterprises, and new types of global charities
that fund agriculture. There is an increasing recognition that in spite of all their achievements, the existing global
institutions are not effective enough to provide the global public goods that agriculture needs in the 21st century.
This is both due to the internal problems of global organizations, such as democratic deficits and overbureaucratization, and to coordination failures among them. Applying collective action theory and New Institutional
Economics, this paper analyzes the political economy problems that are in the way of reforming the global
institutions in charge of agriculture and discusses the strategies that the international community can use to
overcome these problems.
Keywords: international institutions, governance, agriculture
Bista, Samjhana
Impact Analysis and Decision Making Process in Indigenous Park Management under the Valdivian
Ecoregion, Southern Chile
This study is a contribution towards analyzing innovative strategies of ecoregion based conservation. The globally
important temperate rain forests existing in the fragmented patches of southern Chile are under threat of human
pressure. Bringing together such conservation and livelihood issues and bridging them has become a great
challenge of present day. This study analyses the impacts of a community endeavor-“Pichi Mallay Indigenous
Park” from various social and economic dimensions and local decision making and explores existing bottlenecks
as well as problems that will ultimately affect the attainment of long-term conservation and social goals. For this,
the research result has utilized questionnaire survey, key informants interview, direct observation and secondary
data review as the principal methods of data collection. Data obtained from both the primary and secondary
sources are analyzed through discourse analysis technique and the use of graphs, figures and tables.
The study suggests that the park has improved the social status of indigenous people living in Maicolpue Rio Sur
with regard to social prestige, social infrastructures, access to information, exposure and communication. However,
it realizes the economic impact on the park beneficiaries to be very low, although the overall economic return to
other people living in Maicolpue Rio Sur is significant. The study identifies major reasons behind this to be the
poor investment by indigenous people upon the potential income generating activities and limited participation
at decision making related to the park management. A management committee with clear responsibilities is
lacking, president of the community is passive and a poor communication between the park beneficiaries and
the park administration exists, that has several negative forward and backward linkages. With this realization, the
study finally recommends a community level park management model, basic things to be addressed at local
level and further studies in order to bridge the information gaps.
Keywords: social and economic impacts, community-based, decision making, participation, Valdivian Ecoregion,
Pichi Mallay Indigenous Park, Maicolpue Rio Sur, Mapuche-Huilliche, Chile
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Bitra, Sada Siva
Multi Functions of People Institutions and Their Sustainability: Role of Tank Associations and
Their Nested Institutions for the Sustainability of Tanks
Irrigation tanks (Traditional water harvesting structures) are our heritage handed over to us by our ancestors and
are the lifelines of villages. Tanks are small irrigation structures predominantly serve small and marginal farming
communities to sustain the agriculture production by supplementing the monsoon rains. There will be festivities
in the villages if its irrigation tanks get filled. The tanks, which had conferred benefits to humanity for over
centuries since the beginning of history, are now in a bad shape. A proper maintenance of the tanks will prevent
famine, starvation and unemployment and bring in prosperity. During the British rule, the tank as a common
property has become the ‘state’ property. The tanks belong to the ‘state’ and they are ‘vested’ with government
departments for their maintenance and management. In most of the Southern states in India, the major threats to
tanks are mainly from the encroachers, inefficiency in the functioning of tank system and improper use by the
government itself. The main reason attributed to this situation is the ‘Institutional constraint’. If the tanks are
surviving and still performing, it is by and large due to the local organizations and farmer’s initiativeswhich are
mostly informal.
We consider that ‘institutional constraints and alternatives’ should be a prime question to be addressed as that of
rehabilitation itself. Some of the tanks have been restored and are maintained with the awareness created by
DHAN Foundation, a Non-Governmental Development Organization by promoting Tank Associations (Water
Users Associations) with an identity name “Vayalagam” in South India are in good condition. This has been
made possible due to the awareness created among the people especially underprivileged farming community,
by ensuring their participation and contribution during the selection and execution of works implementation
time, promotion of nested institutions among the beneficiaries and making aware them regarding the future
maintenance of the tanks. Our experience of working has been through farmer’s organizations formed at the
habitation, cascade (chain of tanks) and district levels for conserving the tank systems are mostly in drought
prone areas. Each tier of these farmers associations will have distinct identifiable roles, responsibilities and
resources. DHAN Foundation’s approach mainly relies upon the regeneration of Farmer’s Management by
establishing their organizations and involving them in rehabilitating works.
Keywords: irrigation tanks, small farming community, community participation, farmers associations, nested
Blanco, Esther
Lozano, Javier
An Evolutionary Approach to Wildlife Damage of Economic Activity
This paper models the effects of wildlife conservation on a community of farmers where not only traditional
farming activities take place, but also some farmers complement their earnings with eco-tourism activities. The
model has a special focus on the re-colonization of carnivores in Scandinavia during the last two decades, and
the resulting social dilemmas for their management. Traditional conflict on carnivores’ predation on livestock is
still present, but modified in those cases where farmers extract additional rents from tourism activities. Both
economic activities have negative effects on wildlife conservation. Traditional farmers hunt carnivores to reduce
their loss of livestock whilst eco-tourism activities reduce habitat quality to sustain wildlife. Using and evolutionary
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economics approach, we explore existence and stability conditions of equilibria in the system, showing that new
stable equilibria where wildlife is more highly valued emerge when eco-tourism activities take place. However,
the effect on the level of wildlife conservation is ambiguous and depends on the relative impact of hunting and
habitat destruction.
Keywords:  wildlife, bioeconomic modeling, predation, hunting, tourism, Europe
Bose, Purabi
Identity-Based Exclusion: Tribal Women’s Forest Tenure in Rajasthan
New wave of political decentralization and statutory forest tenure rights aim to empower poor and vulnerable
groups, including indigenous people and women. This research article reinforces forest tenure transition is
crucial for tribal women’s access, use and control rights. Both qualitative and quantitative method is used for indepth interviews with 54 households from two tribal dominated villages of semi-arid tribal district of Rajasthan
in western India. I make an attempt to find out how and why tribal women continue to be excluded in
implementation of decentralized forest tenure transition. Access rights as a theoretical framework, this article
shows that the actual control of forest tenure and discretionary decision making authority at decentralized village
forest institution excludes women. The study highlights that forest tenure transition policy is a mere tokenism
and fails to promote tribal women’s access to forest resources for livelihood, empowerment and gender equity.
Based on finding, I discuss the role of inclusion technique implemented through tribal/forest policies such as
‘quota for women’ at local management level has become an instrument for identity-based exclusion for women’s
forest access rights
Keywords: Tribal women, forest tenure reform, rights, decentralization, exclusion
Bouma, Jetske
Joy, K.J; Lan, Vu Cong; Ramirez, Alexander Lopez;  Steyn,  Maronel
Poverty, Livelihoods and the Conservation of Nature in Biodiversity Hotspots around the World
Given the high incidence of poverty in biodiversity hotspots around the world, protecting biodiversity requires
attention for socio-economic vulnerability and for the linkages between local livelihoods and nature. Earlier,
these linkages were not considered, and biodiversity protection often resulted in the displacement of local
communities for protected area establishment, further increasing their socio-economic vulnerability. Currently,
communities are no longer simply displaced, but it is unclear how biodiversity can be protected while reducing
socio-economic vulnerability at the same time. This paper presents a unique dataset regarding socio-economic
vulnerability and livelihood-nature linkages in biodiversity hotspots around the globe (Costa Rica, India, Vietnam
and South Africa). Using qualitative and quantitative methods, the analysis will focus on the strength of the
livelihood-nature linkages and the local capacity to adapt to external changes and influence decision-making at
multiple scales. In addition, specific attention will be paid to the potential of payment and other incentive
mechanisms to improve local livelihoods and nature conservation at the same time.
Keywords: adaptive capacity, livelihood-nature linkages, Protected Area management, multi-level governance,
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Bravo, Giangiacomo
Vallino, Elena
An Experimentally Grounded Model of Common-Pool Resource Management
The exploitation of open-access natural resources is often modeled as a social dilemma with no escape for
rational actors. Nevertheless, real individuals are not helplessly trapped in the dilemma and can achieve
sustainability on their commons by building management institutions (e.g. Berkes et al. 2003; Ostrom 1990).
Recent theoretical work has shown that actor’s beliefs regarding the state and the dynamics of the resource
represent a key factor in understanding the emergence of institutions for commons management. More specifically,
Bravo (2010) presented a simple analytical model, along with a more complex agent-based one, designed to
study common-pool resource management problems, with a specific focus on the relation between agents’
beliefs and institutions. Both model highlighted the relation between the dynamics of agents’ beliefs and the
institutional building process.
Bravo’s model focused on the relation between micro-level beliefs held by agents and macro-level institutional
changes. More specifically, each agent, besides having access to public information regarding the current state of
the resource, held private beliefs about how this state should be and about the best actions to reach it. Agent’s
beliefs subsequently aggregated into institutional rules through a voting process. While in absence of institutions
the competition among agents led to the exclusion from the game of “conservationist” beliefs and to the depletion
of the common resource, the introduction of the possibility of building institutions significantly improved resource
use, both economically and ecologically: a conclusion in line with the findings of CPR literature based on field
research (e.g. Marshall 2005; Ostrom 1990, 2005; Ostrom et al. 2002).
One of the main findings of Bravo’s study was that the introduction of a management institution changed the
agents’ belief dynamics. More specifically, the institution succeeded in reducing the erosion of “conservationist”
beliefs due to competition among agents. While this clearly resulted in more sustainable management practices,
the relation between beliefs and institutions was actually a two-way one. The initial distribution of beliefs
represented an important factor in influencing institutional evolution and, hence, management outcomes. Below
a certain threshold of the initial belief distribution no institution was indeed implemented and agents were
unable to escape from the tragedy of the commons.
Although empirically plausible, all the arguments presented above are the outcome of theoretical work. The goal
of the current research is hence both to test the model and to evaluate empirically some of its parameters. Starting
from Bravo’s model, we developed an experimental platform where real individuals control virtual agents in a
forestry scenario. The platform is designed such that the analysis of participants’ behavior in the virtual environment
allows to make inferences on their beliefs. We are currently performing pilot tests to fix the details of the
experimental design, before proceeding with the proper experiment which is scheduled for the late summer or
early autumn. Our goal is both to validate the model and to provide evidence linking the emergence of CPR
management institutions with the evolution of participant’s beliefs. The experimental results will be subsequent
used to calibrate the model parameters. This will give greater empirical plausibility to the model and will represent
a starting point for the inclusion in the model of further details regarding both the agent’s cognitive processes and
the functioning of the commons management institution
Keywords: institutions, beliefs, experiment
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Bray, David B.
The Enchantment of Community: The Commons and Forest Enterprises in Mexico
Community management of natural resources was deconstructed into interaction between internal and external
institutions by Agrawal and Gibson (1999), suggesting a “disenchantment” with the concept of community. As
well, the study of organizations has been significantly displaced by the study of institutions as sets of rules. But
local communities engaging in commercial timber production from common property forests, the Mexican case,
requires a reconsideration of both. The forest commons in Mexico is both informed by indigenous cultural roots
in many cases and is also a massive, state-directed and regulated governance template that has evolved for
almost a century. The significant degree of trust and social capital, resulting in collective action, required to
establish a community forest enterprise (CFE) builds upon and creates a strong sense of community in the traditional
sense. The process also requires innovations in how organizations of actors create new institutions through selfimposed rules. As the most valuable forest product, timber production requires institutional, organizational, and
cultural innovations that many other lesser-value forest products do not. The paper evaluates the factors that
have led to the establishment of thousands of CFEs at varying levels of vertical integration and effective forest
management in Mexico. When forest resources are large, these factors led to sophisticated vertically integrated
CFEs that are competitive in the international forest products market and have led to significant gains in poverty
alleviation, economic equity and biodiversity conservation. Smaller forests may display lower levels of collective
action. The Mexican case, and other emerging cases elsewhere in Latin America, force a positive reevaluation of
the potential of the forest commons for timber production as a vehicle for rural economic development. (Panel
ID 248, Commons Research in Latin America, organizers:Lichtenstein and Robson
Keywords: forest commons, community forest enterprises, collective action, economic development
Bruns, Bryan Randolph
Design Patterns for Customizing Irrigation Governance
How can experience with good solutions for institutional design be shared in ways that help customize solutions
for diverse situations? In their pattern language for architecture and regional planning, Christopher Alexander
and colleagues (1977) identified key elements of successful vernacular architectures, which could then be
selectively combined and customized to fit particular situations. Similarly, institutional design patterns could be
helpful in developing and adapting governance for commons. A semantic mediawiki offers a useful platform for
sharing design patterns, and collaborating to identify and develop design patterns, as part of the semantic web
(Berners-Lee 2001). Elinor Ostrom’s (1990, 1992) design principles for commons, and more specific principles
for irrigation governance identified by Trawick (2001, 2003) and Merrey (1996) illustrate design patterns useful
for customizing irrigation governance.
Keywords: commons, governance, institutional design, irrigation, water
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Calvan, Dennis Fernandez
Ablola, Jay Martin S.
Commercialization of Coastal Areas in CALABARZON Area, Philippines
The authors see the CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon Provinces) Region in the
Philippines as a microcosm of a national social condition, wherein government policies and priorities that
encourage highly extractive fishing industries and commercialization of coastal zones impact the everyday lives
of municipal fisherfolks. The CALABARZON Region, being near to the country’s capital, has become highly
vulnerable to exploitation since the region has been widely developed and has received its fair share of public
and private investments from both local and foreign investors. This leads to the conversion of mangroves to
fishponds and virtual privatization of foreshore to make way for beach resorts and private recreational areas.
Eventually, this resulted in the displacement of municipal fisherfolks from their communal areas for drying fish
and seaweeds and from their traditional fishing grounds. The paper documents the experiences of fishing
communities in the Municipality of Calatagan in Batangas, the Municipality of Tanay in Rizal and the Municipality
of Real in Quezon as they struggled to get their fair share of the fishery resource. The paper analyzes how current
policy regimes and history of overexploitation of natural resources created social conditions of reduced fish
catch and reduced income from fishing. It concludes that virtual privatization and commercialization of coastal
areas posed serious threats to ‘community property rights’ as gains from decade-long implementation of
Community-Based Coastal Resources Management. The paper suggests for a shift in policy framework towards
the sustainable management of common pool resources as the focus of government’s development plans
Keywords: governance
Caron, Armelle
Boisvert, Valérie
Institutional Analysis of the Niger Basin Water Governance
The objective of our communication is to present results from the Work Package 4 (Institutional Analysis) of the
Basin Focal Project (BFP) Niger -one of ten projects commissioned by the CGIAR Challenge Program Water and
Food to study the links between water, food and poverty at the basin scale. Our main objective was to analyse
how the present complex institutional framework responds to sustainable (or integrated) water resource
management challenges in the Niger Basin. Among these critical issues is increasing competition over water
resources (as a result of climatic and anthropogenic changes) and greater water conflict risks. 
The Niger Basin complex institutional framework combines three different levels (local, national and regional –
Niger Basin Authority). The multi-scale interactions and its dynamics were analysed regarding water availability
and water agricultural productivity, poverty alleviation and gender issues. Three main tasks have been carried
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out : (1) Identification and study of the three different scales of Niger Basin institutional and legal framework, (2)
analysis of the key role playing by local institutional framework level (according to the fact that customary laws
remain dominant in all the Niger Basin countries -partly as a result of decentralisation reforms and modern water
and land tenure laws not being implemented) (3) gathering of pertinent institutional data from existing databases
and statistical analysis in order to systematise and complete -in a comparative perspective- the previous analysis.
Keywords: water, institutions, trans boundary, legal pluralism
Chandi, Manish
Arthur, Mohan
Comparing the Structure of Common Property Resource Systems Based on Social Organization
and Resource Availability in the Nicobar Islands
There is growing global concern to influence, encourage and assist societies to conserve the integrity of natural
ecosystems, and to ensure that their use is equitable and ecologically sustainable. This concern has stemmed
from the realisation of increasing scarcity of natural resources as well as our propensity to maximize short-term
individual gain over long-term benefit to society at large. Over the past few decades sociological and conservation
research has probed resource utilisation methods and contexts to understand our propensity to consume. The
interdisciplinary nature of such research has provided greater understanding on evolutionary facets of human
cooperation and conflict, the success and failures of different conservation strategies as well as the dynamics of
common property systems.
In this paper I approach common property natural resource systems that are subject to social, economic and
ecological change to understand how management strategies are affected. I also explore facets of resilience that
a society may use to tide over such change. Natural as well as technological hazards pock mark the planet’s
surface increasingly, impacting the natural
world as well as handicapping societies dependent on them. I attempt to elucidate a mechanism of understanding
socio-ecological change that such perturbations bring about on the human-ecosystem relationships.
The Nicobar Islands form the focus of my study where I compare the structure of common property resource
systems based on social organization and resource availability. Being one of the most severely affected regions
by the tsunami of 2004, there have been dramatic shifts in
natural resource availability; rehabilitation measures and attitudinal shifts have also contributed to changes in
subjective values attributed to resources that contribute to the local economy and ethnic identity. I use the
changes in resource availability, and a gamut of values attributed to resources to understand adaptations within
common property resource management systems.
Keywords: socio-ecological change, traditional resource management systems, Nicobar Islands, tsunami, resilience.
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Chandrappagari, Suvarna
Dyda, Venkat Raj
Restoration of Common Lands for Enhancing Livelihoods of Rural Communities: A Case Study of
GO-NgO Collaboration in Andhra Pradesh
Common lands in rural areas are considered to be important life support systems for the rural economy affecting
agriculture, livestock and various other livelihoods of communities. Grazing on the commons is crucial to the
viability of most of the small and marginal holders, particularly in upland areas like Rayalaseema and in other
rain-fed farming systems across Andhra Pradesh. Half the agrarian livelihoods are directly and indirectly linked to
animal husbandry and, therefore, commons play an important role in sustaining the livelihoods of those rearing
small and large ruminants. However, productivity of these common lands is declining in the state due to excessive
exploitation of natural resources and poor management practices. More over, the very existence of common
lands is under threat due to encroachments by vested interests and lack of comprehensive policy on the
management of commons by the communities. There are no specific rights and responsibilities assigned to the
communities either in the form of tenure or ownership over the commons. In the above context, a collaborative
arrangement between the Rural Development Department of Government of Andhra Pradesh and NGO networks
was established for strengthening the efforts to conserve, develop and protect common lands through community
involvement in two districts; Anantapur and Chittoor under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
(NREGS). This paper discusses about the processes involved in the collaboration, organizing the community/
strengthening the Community Based Organizations (CBOs), development of natural resources and livelihoods
enhancement of dependent families in terms of enhanced incomes, livestock and ecological improvements. This
paper also brings out the impact assessment of the programme at qualitative as well as quantitative levels on
natural resource management and livelihoods of the dependent communities in the project area.
Keywords: common lands, natural resources, livelihoods, collaboration, government & NGO networks
Chapagain, Niresh
Community Forestry Development Process: Who Has Influence and Who Is Being Affected
In community forestry development process, diverse actors with different interests are involved. Some may have
a long history of relationships, positive or negative. There are methods for research on the role and status of the
stakeholders involved in the development process at local level. However, there are few tools to assess the
power, interests and legitimacy of actors from the point of view of the stakeholders themselves. The Social
Analysis CLIP method of the Social Analysis System (SAS2) was developed for this purpose. This paper shows the
results of using this method with stakeholders. The purpose was to visualise the stakeholder structure in terms of
power, interests and legitimacy in relation to a specific situation or course of action in 6 CFUGs of eastern areas.
It also examined the history of relationships among the stakeholders in these areas and classified the various Self
Heal Groups, Government Agencies and NGOs  (including Govt/NGO) in terms of the extent to which they are
dominant, forceful, influential, dormant, respected, vulnerable or marginalised actors in the specific situation.
By visualising the stakeholder structure, the process facilitated an actor-based analysis relevant to policy level
and other development facilitators. It suggests the tool can help enhance extra synergy and analytical thinking
through collaborative inquiry involving stakeholders.
Keywords: community forestry, stakeholders, power/legitimacy & interest, synergy for collaboration, social
analysis system
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Chaturvedi, Rohini
‘Greening’ Fiscal Federalism in India: Negotiating Incentives for Forest Conservation
Direct payments for conservation of commons have gained currency in recent years. In India, a somewhat similar
payment has been institutionalized in the practice of fiscal federalism through the Finance Commissions. The
Constitution of India requires the setting up of a Finance Commission every five years for determining state
governments’ share in central taxes as well as the distribution of this share among the twenty eight states. The
Report of the Twelfth Finance Commission (2004) for the first time, recommended a grant-in-aid from the
Government of India to the state governments for the conservation of states’ forest resources. This forest grant
was considerably enhanced by the Thirteenth Finance Commission (2009).
These forest grants are in addition to the regular forestry allocation to the states, and are designed as incentives
to states for maintaining and enhancing forest areas. They reflect recognition that while benefits from forest
conservation are enjoyed by the nation as a whole, conservation imposes costs on states that maintain land
under forest. Further, these costs are differentially distributed amongst the states, depending on the extent of their
forest area and cover.  Consequently incentives are needed to encourage states to continue maintaining land
under forests, in the national interest.
The forest grants represent a negotiated settlement between the Government of India and the state governments,
reached through processes of the Finance Commission. This paper opens with a discussion on the emergence of
a ‘green’ agenda in the fiscal federal system in India. It identifies the factors both within and external to the Finance
Commission that facilitated the emergence of the forest grant. The paper goes on to detail the nature of the
settlement in both Finance Commissions. Finally, on the basis of documentary evidence and interviews, the
paper explores the politics underlying the reaching of the settlement.
Keywords: policy, Finance Commission, fiscal federalism, India
Chaudhry, Shivani
Contesting Dimensions of “Legality”: Occupation of the Commons in India and Brazil
The right to land, though not legally recognized as a human right in international law while increasingly gaining
legal acceptance, has also been recognized as a corollary to the human rights to food, adequate housing, work
and health. For natural resource dependent populations across the world, especially those who depend on land
for their lives and livelihoods, land is not just a productive resource but the basis for their existence and is crucial
to fulfilling the human right to an adequate standard of living and to a life with dignity. Land ownership is also
directly correlated to poverty alleviation. The growing trends of land-grabbing, land alienation, inequality in
land ownership and deprivation and denial of the right to land across the world are not just pushing thousands
further into poverty but also fueling conflict. Without land people lose not just their livelihoods but their culture,
lifestyle, identity, source of food, housing and access to natural resources essential for their survival. Despite the
dismal global trends, there are pockets of hope and people are organizing and developing alternatives and
strategies to retain their land. This paper aims to look at two social movements in India and Brazil that have used
collective action to reclaim land that is not meeting its “social function”. Aimed at dismantling inequality, these
movements use non-violent strategies to bring unused land under the ambit of ownership rights for the landless.
While the models range from arrangements of collective to individual rights, the legality of such struggles is often
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questioned and met with resistance from the state. The paper will analyse existing laws in both countries to
assess the legality of such struggles, while also exploring legal plurality and questioning the limitations of certain
established laws.
Keywords: land ownership, social movements
Cheria, Anita
Edwin, Daniel
Towards a Vocabulary of Commons
The normative base of the ‘language commons’ is language. Language not only expresses what we think, but also
how we can think. The reduction of concepts into law, means that linguistic deficiencies restrict even action—a
serious lacunae indeed, which impedes progress on protection, use and benefits of the physical commons.
‘Commons’ becomes ‘public property’ and then ‘government property’ giving rise to the concept of ‘terra nullius’—
disposable to the favourites by the government in power.
This paper will explore the intimate linkage between language and the commons—how ‘the commons’ have
been translated from practice to restrictive usage and how language can be used as a liberative tool in claiming
the commons.
The term ‘commons’ seem to imply that all have unrestricted access at all times, the reality is that the ‘commons’
were—and are—rigorously defined in access, benefits and control. Significant sections of society are kept out on
the basis of caste, gender or age. Increasingly ‘commons’ are used by the dominant to claim the right to what are
essentially the ‘commons of the poor’ for resource extraction and waste disposal. 
The rich and the powerful have always had their ‘private’ resource base. It is only the poor that had to have their
spaces ‘in common’ to ensure the minimum physical space, just enough for survival.
The idea that ‘commons need commons’ needs to be extended to cover not only the ‘new commons’ but also the
old—legal, intellectual, cultural, social and religious. The land commons needs the air and water commons to
survive. Just as the physical commons need the supportive knowledge commons to survive, the knowledge
commons— needs other types of commons to support it, from culture (religion, tradition) and law (intellectual
property rights, IPR).
Keywords: linguistics, law, information, culture
Cheru, Ayalew Gebre
Resource-Based Inter-Group Conflict, the Role of Pastoral Youths and Small Arms Proliferation
in Nomadic Areas of Ethiopia: The Case of the Karrayu and Their Neighbors in the Upper Awash
Valley Region
Due to intensifying competition over dwindling life-sustaining environmental resources, various nomadic pastoral
groups inhabiting the Awash flood plain frequently clash with one another, as they seek out the best grazing
lands and water points. The need to have unhindered access to the commons for their livestock leads them to
fierce competitions and territorial encroachments. Often, such incidents trigger off outright clashes among the
groups involved.
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Of course, conflicts of the stated nature and types are not recent developments in the history of the pastoral and
agro-pastoral groups in the area under consideration. However, they have taken on various facets and dimensions
over the years, which aspects of the conflict this study is intended to investigate. Furthermore, the recurrence and
intensification of the diverse forms of conflict have given rise to the proliferation of illicit small arms in the area,
a development which has in turn exacerbated the inter-group violence and hostilities. The amount of information
available on the role of pastoral youths as prime actors in the conflict drama is found to be generally inadequate.
Due to the absence of any relevant studies, one cannot therefore say much with any degree of certainty in
reference to these issues. Hence, this research aims to make some contribution by way of filling up the existing
information gap on the subject of the interface between the resource-based inter-group conflicts, the role of
pastoral youths and small arms proliferation in the Upper Awash Valley region.
With a view to situating the research problem in a pastoral context where all major dimensions of the issue are
evident, the study has focused on the Karrayu, a major nomadic group in the region. The selection of this
nomadic group is pertinent in the light of the subject of investigation and the group’s interaction with its immediate
Keywords: pastoral commons, land alienation, inter-group conflict
Chhabra, Prabhjyot Kaur
Phadkule, Abhijeet ; Anturkar, Abhay; Prashant ,Shivaranjan;
Chakrovarthy, Raghav; Jaybhaye ,Atul
An Alternative Model for Governance of Gairan (Grazing Land) in Maharashtra: A Case Study
An attempt is made, in this paper to highlight the lack of legal attention in addressing governance of Commons
in India. Management of gairan (=grazing land), in Pune District, is identified for case study, to amplify the
point. The study is a combination of empirical and doctrinal research. Comparison with the experiences in
different legal systems and evolution of international legal norms on the theme are attempted to draw lessons
from and to make a case for reforms in the Law in India. Co-management is the proposed model for governance
of grazing lands and a draft legislative bill is attempted as a culmination and logical conclusion of the study.
The paper has a logical feel and flow. It is compact and quite a focused study. A welcome research effort that has
produced a draft legislation as well- truly a blue print for legislative drafter. Presents an excellent micro-management
model for a comprehensive legal design for commons, on a wider canvas.
Keywords: grazing lands, governance, co-management, Maharashtra
Chhetri, Bir Bahadur Khanal
Inequality and Forest Dependence on Community Forest Resources in Kaski, Nepal
This paper examines the importance of community forest income, how such income affects the overall income
distribution, and how the amounts of community forest income varies based upon the  characteristics of the user
households. Analyses are based on a household survey of 176 respondents in five selected forest user groups in
Kaski District, Nepal. Overall, community forest income contributed an average of 7.4% of the total household
income, which covers 56% of the total forest income of the user households. The main sources of community
forest income were fuelwood, fodder, ground grass and leafliter. The poor households derived as much as
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13.6% of their total household income from community forests, compared to only 2.1% for the rich households.
The community forest income had a strong equalizing effect on local income distribution, as shown by a Ginicoefficient at 0.38 for total income, against 0.53 when community forest income was excluded.  The study
documents the high importance of community forests for poor and underprivileged households, which underscores
the importance of securing access to community forests for these households.
Keywords: community forests, dependence, household, income inequality, Nepal
Chidambaram, Bhuvanachithra
Vehicle Emission Simulation Model for a Sustainable ‘Greener’ Transport System
This paper attempts to report the preliminary concepts and findings from the initial phase of the research project
‘Sustainable Traffic Solutions on the basis of Vehicle Emission Simulation Models for Hyderabad’. The objective
of this research project is to create a Vehicle emission simulation model for assessment of the pollutant quantities
for pollution related issues such as air quality, health, global warming and to evaluate it with different strategies
(e.g. efficient signal coordination at the traffic signal of the intersections, effective land use and traffic planning
regulations, that improve the air quality in urban areas) for a sustainable transport system. Though the technical
approaches and strategies are necessary for the Hyderabad Traffic Problem, they are not sufficient as a standalone solution. Hence, these approaches and strategies have to be supplemented by an Institutional Analysis
through Institutions of Sustainability (IOS) framework (Gatzweiler, F.; Hagedorn, K. (2002)). This framework
starts with the identification of the properties of existing transactions of vehicle emission in the area of pollution
at regional (Hyderabad) level by defining and identifying the concerned actors that influence the vehicle emission
based upon vehicles technology and its operational variables like average speed and driving modes, fuel type,
engine type, engine capacity, vehicle age, vehicle mix and socio-economic factors like population, income
employment, car-ownership. The data from these actors would then be used for creation of a Transport simulation
model. This simulation model along with its emission attributes would further act as an input to the development
and implementation of Vehicle emission model. This created model then helps to understand, assess and analyze
the emission rates from various actors to determine their pollution contributions, together with the existing
Institution, their policies and governance. This analysis would be useful in contributing to the formulation or
modification of the existing institutional, their rules and policies for implementing emission reduction strategies.
The basic importance of analyzing and developing this model based on the IOS framework is to make it dynamic
to the changes and hence to provide a truly sustainable ‘Greener’ transport solution. 
Keywords: institutions, governance
Claassens, Aninka
Contested Power and Apartheid Tribal Boundaries: Recent Laws and Struggles Over Land Rights
The paper examines conflicting interpretations of the content of land rights and the scope of chiefly power over
land in affidavits by rural litigants and traditional leaders in a court challenge to the constitutionality of the 2003
Communal Land Rights Act in South Africa.  Statements by traditional leaders (who support the new laws) and
rural applicants (who oppose them) are described in the context of the contestations over authority that gave rise
to the legal case.  Disputes over control of land are central to these contestations.  The applicants argue that the
new laws will tilt the balance of power in rural areas in favour of apartheid-created traditional leaders and
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jeopardise recent hard-fought victories by poor people in obtaining land rights and challenging autocratic power. 
The paper argues that chiefs lobbied for the new laws precisely because ongoing contestation in rural areas
illustrates the precariousness of their authority. The new laws are similar to their colonial and apartheid predecessors
in setting apart protected realms of sovereign authority for traditional councils within ethnically delineated tribal
boundaries.  Contestation over these boundaries, of both identity and space, is central to the litigation described.
Also contested is the centralization of land administration powers to the apex of imposed “tribes”.  The applicants
argue that layered decision-making forums are an intrinsic feature of existing land rights and that most land
administration decisions are, in practice, taken at “lower”, more consultative, levels.
Similar issues arose during apartheid and colonialism.  In focusing on the impact of fixed boundaries on layered
systems of authority and indigenous accountability mechanisms, the paper will review historical literature about
the impact of European concepts of territorial sovereignty during colonialism.  It will also discuss the impact of
the requirement that both the identity of the owner and the boundaries of land be delineated when registering
ownership under South African law.
Keywords: land, power, institutions, law
Clement, Floriane
Haileslassie Amare, Ishaq Saba
Intersecting Productivity and Poverty: Lessons from the Ganga Basin
In the Ganga basin in North India, water shortages are a common issue faced by farmers, even in irrigated areas.
Most households in the region rely on farming systems combining crop cultivation and livestock activities.
Access to and control over water supply is thus critical not only for agricultural productivity and food security but
also for the production of sufficient and high quality feed for animals. Because the water requirements of animals
have often been neglected or largely underestimated, scientists have recently explored the scope for increasing
the water use efficiency of livestock through improved feed, animal and water management. However, there has
been little research on the institutional framework required for these interventions to result not only in enhanced
productivity but also in poverty alleviation and reduced inequalities. This paper addresses this gap by investigating
the multi-scale and multi-sectoral institutional challenges linked with livestock water productivity interventions
in North India. Three major issues are discussed: equitable access and control over water, democratic
decentralisation for locally-grounded interventions, and a coordinated and integrated frame for government
action. Based on observations and findings from nine case study villages across three districts of the Ganga Basin,
a series of recommendations are proposed for policy-makers at district and national level.
Keywords: livestock water productivity; access, decentralization, cross-sectoral, Ganga Basin
Clerc, Johanna
Tenure Security and Oil Palm expansion on Customary Lands in Indonesia, Case Study in West
This paper presents the results of a masters thesis in Kapuas Hulu district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. While
forests here are legally owned by the central state, their operational management is vested in difference state
actors, including the forest department, the department of conservation and the department of agriculture. Forest
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resource access and management is also subject to the customary rules and norms of Dayak and Malay ethnic
groups. Using Schlager and Ostrom (1992) bundle of rights approach, the study explores the range of rights to
forest resources held by local resource users, the evolution of these rights and the authority systems underpinning
them. It pays particular attention to factors influencing rule enforcement, compliance and overall tenure security
in a setting characterized by multiple and overlapping authorizing agents. Possible mechanisms for coordination
and conflict resolution are proposed. The study contributes to a better understanding of the factors affecting
property rights of forest-dwelling and forest adjacent communities against a backdrop of rapid transformation
related to migration, deforestation, biofuels expansion and other related pressures.
Keywords: Natural Resource Management, right security, land tenure, forest, West Kalimantan
Cocchiaro, Gino
Bavikatte, Kabir
Implementing a Traditional Knowledge Commons: A Community Approach to Ensuring the Local
Integrity of Environmental Law and Policy
Under the Convention on Biological Diversity, international negotiators are currently developing an International
Regime on Access and Benefit Sharing (IRABS). While this inchoate international legal framework primarily
addresses commercial research on traditional knowledge, many questions remain about how this framework will
affect non-commercial research agreements. This paper therefore presents a possible model for a Traditional
Knowledge Commons designed to address some of these questions, such as how one differentiates non-commercial
from commercial use of TK and how one defines benefits. The proposed model is formulated to provide a middle
ground where traditional knowledge can be promoted and circulated without having to place it either into the
public domain or deny access to it entirely. This Traditional Knowledge Commons would provide a platform for
knowledge-sharing under conditions created by indigenous communities themselves and protected by a set of
online user licenses requiring compliance with customary laws that govern the use of traditional knowledge. In
addition to outlining how the model would be structured and how its online licensing system would function,
this paper will examine the potential benefits of the model functioning as a system through which innovations
developed through the use of traditional knowledge could be returned to the Traditional Knowledge Commons,
further expanding this collective pool of knowledge and increasing the potential benefits that may be derived
from it. Although the model would ultimately need to rely on the compliance mechanisms provided by the
finalized IRABS, this paper also assesses the potential enforcement problems with which the Traditional Knowledge
Commons may have to contend. Finally, it concludes with an analysis of the model’s potential for strengthening
the self-determination of indigenous communities as well as the protection of biological diversity to which their
traditional knowledge is inextricably linked.
Keywords: traditional knowledge, access and benefit sharing, convention on biological diversity, open source,
protected commons
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Coleman, Eric A.
Mitigating the Tragedy of the Anti-Commons: Institutions and Resource Access after Rangeland
Privatization in Kenya’s Maasailand
Property arrangements in the Maasai rangelands of Kenya have over the past four decades undergone a major
transformation from collective group ranches to individual holdings. More recently, new pasture access and
management arrangements involving the reunification of individually-owned parcels is emerging, despite
theoretical predictions that high (and monotonically increasing) transactions and strategic costs of coordinating
fragmented resource users can impede such cooperation. This paper establishes why Maasai herders seek to
reconsolidate their individually held and titled land parcels; the institutional content of these emerging
arrangements; and their impacts on local livelihoods and ecologies. Focus groups and household surveys across
8 group ranches subdivided in the early 80s and early 90s provide data that suggest that parcel reconsolidation
is mostly a collective response to environmental risk, and that newly-crafted rules and pre-existing norms coordinate
joint use and management of individual land. Seasonal migration under conditions of severe drought is a
widespread strategy for coping with risk. Shared pastures are perceived to be in better ecological condition (i.e
with higher cover of desired, perennial grass species) than those restricted to individual use, which have a higher
cover of less-favored, annual grass species. Incomes are however higher among herders who pursue mixed
strategies i.e. reconsolidate pastures but also who lease-in pastures in an emerging marketization process. The
Livestock Department and other external agencies are well-positioned to provide information, resources and
overall support to strengthen these adaptive responses.
Keywords: property rights, privatization, institutions, rangelands, Maasai, Kenya, group ranches
Coleman, Eric A.
Property Rights, Adaptive Capacity, and Adaptation Strategies in Response to Forest Disturbance:
Household Evidence from Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico, and Uganda
I analyze property rights of forest users and assess how such rights interact with adaptive capacity to constrain or
enhance the propensity of users to engage in specific adaptation strategies in response to disturbance. Property
rights are assessed in terms of rights of access, withdrawal, management, exclusion, and alienation. Capacity is
measured in terms of household asset holdings, networks of cooperation, the presences of rival user groups, and
access to information. The theoretical position is that those with different types of property rights are likely to
harvest less from the forest only when specific types of adaptive capacity favor such a response. For example,
forest users who have management rights and are isolated from rival groups are likely to harvest less after a
disturbance, but users with management rights, and no exclusion rights, are not likely to do so. Rights of alienation,
often seen as the \emph{sin qua non} of property rights, are expected to have negative effects on environmentally
sustainable adaptation strategies. The theory is then tested using household survey data which was collected as
part of a joint research effort between the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Program (IFRI) and the
Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM).
The surveys were administered to households in research sites located in Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico, and Uganda.
I find empirical support for many, although, not all of the propositions about the interactions between property
rights and adaptive capacity.
Keywords: property rights, adaptation, forestry, Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico, Uganda
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Cominelli, Francesca
Governance of the Cultural Commons: The Case of Traditional Craftsmanship in France
This research focuses on traditional craftsmanship, Cultural Commons recognised by the UNESCO Convention
of 2003 as being part of Intangible Cultural Heritage. The paper will develop three main questions. Firstly, how
can traditional craftsmanship be defined? Secondly, what are the main forms of protection and governance of
traditional craftsmanship in the framework of French cultural policy? Finally, what new kind of institutional and
administrative innovations can be considered to manage traditional craftsmanship?
The methodology adopted is based both on literature survey and field work. About 40 interviews to artisans and
20 interviews to policy makers and organizations have been realized in the past two years.
The definition of traditional craftsmanship will take into account the following elements:
- the tangible and intangible components: the territory and its specific features, natural and material resources,
tools and machines as well as the intangible factors rooted in the territory, like the community social and
cultural capital, historic events and traditions;
- the Commons and private dimension: it considers how common resources collectively owned, like community
social and cultural capital, knowledge and natural resources, interact with the private property of the craftsman.
Those elements are all fundamental to investigate the relations among craftsmen, community, and territory.
Given the definition of traditional craftsmanship, the second step will be to describe the existing French cultural
policy and its strengths and weaknesses.
Finally, considering the main changes of today’s global economy, and the new issues of the UNESCO Convention
of 2003, we wonder how a cultural policy based on a Commons approach could be defined. Presenting some
specific cases of study like the Aubusson tapestry and the Nancy glassmaking, we will discuss what kind of
policy intervention based on community participation could facilitate the evolution and the safeguard of
craftsmanship, as Cultural Common.
Keywords: craftsmanship, intangible cultural heritage, UNESCO Convention, cultural policy, cultural commons
Conner, Dan
System dynamics modeling in Rajasthan: Student Perspective
In December 2009, an international group of social scientists, forest ecology experts, energy engineers, and
system dynamics modelers gathered on the outskirts of the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary to scrutinize localized,
progressive deforestation and the linkages to livelihoods of populations that depend on forest products extracted
from within the federal delineations. This study, conducted for the purpose of designing sustainable conservation
policy, utilized participatory rural appraisal methods and expert testament to tap into local knowledge and
account for discrete behavioral aspects. A heavy reliance on community participation as well as group model
building afforded the construction of a system dynamics model that helps to quantify and map the economic
decisions of village households located within and around the sanctuary and the resulting ecological impacts on
the sanctuary. The resulting research model can be utilized to further study the depletion of this natural resource
due to human activity, and after subsequent model analysis and field testing, to suggest potential strategic points
of intervention and conservation policy. This paper identifies what worked, what didn’t, and how to improve
future efforts from the student perspective.
Keywords: system dynamics, livelihoods
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Conrado, Marquez Rosano
Carmen Legorreta Díaz
The ‘Trust Factor’ in the Management of Forest Resources in Rural Communities in Central
In this paper, we reflect upon trust as a key factor in the interaction between various actors involved in the
management of forest resources in two rural communities (ejidos) situated on the edge of the Iztaccihuatl –
Popocatepetl national park in mountainous the central region of Mexico. In so doing, we highlight the importance
of social capital in the management of common property resources.
 From studies and work experience carrying out a land-use planning exercise in two rural forest communities, we
discuss the importance of the trust factor in the relationship between the actors involved in decision-making over
the management of natural resources from a long-term perspective. The degree of of trust between the forest
engineer (the assigned forestry expert, responsible for the community forest management plan, derived from
national forestry laws), the technical-academic team of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (conducted studies
for territorial planning) and community foresters conditioned stakeholder decision-making. This must be understood
in the context of a regional process of land-use planning, carried out by the national environmental authorities.
We also observed that the level of trust between the community members and forest owners themselves enables
or limits the development of more complex forest management techniques and their transformation into forest
From the analysis of these processes this paper explores the importance of trust factor as well as the conditions
that might permit the creation of a community land-use plan to agree, in order to preserve the forest as a commons
that benefits all.
Keywords: land-use planning, ejido, social capital, territorial appropriation, Puebla (Mexico)
Cousins, Ben
The Politics of Scale: Nested Land Rights and Flexible Boundaries in Msinga District, South Africa
This paper describes land tenure in the Msinga district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and explores issues of
scale, boundaries and nestedness in ‘communal tenure’ regimes. Key features of the tenure regime include
flexible (internal and external) boundaries between user groups, and multiple and nested layers of social identity,
land rights and land administration. The district has a history of violent conflict over tribal territory and land
resources, and recent national policies and legislation aimed at transferring private title to these ‘communities’
has the potential to spark yet more conflict. The transfer of title approach embodied in the Communal Land
Rights Act of 2004 would involve the imposition of fixed rather than flexible boundaries between resource user
groups, centralize land administration in traditional councils at the expense of local land users, and undermine
mechanisms for the downward accountability of institutions to rights holders. Additional complexities arise as a
result of land reform in the district, which has seen the transfer of ownership of farms to groups of former labour
tenants. These groups retained their ‘tribal’ affiliations over decades of labour tenancy, but are anxious that they
should not lose effective control of resources on the transferred farms through the centralization of land
administration. The paper argues that cross-scale relationships in land tenure and resource use are inherently
political, and that accountability of institutions to rights holders is a key issue for law and policy.
Keywords: institutions, governance, community, customary law
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Craig, Johnson
Violence and the Commons: An Epistemology of Rights, Access and Exclusion
Access to the commons is often contested on the basis of formal rules, informal norms, and violence. However,
violence occupies an ambiguous place in the literature on common property, collective action and the commons.
Although struggles over access and entitlement certainly feature strongly, the normative-theoretical terms on
which threats and acts of violence may be used to define and defend the commons are often undertheorized, and
unclear. Under what conditions, for instance, does the defence of common property justify the use of violence
and intimidation? Are there particular circumstances or particular types of commons that legitimate violent
action? This paper explores these questions by outlining a framework for understanding the normative-theoretical
relationship between violence and the commons. It does so by theorizing the ethical and political terms on
which violence may be used to legitimate rights of access and exclusion in a variety of common property
Keywords: institutions, governance, conflict, property rights
Crewett, Wibke Katharina
Implementing Institutional Innovations for Decentralized Pasture Governance in Kyrgyzstan
The paper explores the introduction of institutional innovations for decentralized pasture governance in postsocialist Central Asia. The study case is the implementation of a new pasture law in Kyrgyzstan which shifts
management authority for all 9.2 million hectares of pastures to community based Pasture User Committees. The
paper studies how the reform legislation is translated into collective choice working rules that are being used for
creating these community-based groups.
The case study consists of a legal analysis and empirical material which was collected in autumn 2009 in three
municipalities in northern Kyrgyzstan. The analysis showed that two overlapping processes of Pasture User
Committee establishment occurred during 2009. First, local level administrators had crafted rules based on their
interpretation of the new pasture law, and second, rules were being established by a government-mandated
implementing agency. The emerging working rules are only partly impacted by hierarchically organized nested
decision making arenas. Instead, decision making arenas seem loosely linked and sometimes fully in parallel.
Further, it occurred that field staff of the implementing agency had employed their own heuristics by setting the
rules which appear most applicable. The paper therefore suggests a modified framework for studying the translation
of formal into effective working rules. It uses Kiser and Ostroms’ linking levels of analysis framework by extending
it with assumptions from implementation research.
Keywords: pasture, self-governance, Kyrgyzstan, case study
Cronkleton, Peter
Commons Diversity in Bolivia’s Forest Tenure Reform: Lessons Learned and Continued Challenges
for Forest Dependent People
Forest commons appear in different forms and under diverse institutional arrangements in Bolivia’s eastern
lowlands. Such commons have a long history in the customary systems of indigenous people, peasants and
traditionally forest dependent rural populations. Attempts to formalize such property rights over recent decades
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have responded to claims based on ethnicity, livelihoods systems as well as bureaucratic expediency. The resulting
property models have include indigenous territories known as TCOs, communal lands for agro-extractive
communities, communal areas within colonist settlements, and collective concessions for local logging associations.
The reform processes have produced a diverse mix of property characteristics, heterogeneous collections of
rights holders and a geographical spread across various forest types in the lowlands that provide an ideal opportunity
to examine how property rights formalization can affect forest commons and the people that use them. The
factors that influence the viability of the properties created by these reforms include how closely the new rights
reflect existing livelihood systems, whether the scale and form of properties can be managed by existing institutional
arrangements and whether state agencies effectively defend the legitimacy of newly defined property rights. By
examining these experiences, the paper identifies lessons learned that could be useful for supporting the well
being of forest dependent people.
Keywords: Bolivia, forest management, tenure reform, indigenous people
Cullet, Philippe
Regulation of Drinking Water Supply in Rural Areas in India – From ‘Provision’ of Water by the
State to ‘Access’ through Decentralised Governance
Drinking water supply in rural areas in India has gone through a series of policy reforms over the past fifteen
years, starting with the World Bank Swajal project, followed by the adoption of the Swajaldhara Guidelines,
2002 based on the latter project and a 2009 reform, the National Rural Drinking Water Programme.
The reforms introduced have comprehensively redefined the policy framework for drinking water supply in rural
areas by moving away from supply-led to demand-led management, by changing the basic understanding of
water from a social right to an economic good and by seeking to ensure the disengagement of the government in
favour of local communities.
Ongoing reforms have a number of major implications. This includes, for instance, their impact on the realisation
of the human right to water. In principle, the human right is not challenged. Yet, recent decisions to move away
from a per capita understanding of its fulfilment in favour of the household-based notion of drinking water
security has the potential to dilute the content of the right.
This paper examines ongoing policy reforms of drinking water supply in rural areas in the context of the broader
water law reforms that have been implemented in various Indian states over the past decade. The legal framework
governing drinking water is paramount importance because it conditions the realisation of the human right to
water firmly established in the Supreme Court’s case law. The absence of a framework drinking water legislation
is all the more surprising in the context of the informal, and progressively formal, avenues towards water
Keywords: drinking water, water law, India, water sector reforms, decentralization
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Ramana, D.V.
Addressing the “Tragedy of Commons” through “Social Capital”: Experiment and Experience
from India
In this paper we intend to share our experiments and experiences of addressing the tragedy of commons (Hardin
1968) through creation of social capital. We examine whether the presence of social capital helps in improving
the productivity of a group of micro and mini enterprises. The empirical observations have enabled us to
demonstrate that trust, reciprocity, networks, and civic engagements which are different facets of social capital
(Elinor 2007) can help in improving the performance of the individual members of the street vending community
and in the process avoid the tragedy of commons.
The experiment is located in the State Capital of Orissa, one of the economically backward states of India. The
focus of our experiment is on three important parties: the vendors, the municipal corporation, and the state
government. These vendors own un-organized mini enterprises and come from economically weaker sections of
the society. Most of these vendors are also the first or second generation migrants to the urban areas of the state.
Most of them stay in one of the largest slums of the state capital. We have used the action research methodology
to undertake the experiment. Interactions on day-to-day basis, and participation in the regular meetings of the
vendors are the important tools for the researcher.
Keywords: social capital, governance
Das, Sanjukta
Community Effort to Environment Protection and Poverty Reduction in a Backward Area in
Long before the Government’s realization of the people’s positive role in the local natural resource management
(and the declaration of National Forest Policy, 1988), people in Nabra village (in the Kaptipada Subdivision of
Mayurbhanj District of Orissa) under the effective leadership of Mr. Narottam Das, a local school teacher have
started protecting a part (104 hectare of forest land) of the denuded local sal forest ( Nabra Reserve Forest).
Forming a local voluntary organization, Banasathy in 1985, it mobilized the people for plantation and protection
of the trees. After enactment of Orissa JFM Act, this community protection group was converted into a VSS and
is performing its role with the support of the Forest Department. 
Situated in the foothill of Simlipal National Park, with a high percentage of ST and SC population, characterized
by low educational and economic status, this area provides a unique example of conservation and management
of natural resources. Conservation work provides employment opportunities. It also improves the forest quality
and provides sustainable livelihood opportunities from the collection, processing and marketing of important
non-timber forest products like sal seeds and sal leaves. A family engaged in the sal leaves collection gets on
average Rs 1000 per month. From that point of view its role in poverty reduction must be recognized. The
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villagers guard the forest on rotation and take different steps to prevent tree felling and forest encroachment.
This paper studies the process of organization of the group, supple and demand management of forest products
by the people, using the new institutional economics framework. It also explains how it has devised new institutions
to handle the new problems.
Keywords: community forest management, empirical work, new-institutional economics, Nabra Reserve Forest,
Mayurbhanj, Orissa
Das, Saudamini
Sustaining Mangrove Forests to Reduce Vulnerability from Climate Change
Mangrove forests provide a range of welfare enhancing services to humans, but they also provide life support
during calamities like tropical storms by reducing the probability of death. The coastal regions of India face a
maximum threat from tropical cyclones due to climate change as these areas are situated at the coast of one of the
core areas of cyclogenesis, namely, the Bay of Bengal. Studies on vulnerability indexing of these areas to cyclone
and storm surge risks have identified Kendrapada district of East Coast of India to be either the most or the second
most vulnerable district of the country. We study the 262 villages lying within a 10 km distance from the coast of
the Kendrapada district and compare the relative vulnerability of these villages by estimating the village wise
probability of facing human fatality due to severe storms. We calculate such probability from a cyclone impact
(human deaths) function where a wide range of factors including natural ecosystems like presence of mangrove
forest are used to control for the exposure and adaptive capacity of the villages. Presence or absence of mangroves
comes out as an important factor impacting vulnerability. Villages established after clearing the forest in mangrove
habitat areas and those with more marginal workers are found to face a very high death risk and villages situated
in the leeward side of existing mangrove forest are seen to be facing a much lower risk of deaths. The results have
important implications for conservation of mangrove forests in cyclone prone areas and also in the design of
development policies for villages established in the mangrove habitat.
Keywords: coastal vulnerability, human mortality, mangrove forests, mangrove habitat, Orissa
Das, Smriti
Power, Institutions and Social Exclusion- Case Study of Nabarangpur, Orissa
The literature on commons is replete with theories and instances of collective action and decentralized management
of resources with an outcome that is environmentally, economically and socially geared towards common good.
However, collective good is not always a desired outcome in managing common resources.  The collective
conundrum has another face as well where outcomes are mediated by individual and institutional preferences.
This interplay between individual and collective interests/preferences and institutional mediation is contingent
on various socio-economic and political factors, resource status and its historic use pattern.
This paper will capture various nuances of such interplay within a resource boundary and examine the collective
good hypothesis. The context of the study is unique in terms of locating state-induced development impetus that
triggered influx of migrant groups/communities within the resource boundary. The opening of the social matrix
to these occasional interferences multiplied the power alignments resulting in manifest scarcity of resource. This
scarcity and power interplay resulted in disenfranchising some groups/communities while many others prospered.
Subsequently, policy processes further concentrated power in the hands of few.
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Based in Nabarangpur district of Orissa, this paper will highlight the socio-political processes that resulted in
disenfranchisement of the forest dwelling communities. The analysis will bring in a comparative assessment of
the status of various groups/communities and explain how inequitable outcomes were mediated by institutional
factors. In the concluding section, the paper will synthesize these debates in the larger context of collective
management of commons to highlight situations where collective action and common good may not be an ideal
outcome. The paper draws largely from the study on politics of policy making in the context of forestland
encroachment that was undertaken as doctoral work by the author.
Keywords: social exclusion, power interplay, institutions, forest dwelling communities, Orissa
Dash, Tushar
Forest Rights Act; Changing the Paradigm of Conservation and Natural Resource Governance
The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006, implemented
by the Government of India since January 2008, has offered to resolve long pending issues of reform in the forest
tenure and governance system to ensure livelihood security of forest communities and conservation of forest and
Early trends in implementation at the field level indicate that the law has made significant gains in terms of -
Recognizing rights which cover the diversity of resource based livelihoods, community conservation initiatives,
practices and indigenous traditional knowledge and culture.
Establishing institutions of governance at the grassroots which are pro-poor and which provide opportunity to
redefine conservation governance.
Restoring community ownership over forest and wildlife.
Empowering communities to deal with pressure and threats on the common property resources from resource
extractive development in form of mining and industry, commercial plantation, biofuel, etc.
Opening new avenues for natural resource development by creating opportunity of convergence with other laws
and government programs like NREGA, watershed development.
Being a new law gaps are observed in the process of implementation particularly with regard to determination,
verification and recognition of forest rights.  The law also faces challenges from other laws and policies relating
to forest and wildlife such as Wildlife Protection Act, Joint Forest Management (JFM) policy etc.
The paper draws from field research and case studies on the process of implementation of the Act in the state of
Orissa particularly focusing on community conservation groups who have used the law to strengthen protection
and management of forest and protected areas. While discussing the early gains brought in by the law in the field
of common property resource management it also reflects on issues and gaps in implementation offering suggestions
to bridge implementation gaps.
Keywords: forest, rights, livelihood, conservation, Orissa
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David, Groenfeldt
Looking Beyond (and Below) Institutions: The Role of Cultural Values in Sustaining Water Resources
While the economic and institutional dimensions of common property management are well recognized,
comparatively little attention has been addressed to the underlying cultural values that influence (and in my
view, determine) the rules and behaviors by which natural resources are managed.  Using the example of the
Santa Fe River in New Mexico, USA, the past 25 years of river governance experience are analyzed for clues
about how management choices were made.  Evidence is taken from historical documents and from the author’s
four years of direct involvement with a local NGO dedicated to river restoration.  While economic considerations
have been central features of river management decisions, the operative framework has been “folk economics”
intricately intertwined with cultural values and ethics about the rightful use of the river, derived from 19
water laws, which in turn reflect the dominant cultural values of that era.  Similarly, the institutional context of
river management is predicated on the same legal/cultural framework.  The practical outcome is an ecologically
dead river, whose entire surface flow is impounded by for municipal water supply, earning it the designation as
“America’s Most Endangered River” in 2007.  The Santa Fe River represents a much larger dilemma facing water
management in the Western United States: the institutional framework promotes water extraction with effectively
no protection for river ecosystems.  Reforming governance to include more diverse stakeholders can help but
will not solve the problem of resource depletion unless those stakeholders have both the power (governance)
and the will (values) to protect the river.  Sustainable water resources depend upon a recognition of the role that
values are already playing in management decisions in order to target reforms not only on the institutions, but on
the underlying values as well.
Keywords: culture, ethics, water, environment, values
Davis, Andrea Paige
Consequences of ‘Conservation’: A Critical Look at Namibian Communal Conservancies
Each individual, organization and nation has a different idea of ‘conservation’. The concept is so intangible,
despite its status as a moral ‘good’ and possibly even a percieved moral duty, now that climate change has
become a household phrase. The intangibility of ‘conservation’ leaves much leeway through which the
unequalizing vehicle of capitalism can maneuver. This paper will address relationships between the political,
economic and social factors in the changes at play in the Kuene region of Northwestern Namibia, home to the
indigenous Himba pastoral people and birthplace of the community conservation model. This post-structural
political ecology approach in ‘new ecological thinking’ will focus on how the institutional nexus of power,
wielded through wildlife conservation, restricts continuation of alternative livelihoods. Conservation, seen as
inherently ‘good’ in the discourse of Development, holds disadvantageous consequences for traditional livelihoods,
as is seen upon investigation of community-based conservancies in Namibia and their effect on the Himba
people. This claim will be investigated through the case of the United States Agency for Development’s (USAID)
award-winning Living in a Finite Environment (LIFE) community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)
program in Northwestern Namibia. I will investigate the theory that nature reserves at large tend to be the
‘beginning of the end’ for pastoralist livelihoods, as applied to the Himba.
Keywords: Namibia, conservation, pastoralism
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De Castro, Fabio
The Challenge of Formalizing Informal Rules in the Amazonian Floodplain: Linking Local, Regional
and National Politics
The call for co-management systems including state and non-state actors has been recently taken by many
governments in developing countries. The recent literature analyzing those initiatives usually focuses on one of
the three layers of politics. First, the everyday politics focuses on the informal social interactions among individuals
and stakeholders shaping up the managed system. Second, the social movement politics focuses on collective
actions among direct users and among stakeholders in participation in the decisions regarding the management
system. Third, the formal politics including the legal framework under which the management system is built up.
The integration of the three layers of politics is fundamental to understand how their interplay influences the
design, implementation, and monitoring of co-management systems and how participation in decisions is
negotiated and defined. In this paper I analyze the process of implementation of the floodplain co-management
in the Lower Amazon through the creation of an agro-extractive reserve in the region. I aim to show how the
integration of the three layers of politics helps to shed some lights on the tension between cooperation and
conflict in the formalization of local management. Furthermore, the analysis will show how cooperation among
local users, which is usually assumed by policy makers, can constrained by internal conflicts as much as the
disputes among different stakeholders can be minimized by common interests across heterogeneous actors. A
discussion on opportunities and limitations in the formalization of informal rules will be presented, with focus
on organizational capacity by local and national actors, and on how conflicting goals of social justice, conservation
and economic development may influence the implementation and performance of those initiatives.
Keywords: co-management, governance, Amazon, fisheries, floodplain
De Moor, Tine
From common pastures to global commons. An historical perspective on interdisciplinary
approaches to commons
Commons-research has over the past decennia gained considerable maturity, and the various disciplines that
work on the subject have moved closer to each other. There is however still one essential and quite fundamental
point of disagreement –although this is hardly ever made explicit- and that is about the use of the term “commons”
–which is a term that has been used for literally centuries- for large-scale open access resources such as oceans,
the air we are breathing etc., also referred to as “global commons”. Although it cannot be denied that the air, the
seas etc. are in principle collective property to all creatures living on earth, these resources miss two characteristics
that are typical for the historical commons, from which the initial use stems: institutionalisation and self-governance.
In this article I try to explain the difference between historical commons and global commons and, in the second
part, suggestions to overcome this problem and the methodological differences that still exist are suggested. This
is done by redesigning the classic economics framework of subdividing goods according to their substractability
and excludability. Overcoming these problems would improve the integration of the long-term historical approach
into the analysis of present-day cases.
Keywords: history, institutions, long-term development
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De Moor, Tine
Participating is More Important than Winning. The Impact of Socio-Economic Change on
Commoners’ Participation in 18th-19th-Century Flanders
In literature on the use of common land, commoners are usually considered as a group. In this article the
participation profile of commoners of a Flemish case-study is reconstructed in order to identify their individual
motivation for using the common, in some cases becoming a manager of that common, and in some cases do no
more than simply claim membership. Nominative linkage between the membership lists, book keeping and
regulatory documents of the common on the one hand, and censuses and marriage acts on the other allow us to
link the behaviour of the commoners to their the social-economic background. It becomes clear why some
decision have been taken –e.g. to dissolve a nevertheless well-functioning cattle registration system – and how
these affected the common the resource use of the common during the 18th and early 19th century. It explains
how internal shifts in power balances amongst groups of active users and those who do not have the means or
willingness to participate can jeopardize the internal cohesion of the commoners as a group.
Keywords: institutions, grazing lands, long-term development of institutions
Dedeurwaerdere, Tom
Beyond Patents: Collective Intellectual Property Strategies for the Conservation and Sustainable
use of communities’ livestock, crop and microbial/genetic common heritage.
Globally distributed pools of genetic resources emerged as responses to collective action problems raised in the
context of the challenge of global food security, global health issues and the biodiversity crisis more generally.
Networking of local resources became feasible in a cost effective manner through several scientific and
technological developments, among which the introduction of techniques for the handling and long term
maintenance of genetic resources had a major impact. This paper addresses the role, the structure and the
dynamics of the expanding universe of the global genetic resource commons in plant, animal and microbial
genetic resources. Networking the existing local pools in global virtual networks raises a set of new collective
action problems, in particular because of the open nature of the networks (instead of a fixed set of community
members) and the possibility to contribute new entities to the global pool (instead of only withdrawing amongst
existing renewable natural resource entities). The key interest here is on the way that new hybrid approaches to
governance of the commons combine features from traditional natural resource commons and digital information
commons and thereby allow a dramatic increase in the possibilities for pooling resources on the global level.
The analysis is based on a set of in depth case studies conducted in 2009 and 2010 of major international
collections of genetic resources in the plant, animal and microbial genetic resources respectively.
Keywords: genetic resources, global governance, institutional analysis, knowledge commons, open source
Delaney, Alyne Elizabeth
Community Sustainability and Resource Rights in North Sea Fishing Communities
EU coastal communities have witnessed dramatic changes in the last several decades:  the restructuring of European
commercial fishing has expanded to the point that many small communities and ports are no long viable.  These
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are due in part through declining stocks, the implementation of stock recovery plans and expanded restructuring
plans.  Such management plans have been made in an attempt to improve the sustainability of commercial
fishery stocks.  In Europe, decision-making of fisheries resources are taken through the directive of Common
Fisheries Policy (CFP).  This policy does call for the sustainable exploitation of stocks.  Yet, the CFP mandates not
only an obligation to ensure the exploitation of living aquatic resources that provides sustainable environmental
conditions, but also sustainable economic and social conditions, as well. 
 This paper present information on how individuals and communities around the North Sea have been affected
by the limitations imposed by stock recovery plans and their subsequent difficulty of planning in an uncertain
environment.   This includes focusing on the social connectedness of individuals in fishing communities and a
community-oriented perspective on resource rights and governance of fisheries in the North Sea.  The resource
rights system is closely tied to that of community sustainability and social equity.  Consequently, key to discussion
of social impacts includes investigating governance systems and rights to fisheries resources.
Keywords: fisheries, governance, communities
Delisle, Aurelie
Stoeckl, Natalie; Marsh, Helene
Maintenance of One’s Culture and Its Consequences on the Management of Traditional Sea
Torres Strait Islanders, one of two Indigenous groups in Australia, are well-known for their seafaring ability as
well as their fishing and hunting skills. Today, more than three-quarter of Torres Strait Islanders are now living on
the mainland of Australia away from Torres Strait. Although removed from their traditional lands, they have
remained closely affiliated with their culture and kin relations in the Torres Strait while adjusting to a changing
identity brought by the many influences of migration and a new way of life. A significant component of cultural
ties is related to patterns of food consumption and taste. The Islanders believe traditional foods (including fish,
dugong, and turtle) are necessary for their independence, ceremonies and celebrations wherever they are living.
In a society striving to keep its culture strong and where family links and duties are paramount, how does one
adequately fulfil family responsibilities and respect the desires of out-migrants to maintain cultural practices
while keeping within the limits of the management boundaries defined by the inhabitants of their home community?
This presentation will outline how the management of sea resources at the “local” level needs to account for the
demand and desires of outside migrants or risk implementing incorrect management targets and tools.
Keywords: migration, culture, fisheries management, Torres Strait
DeMotts, Rachel
Weaving and Leading: A Gendered View of Community-Based Conservation in Namibia
The incentivized logic of community-based conservation focuses on reorienting local behavior away from hunting
and towards the conservation of wildlife for tourists.  Community-based conservation, however, is subject to
growing criticisms that express concern that it is at best ineffective at bringing income to the local level, as far
more people must live with wildlife than benefit from it.  Focusing exclusively on wildlife tourism, however, is
a gendered endeavour that limits understanding of the ways in which women participate in and relate to communityd d13
based conservation.  It also ignores the use of other resources such as non-timber forest products for crafts and
medicinal purposes.  This paper examines the role of women in community-based conservation and seeks to
disaggregate the notion of benefits to demonstrate more fully the impacts of conservancies in Namibia.  To this
point, benefits are seen exclusively as the financial returns to the conservancy itself.  The paper will dissect this
notion, including these returns but also examining individual experiences with the conservancy, how women
relate to its power structures, and additional opportunities that are created by the presence of the conservancy. 
Interviews with approximately 100 women show that they have benefitted from the strategic use of even small
amounts of income, but have also developed expertise in managing the craft markets, leadership and public
speaking skills, as well as created crucial networking space through conservancy projects.  Consequently, the
paper develops a more inclusive, gendered notion of the social and political benefits of conservancies in addition
to those that are economic.
Keywords: gender, community-based conservation, Namibia, tourism, governance
Dermawan, Ahmad
An Evaluation of Timber Plantation Development Targets and Implementation in Indonesia
The paper aims to review the timber plantation development programs in Indonesia. Launched since mid 1980s,
timber plantations in Indonesia have enjoyed the support of government policies and subsidized funding. The
paper juxtaposes the targets set by the Ministry of Forestry and actual achievements in terms of timber plantations
establishment and harvest, as well as social and environmental problems associated with timber plantation
development. The paper based this analysis on the review of timber plantation policy documents, sectoral data,
Supreme audit agency reports, and literature review on social and environmental impacts of timber plantation
development in Indonesia. The paper shows that the Ministry is setting overly ambitious targets. In addition,
limited coordination among government agencies and moral hazard problems by corporate actors also add to
the failures of the plantation programs in Indonesia. The paper concludes with a set of policy options to improve
these programs.
Keywords: timber plantations, forestry, smallholders, decentralization, degraded land, Indonesia
Devarajulu, Suresh Kumar
Does Devolution Lead to Sustainablity? Evidence from Participatory Watershed Management In
Southern India
Policies of devolution have been widely adopted in both the developing and developed countries. These policies
aim at creating sustainable livelihood opportunities for its members by better managing the resource and ensure
sustainable collective action. Devolutionary process has taken place in watershed management in India. This
paper aimed to address how the devolutionary policies ensure collective action in watershed management. The
present paper studies 12 micro-watersheds in South India to understand how villagers cooperate to manage
watershed related tasks. The paper examines the factors that affect collective participation in watershed management
and how cooperation changes once the State withdraws and hands control over management to panchayat raj
institutions and other groups. The study finds mixed evidence of collective efforts to manage watersheds. There
is certainly cooperation among watershed beneficiaries during project implementation. The study finds that
watershed institutions in most cases become inactive once the project period is over. An analysis of factors that
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influence collective action indicates that cooperation emerges in areas where there is greater resource dependence
and where there are homogeneous social groups involved. There is also a role for better information dissemination
during the implementation phase. Many stakeholders were unaware of how their responsibilities change in the
post-project period. Increasing awareness and providing clear information about rights and responsibilities will
likely make for more empowered and involved stakeholders.
Keywords: Watershed Management, collective action, user groups, transaction costs
Dhar, Preeta
Iyengar, Shalini
Treading an Uncommon Path
The paper, at the outset seeks to explore the philosophical and jurisprudential bases for Commons by undertaking
a study of the Forest Commons in India, through the prism of Constitutional and legislations, policies, judicial
opinions and administrative practices. The study focusses on 3 Indian state and attempts to flesh out the adequacy
or otherwise of the legal order in securing the forest commons. This is followed by an analysis of current lawmaking exercises (-like the TK Protection Bill) and proposed courses of action to mitigate climate change (-REDD)
and their implications and impacts on the Forest Commons. The study rounds off with a few suggestions for
structural and substantive legal reforms to strengthen the Forest Commons.
This is a well written and informative write up. However, the suggestions and conclusions suffer from weak
logic. The ideas expressed as to REDD, in particular, require greater depth of research and reflection. This can be
a good starting point and resource base for further research and debate on the subject.
Keywords: forest commons, India, public policy
Dhawan, Harshvardhan Shrinivas
Kulkarni Himanshu Chandrakant; Upasani Devdutt Vijay; Upamanyu
Amit Kulbhushan
Typological Approach for Groundwater Management: Protocols Development and Implementation.
This paper reviews the development of groundwater management protocols in dryland region of Bagli Tehsil,
Madhya Pradesh. Understanding and management of natural resources, especially groundwater, whether at a
global, regional, or local scale, is clearly a complex issue and represents one of the most challenging environmental
problems. The dominant patterns of production and consumption are causing environmental devastation with
significant impact on depletion of resources. In the backward areas of India, such as in the tribal drylands of
central India, a direction for groundwater management becomes imperative, with hard-lessons learnt from other
natural resources like forests. It becomes necessary to distinguish between conservation, recharge, development
and management of groundwater through a detailed study based on geohydrology. The need to link protection
of natural vegetation, sustainable agriculture and secure livelihoods would require improved understanding of
the water resources framework especially groundwater. The protocols highlight the importance of Geohydrological
science in Watershed Programme, Recharge area protection (Forest cover & community lands), efficient regulation
of groundwater abstraction for various uses, and Groundwater sharing through community participation. It aims
to establish a practical framework for groundwater resources management, based as much on the understanding
of geohydrological systems as on participatory processes and interactions with the community. The research
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study is based on primary data generated through continuous monitoring of water levels, verified field level data
of actual agricultural cropped lands, pump tests conducted for developing certain protocols and community
mobilization for groundwater management. This strategic development of protocols is for protection and better
management of groundwater resources, vegetation, agricultural systems and maintaining the ecological balance
in rural settings
Keywords: geohydrology, Groundwater Management, groundwater sharing, community participation, Recharge
Area Protection
Dhungana, Sindhu Prasad
Rangan, Haripriya; Shrestha, Vijay; Jha, Prakash
Agro-Forestry Versus Barren Public Lands: Emerging New Commons on Open Access in Nepal’s
The political ecology of Nepal’s Terai is characterized by natural lush forests in the north on and around Siwalik
hills contrasting with the downsouth, where almost no public or common forests exist but dense human population.
Since community forestry’s intervention, most of the state-owned forests in the hills including those on and
around Siwaliks have been handed over to the groups of local people, mostly hill-migrants by policy default.
Despite a number of successes, some of the unintended outcomes of community forests, particularly in the Terai
include the reduced access of downsouth people to state forest resources and alienation of hill-migrants and
earlier settlers over the use of direct forest benefits barring ecosystem services. As a result, the poorer sections of
the community in the south face severe difficulty in meeting their livelihoods in absence of building material and
household use energy. In response, the poor and socially excluded in the downsouth have developed strategy to
create agro-forestry commons in the barren public lands, which were virtually open access and underutilized.
The new intervention has several outcomes. Taking three Terai districts for the samples, these outcomes include
increased natural and financial assets, emerging diversified agroforestry commons and increased environmental
services. These new commons face a number of first and second generation issues as well. The first generation
issues include the scale of the commons, conflict with the local elites, legitimization, choice of management
models and equitable benefit sharing. Tenure security, positive environmental externalities and forest regeneration
versus livelihoods of the poor are some prominent second generation issues. The paper concludes that policy
formulation for the agroforestry commons, conversion of public land commons to community forests until their
explicit policy, expansion to larger scale and recognition of environmental services are some points to be considered
to address the issues. 
Keywords: Nepal, Terai, community forestry, agro-forestry commons, social exclusion
Dick, Laura
Meinzen-Dick, Ruth
The Congregational Commons
Most studies of the commons have focused on economic rationality as the motivation for contributions.  Yet
religious organizations (churches, synagogues, temples) are also shared resources that have many of the same
characteristics and challenges as other commons.  But unlike other commons, they explicitly appeal to nond d52 13
economic motivations to mobilize resources, and do not follow many of the design principles for long enduring
common property institutions.  This paper develops an approach for investigating the religious commons, testing
the applicability of the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, and identifying other factors
that influence contributions to the creation and maintenance of the religious commons.  This approach is tested
in a study of churches and synagogues in the Saint Louis area, based on key informant interviews and surveys
with clergy and congregation members, using analysis of structures, rules and discourse.  Findings from this
study can broaden our understanding of the motivations for individuals to contribute to other forms of commons
as well
Keywords: churches, United States, motivations, contributions, stewardship
Djoudi, Houria
Brockhaus, Maria
Is Adaptation to Climate Change Gender Neutral? A Case Study from Northern Mali
The growing risk of vulnerability under climate change will first and foremost affect the poor, particularly women,
as it tends to widen existing inequalities.
In the Lake Faguibine area in Northern Mali the social, political and ecological conditions have drastically
changed in the past decades. In two communities we conducted six participatory workshops (PRA) single-gender
to assess vulnerability and adaptive strategies for livestock and forest-based livelihoods to climate variability and
Our results show divergences in the adaptive strategies of men and women. Migration represented one of the
most important strategies for men. Women perceived this strategy more as a cause of vulnerability than an
adaptive strategy, as traditionally male activities have been added to the workload of women (e.g. small ruminant
herding). The historical axes show that development projects targeting women have not integrated climate change
and variability. Most activities were built around small-scale agriculture. With the drying up of Lake Faguibine,
those water-dependent activities are no longer relevant. Women have developed their own adaptive strategies
based on newly emerged forest resources in the former lake area (e.g. charcoal production). However, loss of
manpower in the household, unclear access to natural resources, lack of knowledge, financial resources, and
power as well as limited market opportunities for women hinder them from realizing the potential of these new
Even though women’s vulnerability is increasing in the short term, over the long term the emerging changes in
women’s roles could lead to positive impacts, both societal (division of labor and power, new social spaces), and
economic (market access, livestock wealth).
Locally specific gender-sensitive analysis of vulnerability is needed to understand dynamics and interaction of
divergent adaptive strategies. Societal and political change at broader scales and beyond rhetoric’s is needed to
realize potential benefits for women in the long term.
Keywords: Mali, gender, vulnerability, climate change adaptation, forests
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Dora, Pandu Kunjam
Madhoosudan, N; Bhudevi, P; Shambhu, S; Tammiyya, P.
Correcting Historical Wrongs? Using the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers
(Recognition of Forest Rights), Act, 2006. (FRA, 2006) - Experiences of Adivasi Communities in
Andhra Pradesh
The Adivasi movements across India, have been struggling for decades for recognition and confirmation of their
historical rights in forests. The Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest
Rights) Act, 2006,(FRA,2006) was eagerly welcomed as a victory and a significant step forward in the larger
struggle of Adivasi communities, seeking command and control over resources. It was viewed as a space for
correction of historical wrongs, a confirmation of the right to a way of life and livelihood, acknowledgement of
peoples knowledge and capacities to nurture the forestscape and ecosystem, and a reaffirmation that it is the
seamlessness of both individual and community rights that forms the basis of the diverse ways in which forest
communities, through decentralised governance, weave their livelihoods and lives. However the experience of
actually utilizing the Act to confirm individual and community rights, has been an uphill task, and a struggle
every step of the way. In this panel, the Adivasi Aikya Vedika and Yakshi, will present their experiences of using
the Act to confirm the rights of Adivasis across AP.
Keywords: Adivasis, Forest Right Act, community rights, decentralized governance
Du Plessis, Elmien
African Customary Land Rights in a Private Ownership Paradigm: Can the Commons Help Secure
It is often fallaciously believed that indigenous law confers no property in land. Okoth-Ogenda reconceptualised
indigenous land rights by debunking the myth that indigenous land rights systems are necessarily “communal” in
nature, that “ownership” is collective and that the community as an entity makes collective decisions about the
access and land.1 He offers a different understanding of indigenous land right systems by looking at the social
order of communities that creates “reciprocal rights and obligations that this binds together, and vests powerin
thecommunity   members  over land”.
To determine who will be granted access to, or exercise control over, land and the resources, one needs to look
at these rights and obligations and the performances that arise from them. This will leave only two distinct
questions: who may have access to the land (and what type of access)2 and who may control and manage the
land resources, on behalf of those who have access to it? 3. There is a link with this reconceptualisation and the
discourse of the commons.
Ostrom’s classification goods leads to a definition of the commons (or common pool  resources), as “a class of
resources for which exclusion is difficult and joint use involves subtractablity”.4 The question this paper wish to
answer is: would it be 1) possible to classify the indigenous land rights system as a commons and 2) would it
provide a useful analytical framework in which to solve the problem of securing  land tenure in South Africa?
The preliminary answer is that it can be argued that African indigenous land right systems are a type of commonpool resource (or commons), in that 1) it is difficult to devise rules to exclude, especially when you operate in an
“ownership paradigm” and 2) that the use of the land by one person does subtract from the land.
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1 Okoth-Ogendo “The nature of land rights” in Land, Power & Custom 100.
2 See Cousin’s comments and examples in Cousins “Characterising ‘communal’ tenure: nested systems and
flexible boundaries” in Cousins & Claasens (eds)Land, Power & Custom (2008) 122.
3 Okoth-Ogendo “The nature of land rights” in Land, Power & Custom 100.
4 D Feeny et al “The tragedy of the Commons: twenty-two years later” 1990 Human Ecology 1 4.
Keywords: land rights, African indigenous law, South Africa
Duchelle, Amy
Gebara, Maria Fernanda; Guerra, Raissa; Selaya, Galia; Bauch,Simone;
Börner, Jan; Cromberg, Marina; Cronkleton, Peter; May, Peter; Melo,
Tadeu; Sills, Erin; Wunder, Sven
Learning from First Generation REDD Projects in Brazil and Bolivia
Reduced carbon emissions through avoided deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) has been proposed as
a highly cost-effective way to mitigate climate change in developing countries. REDD is also seen as a way to
bolster livelihoods of local communities and promote social and environmental co-benefits. As has sometimes
happened in the past with community conservation initiatives, however, project proponents may neglect social
concerns in the interest of technical goals. At the same time, many REDD initiatives are being implemented in
communal forest properties where territorial governance institutions are nascent and weak, and in certain cases
overly hierarchical and bureaucratic, which complicates engagement with local land managers. We studied six
REDD projects in Brazil and Bolivia in their initial project preparation stages, through interviews with project
proponents and implementers and through village and household-level surveys from March to July 2010. In this
paper, we focus on two questions. First, how do these projects address land and carbon tenure issues, resource
conflicts, and collective rights in their aim to achieve forest conservation? And second, to what extent do these
efforts and other aspects of project design take into account concerns regarding participation and equity? That is,
we examine whether local people give permission for REDD (e.g. Free Prior Informed Consent), how they
participate in design and implementation, and if they are satisfied with the way the project has been initiated.
Greater understanding of different implementation contexts and intervention approaches permits the analysis of
potential outcomes for forest conservation and for community welfare at the local REDD scale.
Keywords: climate change, deforestation, forest degradation, livelihoods, equity
Dulong de Rosnay, Melanie
Access to Digital Collections of Public Domain Works: An Analysis of Libraries and Museums
Contractual and Technical Restrictions to the Commons
Digital copies of physical books and art objects curated by libraries and museums are being made available to
the public online. Their access and reuse conditions are submitted to terms of use and policies defined by the
institutions financing the development of databases and the digitization of works, of which many are in the
public domain. As no copyright applies to these works, their digital instantiation should in principle be freely
accessible and reusable. However, in practice, some memory institutions databases technical environments and
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contractual terms of use impose restrictions (for instance, reserving the commercial use of the version they
digitalized or reserving the right to reuse photographies they funded), thus re-introducing physical barriers for
resources which are supposed to be in the commons.
The article analyzes a sample of online databases policies of libraries and museums public domain collections in
various countries, and evaluates how they differ or comply from full open access conditions. Then, best and
worst practices are provided for institutions wishing to avoid adding unnecessary restrictions to public domain
works and promote a good governance of the digital commons.
This article builds upon the author’s previous work on terms of use of life science databases and is based on the
2003 paper by Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom, “Ideas, Artifacts, and Facilities: Information as a Common-Pool
Resource”, Law and Contemporary Problems 66, p. 111-146.
Keywords: governance, libraries and museums, public domain works, terms of use, databases
Duran, Elvira
Bray, David Barton; Mondragon, Fernando
Multi-scale Governance and Indigenous/Community Conserved Areas in Mexico
Multi-scale governance has been proposed as key to achieving success in community-based conservation. However,
multi-scale governance is frequently a turbulent process, a reality that has been little documented. Mexico is well
known for its achievements in community forest management for timber production, but now community
conservation is emerging as a defined land use option. Mexico is a megabiodiversity country and a large part of
its diversity is harbored in common property forests where the owners are indigenous or other rural inhabitants.
In Mexico collective action around community forestry and conservation has enabled local people to influence
governance at other scales. Mexico adopted new legislation for recognizing what the IUCN calls indigenous/
community conserved areas (ICCAs) in 2008. This allowed statistics on ICCAs to be included in percentages of
national territory that are protected.  We present a case study of six communities in the Sierra Norte of the
southern state of Oaxaca who voluntary declared nearly 80% of their territories as conserved areas certified by
the federal government.  This process has emerged in a context of multiple governmental, non-governmental,
and international stakeholders. The recognition from the government also has brought new pressures for attempt
to expand the protection category as a biosphere reserve. Communities jealously guard their autonomy on their
territories, thus, the proposal from the government has created contestation over the control of the meaning and
the reality of protection at the community level. These struggles are now being played inside and outside of
communities, in the process of establishing the regulations for the official Mexican ICCAs.  We analyze the
tensions and contradictions that move processes of multi-scale governance forward, and how community
governance of conservation interacts with national and regional government agencies and NGOs. It is argued
that the Mexico case holds important lessons for ICCAs in other world regions.
Keywords: common property, stakeholders in community conserved areas, indigenous communities, Oaxaca,
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Dzhumabaev, Nurzhan
Towards the Multi-Scale Governance of the ‘Commons’: A Case from the Kyrgyz Republic
The Kyrgyz Republic is a small mountainous country with a population over 6 mln. The majority of the rural
population derives their livelihoods from pastoral economy not least because of favorable natural conditions for
livestock herding in the country (86 % of all agricultural lands are used as mountainous pastures). With the
passage of new Pasture Law (January 2009), the individualized rangeland use was abandoned and instead
community-based rangeland management was introduced. The new law specifically devolved management
functions over vast rangelands to local self-governments and communities that formed Pasture User Unions
(PUU), provided for bulk of revenues from the pasture use to be collected locally and then re-invested into
rangeland improvement, promote or revive traditional transhumance system and advance integrated pasture
ecosystem management. The latter, however, presents challenge as in many PUU-managed rangeland ecosystems
the lands on higher altitudes are managed under distinct use regime (lease-based) by the state forestry enterprises
(leskhoz) and governed by separate legislation. These lands (state forestry lands) up to 26 % made up of forests,
34 % - pastures and 40 % - lands reserved for re-forestation. Given that local communities and PUUs now exert
significant power over rangelands, they began assertively demanding forest lands not covered in forests for
PUU’s to be able to manage pastures as an integrated ecosystem. The latter fuels multiple conflicts between
leskhoz and PUU/communities. The paper explores the conditions and key principles under which rangelands
of PUU and leskhoz can be managed under integrated rangeland use regime. The paper is based on the results
of 2 years research in Ak-Say and Ak-Tatyr ayil okmotu, the Kyrgyz Republic.
Keywords: rangeland reforms, multi-scale governance regime, rangelands, forests, community-based rangeland
management, land category
Erling Berge
Pieraccini, Margherita
A Theoretically Grounded Classification of European Commons
Case studies of commons and their sustainability abound. Although of crucial significance, empirical work on
single cases offers only a partial examination of the complex terrain of common pool resources (CPRs). The full
potential of case studies’ analyses can be achieved only if they are embedded in a comparative theoretical
framework. Therefore, a system of classification designed to outline the diversity of what usually is lumped
together as commons must be developed. In a theoretically grounded classification cases can be compared in
informative ways. Theories of what difference does a difference make, may be tested, and lessons may be learned
to institute or improve the sustainability of a particular type of commons. 
The present paper will propose a classification scheme to make cases comparable along certain key dimensions.
Candidates for key dimensions will be:
·The various relationships between formal laws, including environmental law, and customary and soft laws and
their role in defining commons.
·The property law of commons (registration of land and property rights, including an analysis of landownership
and third parties rights), the “legal standing”, as it were, of commons in a state’s administrative system.  
·The institutional arrangements for commons governance: allocations of powers and duties to operational, collective
choice and constitutional choice levels.
·The type of resource(s) held in common.
·The membership and exclusion criteria to the group of commoners, including transfer of membership’s rights
over generations.
The classification will be tested using cases from Norway, England, Italy, and Spain.
Keywords: classification of commons, comparing case studies, Europe
Espinosa, Maria
Chan, K; McDaniels, T; Dalmer, D. M
Involving Stakeholder Values and Science for the Marine Resources Management
Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has been widely recognized as the new paradigm for marine resource
management. This approach considers all the elements of the ecosystem including humans. Even though, EBM
has been well defined in theory, its implementation has been challenging worldwide. The few successful initiatives
at implementing EBM have suggested that stakeholder involvement is a key element.
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For marine management, as for other common resources, discussion on management alternatives often depend
on technical and complex concepts from diverse fields. Without the discussions of stakeholder values, many
people and their values are often excluded from or play a minor participation in the decision making process. In
addition, stakeholders might not trust the process and reject the implementation of a decision/management
To implement EBM, managers require a decision-making framework in which the values of the constituents are
identified since the beginning of the process, and objectives and performance measures for EBM are consistent
with these values. Structured decision-making (SDM) is a systematic approach that can bring together stakeholders,
scientists and managers to build a framework for EBM that reflects what matters to people and the scientific
aspects of the ecosystem and EBM.
I present as a case study, the use of SDM for the on-going EBM process on the west coast of Vancouver Island
(WCVI), British Columbia, Canada. This case provides insights into how SDM can be implemented with the EBM
context, as well as some challenges and opportunities during the process. With this work I demonstrate that the
involvement of stakeholders can help shape a collective vision and objectives for managing common resources;
and that a systematic process can help to integrate values, fundamental objectives and indicators for the evaluation
of management alternatives. This approach can help to make the decision-making process for EBM more
participatory, consistent and transparent. Stakeholders are likely to feel more engaged with the implementation
of EBM if they are involved and see their values reflected since the beginning of the process.
I am also applying this method in Southern Mexico to explore relationships and differences with respect to what
matters to people in the EBM context and to which extent SDM and EBM can be applied to marine management
in developed and developing countries.
Keywords: Ecosystem-based management (EBM)
Faye, Papa
Common Property Rights and Collective Mobilization in the Somone Commune Natural Reserve
In Senegal, 8% of the territory is currently composed of protected areas. In the past, the management of these
areas belonged, exclusively to the National Parks Office. Recently, two communal interest natural reserves had
been created and the one of Somone represented the experimental case in 1999. Thus, the local government and
villagers get the competence of defining the rules of access and exploitation in collaboration with the National
Parks Office agents. Ten years after, this paper aims to assess the impacts of the property rights changing on the
collective mobilization of the local communities and the communal representatives. It is based on an ongoing
ethnographic survey started since October 2009.
Keywords: Natural Reserve, Common Property Rights, commune, collective mobilization, Senegal
Fedreheim, Gunn Elin
Blanco, Esther
National Parks in Norway as Socio-Ecological System: Wildlife, Conflict in Use, and Participatory
This paper analyzes National Parks in Norway as socio-ecological systems, focusing on conflicts resulting from
wildlife conservation. Traditional users of National Parks like fishers, hunters and herders have different interests
in wildlife. Herders’ main economic activity is negatively affected by carnivores and competing herbivores to
livestock. At the same time, some forms of nature conservation are compelling to them; securing the pasture for
herbivores (which are prey for wild carnivores), restrictions on technical interventions in the area, and restrictions
in non-herders’ use of motorized transportation. Herders might therefore support area conservation, but might at
the same time lobby against wildlife conservation.
Fishers and hunters are more supportive of conservation of wildlife, as are other non-consumptive users such as
tourists. The former group supports wildlife conservation as long as they still can subtract some species. The
latter group supports wildlife conservation for contemplative experiences when visiting protected areas.
Increase of tourists and their related expenditure in Norway is creating a debate on the role of human activity on
the ecological systems of National Parks. This comes at a time where the governance structure is shifting from a
top-down approach to other more participatory mechanisms that to a greater extent involve landowners and
local herders, fishers and hunters.
Data has been collected in various protected areas (national parks and landscape protection areas) in Northern
Norway during the last 5 years. Findings show that there is not a clear connection between the degree of public
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participation and policy formation. This indicates that measures to favor participation do not necessarily lead to
greater acceptance of policy measures when it comes to balancing various interests in wildlife conservation.
Keywords: socio-ecological systems, conservation, wildlife, Norway, conflict
Fernanda, Maria
Benefits Sharing Mechanisms for REDD+: How to equitably share benefits among forest managers?
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) in tropical countries is now a critical piece of
any international agreement that aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. After the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) included the prevision of a REDD+ mechanism for the
post-Kyoto period, delegates and the broader international community turned the topic in one of prime importance
on the agenda of the Climate Change (CC) regime and are now strongly encouraging the demonstration of
REDD+ pilot projects. An important issue refers to the equitable distribution of benefits or, in other words,
equitable benefit sharing mechanisms (BSM). This paper investigates how BSM can be designed and implemented
in order to be equitable while also helping in reducing emissions. The main hypothesis is that variations in how
local participation (LP) is considered while developing BSM for REDD+ will offer fundamentally different
outcomes, and as a result will have a meaningful effect on the equitable distribution of benefits. Based on
concepts of equity and LP and through the lenses of the Juma Sustainable Development Reserve, in Brazil, this
paper argues that equitable BSM will depend upon democratic and interactive LP, what will provide more
flexibility in the definition of benefits and in the creation of distributional mechanisms, generating better outcomes.
Going one step further, it also argues that LP will interfere on the efficiency and effectiveness of BSM, being a
crucial variable for positive results of a REDD+ scheme.
Keywords: REDD+, benefit-sharing, equity
Fernandes, Walter
Common Resources, Community Management and Tribal Administration in Northeast India
One can identify three main community resources in the Northeast. The relationship with these resources have
implications for the tribal identity in the region. The first of them is the material resource of land and forests.
Linked to them is the community-based customary law. The third is the identity that these together provide to the
The paper will begin with a comparison between the CPRs in Middle India and the Northeast. In Middle India
the sacred groves get priority. The myths of origin are linked to the material resources and the customary law is
meant to protect them. In the Northeast on the contrary, because the nomadic tribes had formed their identity
already before entering this region, the customary law becomes the centre of their identity. It protects the material
resources of land and forests but identity is linked more to the customarylaw.
With this background, modernization and the response of the customary law will be studied in the region. An
effort will be made to look at the traditions of a few tribes as representative of the region and to look at their
response to modern changes. Most struggles in the region are for land and sustenance but their external expression
takes the form of protection of identity. The struggles are legitimised more in the name of history and the indigenous
status tradition. These aspects will be analysed by looking at a few tribes of the region.
Keywords: community resources, customary laws, tribals, forests
Fernandes, Walter
Tribal Commons and Conflicts in Manipur and Tripura in Northeast India
For the fifth time in 15 years NH 39 was blockaded by the Naga student groups in order to press their demand for
control over their land and for other purposes. The demand is put in different ways. On the Naga side, it is
presented as the demand for the Sixth Schedule or Naga integration. On the Meitei side it is presented as the
territorial integrity of Manipur. But the central issue is the common property resources that are the livelihood of
the Naga communities. The 3 million people of Manipur are divided into three main ethnic groups, the Meitei
and related communities who are around 60 percent of the population, the Naga and the Kuki-Mizo-Chin tribes
who together form around 34 percent of the population. The rest are 6 to 7 percent. The Hill areas where the
tribes live account for 90 percent of the landmass of the state. It means that 60 percentof the population lives on
10 percent of the land and they would like to have more of it. Manipur has 9 districts. The Meitei dominate two
of them, the Naga in three, the Kuki in two and four others are mixed. The latest conflict began in April 2010. Its
immediate cause is the ongoing controversy around the elections to the Autonomous District Council. The
Nagas have been demanding the Sixth Schedule since the early 1980s. The Government of Manipur has accepted
this demand “with local adjustments” but it has not specified its meaning despite repeated letters from the Centre
since 1991. The basic issue around the demand is land in the hill areas which the Manipur Government would
like to throw open for people from the plains and the Nagas want to protect it. But it is never stated in public.
The Sixth Schedule will protect their land as a community resource since its third paragraph recognizes common
property. That is central to tribal identity. However, there is a split between the Naga and the Kuki-Mizo-Chin on
the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution. It has a district autonomous council with high autonomy. At present the
tribal areas come under the Hill Areas Act 1971 which the Manipur Government has amended thrice since it
came to force. The state government suggested district autonomous councils under this act but the Nagas feel the
both the law and the autonomy of the council has been diluted under this Act. These Councils do not give the
tribes much power over their land. Instead the Meitei dominated government has been trying to extend the
Manipur Land Reforms and Land Revenu Act 1960 to the tribal areas. It recognises only individual ownership.
The Nagas feel that it denies their communities right over their commons and facilitates land transfer to the
Meitei. So they coined the slogan “no Sixth Schedule no elections”. But the state went ahead with the elections
under this Act.
Another reason why the Manipur Government opposes the Sixth Schedule also because of the demand for
“Naga Integration.” Naga is a generic name for around 26 tribes, about half of them living in Nagaland, a few
others in Manipur including the Tanghkul, the biggest Naga tribe to which the Naga militant leader Mr Muivah
belongs, and others in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. The Meitei fear that the Sixth Schedule is a cover for Naga
integration which, they feel, includes   also territorial integration. If that happens the state will lose most of its
land to Nagalim i.e. Greater Nagaland. The Chin-Kuki are ambiguous on this issue. That is the background of the
controversy. When the Manipur Government decided to go ahead with the elections for the diluted council, the
Nagas and a section of the Kuki-Chin-Mizo opposed them. The CM promised them negotiations on the Sixth
Schedule issue after the elections but the Naga students did not take him seriously and imposed a blockade on
Highway 39 that is the lifeline of Manipur. The confusion was compounded by the decision of Mr Muivah to visit
his native village and the Manipur government refused to permit his entry. He tried to enter Manipur by road at
the border i.e. Mao Gate. He was stopped there and two students died in the melee that followed. A new
dimension was added to the controversy when the Naga Student Federation (NSF) from Kohima the capital of
Nagaland went to Manipur to organise the golden jubilee celebrations of NSF. The Manipur government feared
more trouble and threatened to arrest them if they did not leave. The state also issuedan arrest warrant against the
leaders of the All Naga Student Association of Manipur (ANSAM).  So Nagaland got involved in the blockade and
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attention was diverted from the main issue of the elections and the Sixth Schedule with which the blockade
began. But that remains the central issue so to find a solution one has also to deal with the ethnic problem and
the land issue in Manipur. One has to find an interpretation of the Sixth Schedule that does not include Naga
integration in the manner that the Manipur government fears it. The Sixth Schedule has to protect tribal land
without going against the remaining communities. That poses a problem between community ownership and
individual pattas.
Keywords: tribals, land reforms, northeast India
Ferrer, Alice Joan
Evaluation of Fisheries Management Options for the Visayan Sea, Philippines: The Case of Northern
The paper examines the sustainability of fisheries and fishers’ incomes in the Visayan Sea and identifies potentially
viable options that could help achieve the dual goals of protecting the fish and helping fishers earn a living. The
focus is northern Iloilo fisheries, which cover almost half of the Visayan Sea. Ten management options identified
from various sources were presented to the different stakeholders: fishers, fishery scientists, and fishery managers.
These consist of status quo, input controls (ban of commercial fishing, ban of commercial fishing with safety
nets, marine protected area, closed season, reduction in the number of commercial and municipal fishers,
localization, and rotational fishing regime), output control (quota), and the creation of a special management
unit. These management options were evaluated at two stages where Stage 1 ruled out options with no or low
impact on increasing fish stocks. Options that passed Stage 1 advanced to Stage 2 where each was evaluated
using a set of criteria (impact on fishers, impact on resources, feasibility, cost to the government, and impact to
the community). Feedback from the stakeholders was obtained through focus group discussions and in-depth
personal interviews. The potentially viable options (fishing bans with and without safety nets, marine protected
area, reduction in the number of municipal and commercial fishers, localization, and creation of a special
management unit) were discussed. The use of a combination of options, rather than a single one, and the
creation of a single management body, to be pilot tested in northern Iloilo, to implement any program of
management in all portions of the Visayan Sea fishing ground and for all its fishers are recommended.
Keywords: evaluation of Fisheries Management Options, Fisheries Management Options, Visayan Sea, Northern
Iloilo, sustainable fisheries
Fleischman, Forrest D.
Understanding Why Indian Forest Officials Implement Joint Forest Management and the Forest
Rights Act Differently: Cases from Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh
This paper examines the heterogeneity in bureaucratic implementation of Indian forest decentralization reforms
over the last twenty years using a comparative case study approach, with cases drawn from Andhra Pradesh &
Maharashtra. The Forest Department in India is frequently faulted for its hierarchical mode of operation, and it
shares key features with forest agencies described by Kaufman (1960) as a model of successful hierarchical
control of policy implementation. However decentralization reforms, including Joint Forest Management, initiated
in 1990, and the Forest Rights Act, initiated in 2005, are being implemented by officials in ways that vary greatly
both within and between states. I use organization theory to develop hypotheses which seek to explain variation
in bureaucratic behavior in terms of the institutional environment of the Forest Department, inter-organizational
interactions, and characteristics of individual bureaucrats. I test these theories using evidence drawn from indepth ethnographic case studies of Divisional Forest Officers & their work environment, comparing between
states, within states, and between the two main decentralization policies.
Keywords: decentralization, Joint Forest Management (India), Forest Rights Act (India), policy implementation,
Organization Theory
Flinton, Fiona
Cullis, Adrian
Participatory Rangeland Management: A Solution to Problems in Defining Communal Land Tenure
in Pastoral Areas
Changes in land tenure arrangements in the rangelands of Ethiopia are imminent. The Afar regional government
has already produced a policy and proclamation to this effect, and other regions are following. These developments
are occurring with little if not no engagement with pastoral communities who are increasingly finding their land
taken for large-scale farming or their access to vital rangeland resources blocked by such as private enclosures, or
the spread of invasive species. Federal and regional governments suggest that pastoral views and priorities will
be taken into account in new tenure arrangements, however how this will be achieved is not clear. Save the
Children/US with assistance from a country-wide NRM Technical Working Group have developed a process of
‘participatory rangeland management’ that could aid governments and pastoral communities in both achieving
their different needs, positions and interests. This process, guidelines for which were launched by the Minister of
State for Agriculture and Rural Development in April 2010, are based on the successes of ‘participatory forest
management.’ It offers a practical solution to safeguarding rangeland resources for rangeland users, improving
their management, and ensuring a more sustainable and productive development of pastoral areas for local and
national gain.
Keywords: rangelands, pastoralism, Common Property
Flinton, Fiona
Recognising and Formalising Customary Land and Resource Tenure in the Rangelands. Where To
Significant progress has been made over the last decade or so in the development of policy and legislation that
supports the recognition and formalisation of customary rights to land and resources. Despite this many commons
such as rangelands remain highly vulnerable, and rangeland users continue to see access and control over their
land and resource curtailed if not, removed. This paper will review and analyse why this is the case. It will focus
on rangelands in Africa where despite the recent design of innovative land use planning processes and attempts
to secure tenure for customary users, such vulnerability is on the increase. The reasons for this will be discussed
and potential solutions will be explored. A framework for more appropriate policy, legislation, implementation
and management for the rangelands will be suggested, based on good and bad practice. This framework will
form the basis of a year-long ‘learning route’ for members of the International Land Coalition, as part of a
programme to move forward discussions and actions targeted at recognising and formalising customary land and
resource tenure in the rangelands.
Keywords: appropriate policy, legislation, implementation and management for the rangelands
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Francesconi, Nicola
An Empirical Diagnostic of Collective Action in Rural Ghana
Many African countries are nowadays witnessing a return to collective action as a way to promote governance
decentralization and business development in depressed and degraded rural areas. Despite the growing interest
shown by both governments and donors in farmer-based organizations (FBOs), the knowledge available today
on collective action in rural Africa appears still constrained by the paradigmatic boundaries of development
studies. In particular, the current understanding is either based on broad (global/regional) reviews and naïve
macro-statistics, or on micro-evidence generated through case studies and impact analyses, which typically fails
to capture heterogeneity among organizational forms. As a result, the patterns and determinants of collective
behavior remain largely unknown, making of Africa’s FBOs a bunch of black boxes awaiting investigation. To fill
this knowledge gap, in late February 2010 we launched an innovative survey aiming to capture heterogeneity in
the structure, conduct and performance of Ghana’s FBOs. The sample includes approximately 500 FBOs from all
over the country. For each FBO we are carrying out a 2 days in depth interview involving 3 leaders and 3
ordinary members. Each interview is based on three data collection techniques: 1) a qualitative  approach aiming
to re-construct the story of the organization and record mile-stones and characteristics of cyclical collective
actions eventually witnessed by the group; 2) a digital questionnaire programmed to minimize interview-time
(and thus interviewer/respondent fatigue), entry errors and inconsistencies in the collection of measurable/
quantifiable information about the initial and current state of the organization, as well as to the environment in
which it operates; and a 3) simulation/game played with real money to better capture (unobservable) collective
preferences with regard to risk-taking and risk-sharing behaviors. The survey will be completed by the end of
April 2010 and then the data obtained will be analyzed in such a way to produce a comprehensive diagnostic of
collective action in rural Ghana and provide implications for rural leadership, governance and research.
Keywords: collective-action, rural leadership, kinship, econometrics, Property and Decision Rights, equity and
efficiency, Ghana
Funder, Mikkel
Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe
Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of New Water Resources: Evidence from
Mali and Zambia
Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited or dwindling water resources
for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Rather less attention has been given to
the social and institutional dynamics surrounding the emergence of new water resources in the rural South, and
how this affects access rights, authority and social exclusion in local water governance.
The paper seeks to address this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool
water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In both areas, the development of boreholes and
other new water infrastructure has provided access to water resources that were not previously available to local
communities. In Mali, climate change has furthermore led to the sporadic emergence of new natural wetland
areas in some locations.
Applying a process perspective, the paper explores the ways in which local actors and organizations have sought
to assert control over and rights of access to these new water resources. It shows how this has led to both conflict
and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and institutional domains have
developed. In particular, the paper discusses how these struggles over rights and authority have tended to
marginalize the poorest and other user groups from access to the new water resources, either through direct
efforts to monopolize access, or through more subtle and unintended mechanisms of exclusion.
 The paper concludes by discussing the implications for water policy and research in terms of the way we
understand the development of new water resources and associated rights in the current context of inequality,
water scarcity and climate change.
Keywords: water, institutions, governance, access, marginalization
Futemma, Celia R. T.
Property Rights, Social Movements, and Access and Use of Natural Resources: The Afro-Brazilian
Communities and the Landless Settlements, State of São Paulo, Brazil.
Ten years have passed by since we entered into the New Millenia. During the 1990s, analysis on common-pool
resources gained considerable space into the academia and into the public agenda. Much progress took place
towards recognizing and streghtening local social organization and local institutions to both guarantee local
people’s well-being and conserve nature around the globe. However, gaps are still to be fulfilled. One of the
gaps is to find appropriate local institutions that conciliate conservation with farming production system. In
Brazil, the history of success of some excluded social groups to gain access to land (territory) are unquestionable
during the 1980s and 1990s, such as the case of several Afro-Brazilian and Landless groups. The former gained
rights to access to a collective territory called locally “Quilombola” and the latter gained rights to access to
individual (family) lot as a part of the national agrarian reform. Families from both groups are now consolidated
into  spe c i f i c   t e r r i tor i e s ,  pr e s ent   some   form of   loc a l  or g ani z a t ion  r e g a rding  produc t ion  s y s t em  and
commercialization. They want to keep crop cultivation and livestock for subsistence needs and as a source of
income, but they face restrictions of the national environmental laws. They face prohibition of using fire for
clearing land for cultivation and they must preserve at minimum of 30 meters of gallery forest along riverside.
The question is whether stand forest should be considered as a collective goods (common-pool resource) for
conservation purposes even in the case of private lot for land use because the course of water usually crosses
several individual lots. In general, small farmers struggle to keep a minimum of a forest area in their individual
lots and there is no full substitute for fire thus far. Due to some social-environmental conflicts, the Forest Code in
Brazil has been questioned in the last years.
Keywords: Private and Collective Property Rights, Environmental National Laws, Afro-Brazilian communities,
landless settlements, Brazilian Atlantic Forest
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Galudra, Gamma
Pradhan, Ujjwal; Suyanto
Hot Spot Emission and Confusion: Property Rights Insecurity, Contested Policies and Competing
Claims in the Central Kalimantan Ex-Mega Rice Project Area
In Central Kalimantan Ex-Mega Rice Area, ‘discourse’ is increasingly a new means of exercising power, influencing
policy and the ways in which natural resources are managed. Discourses are assuming a dominant role in
defining governance regimes: the sense what is correct and what is not. This article examines the discursive
strategies in the struggle over property rights in ex-Mega Rice Area and traces changes in justification for this
influence in the face of REDD implementation. The expectation of financial incentives for emission reduction
has lead to the concept of ‘carbon rights’, as new arena for contest and potential inducement to cooperation. Key
issues in the REDD debate on carbon rights are: (1) who has, or can claim, the right to sell carbon or ask for coinvestment in emission reduction efforts; and (2) who has, or can claim, the right to receive payments for avoided
damage. The concept of ‘carbon rights’, however, is not easily understood in its interactions with existing or
emerging rights, authorities and power over land use decisions. Every actor in the dispute makes his own choice
of argument, and creates his own interpretation of facts, rules and norms. Not only do legal arguments play a
role, but political, cultural and historical arguments are used. Shifting policies affect the distribution of power to
practice and use forest peatland.
Keywords: discourse, decentralization, REDD, Indonesia, social change
Gandhi, Ruhi
Hagedorn, Konrad
Climate Change Impacts on the Food Chain in Case of Emerging Megacities
Hyderabad, one of the growing megacities in India represents another case of rapid but unprecedented growth
and pose challenges to city dwellers and decision makers because of high population growth and rapid economic
development. This economic growth is reflected in the new socio-economic trends related to the changing food
consumption practices. Adding to these socio-economic changes are the concerns about impact of changing
climate on the food systems. Hyderabad being a semi-arid region with low agricultural productivity will face the
challenge of feeding the growing population with the changing climate. The lack of the food security and nutrition
indicators in the city development plan reveals that these are still not considered as a social concern. Thus, the
present study will explore the direct and indirect impact of changing climatic conditions on food production,
availability, access and utilization. Additionally, this exploratory study will advance the understanding on how
changing climatic conditions affect the socio-economic matrix that influences food practices, management and
governance. Using the institutional approach, the study will highlight on what needs to be done at the governmental
and institutional levels to effectively improve the food and nutrition security situation of Hyderabad.
Keywords: food chain, climate change, megacity, socio-economic conditions
Ganesh, Senthil
Unraveling the Idea of “Commons” in Employment Relations
The idea of “Commons“ in employment relations emerges as a criticism of organizational and institutional
practices rendering people as employees, their intellectual labour, and even the customers as the eternal or nearpermanent property of such organizations. Organizations ensure that the creation of intellectual property by the
knowledge workers is captured through the “Work for Hire” clauses in the employment contract which require
them to assign the ownership rights to their organizations for achieving competitive advantage. However,
organizations try to achieve sustainability of such competitive advantage through various restrictive covenants
such as non-disclosure, non-compete, and non-solicitation agreements signed by the employees. While some
organizations provide employees with some incentives for signing such restrictive covenants, the approach
towards enforcement of such restrictive covenants varies across the globe depending upon the local, regional
and national regulations and legislations.
While there is no dearth of literature depicting the manifestation of ownership interests of organizations,
democratization of corporate ownership or community ownership is also advocated by another set of literature.
However, the existing literature and institutional practices tend to recognize the interest of one or more stakeholders
such as employees, organizations, customers, and society at the expense of the legitimate interests of others
resulting in perceived inequitable and unsustainable outcomes. This research paper attempts to highlight such
perceived inequitable and unsustainable outcomes based on different disputed legal cases in a developing country
like India in the post liberalization and globalization era across different industries like Airlines, Banking and
Financial Services, Bio-medical Services etc., with the objective of providing a unified conceptual framework for
institutional reforms such as governance mechanisms in organizations and local, regional, and national regulations
and legislations.
Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, trade secrets, non-disclosure, non-compete and Non-Solicitation
Garcia, Claude
Ghazoul, Jaboury
Conservation and Exclusion: Needs, Limits and Pitfalls
Protected areas are the foundations of conservation strategies of government and international institutions world
over. Over the last 50 years, we have modified our environment at an unprecedented scale to provide for our
needs. The demand for food, firewood, freshwater, timber and other natural products is putting stress on the
ecosystems, undermining their capacity to deliver other services we depend upon. Cultivated systems now
represent one quarter of the world’s surface. And this in turn has led to widespread simplification of the ecosystems
converted and a loss of ecological processes, species and genes. Protected areas today act as refuges for species
and ecosystems that would otherwise disappear. They are a benchmark for us to assess the impacts of our
activities. By maintaining genetic diversity and ecological processes, they contribute to the adaptive capacities of
the communities and ecosystems we depend upon, in a time of global change. However, this comes at a cost.
Many of these protected areas have been imposed over pre-existing rights held by indigenous or rural communities.
The cost has been overwhelmingly borne by these communities, often poor and marginalized. Protected areas
have generated lots of conflicts between communities, the governments setting up the areas and the institutions
entrusted with their management. The World Parks Congress in Durban, 2003 acknowledged this, and proposed
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a new paradigm of protected areas according to which indigenous peoples and local communities’ rights are
recognized, respected and upheld in the planning, establishment and management of protected areas. After
reviewing the ecological basis for the design of protected areas, we will take stock of the current status of
participation of local communities in protected areas design and management and its impact on biodiversity.
Through selected examples across the world, we will critically analyze the limits, pitfalls and opportunities of
Keywords: Protected Area, participation, Community Based Management, biodiversity
German, Laura
A Framework for Evaluating the Impacts of Expanded Trade and Investment on Forests: Customary
Rights and Societal Stakes
The forest sector is more embedded in the global economy than ever.  With globally significant supplies of land
and raw materials and favorable terms for foreign investors, developing countries – particularly in Africa – have
become increasingly attractive trade partners and destinations for investors. Economic growth is anticipated to
increase demand for energy, water, food and forest products (Toyne et al, 2002; White et al, 2007), trends which
are already evident in the recent food and fuel crises.  Increasing competition over land is placing new pressures
over vast tracts of forest and woodland, areas often considered “under-utilized” by national governments despite
their critical role in supporting local livelihoods.  While increased demand for forest products and agricultural
commodities in the context of forest tenure reforms and decentralized decision-making (Sunderlin et al, 2008;
White and Martin, 2002) could create unprecedented economic opportunities for forest-dependent communities,
increased “stakes” over forest resources and land will heighten governance challenges.  This paper provides a
conceptual framework for analyzing shifting patterns of tenure and rights in the forestry sector for a host of
sectoral and extra-sectoral commodities shaping forests.  It aims to provide a framing for case studies to be
presented at a panel entitled, “Large-Scale Investments in the Forest Frontier: Customary Rights and Societal
Stakes” (Panel ID No. 461).  By presenting case studies from diverse contexts (Africa, Asia, Latin America) and
sectors (agriculture, energy, forestry, mining), the utility of the framework will be explored while distilling key
commonalities and differences in shifting patterns of customary rights and societal stakes associated with largescale land and resource acquisitions in the global South.
Keywords: foreign investment, land tenure, rights, large-scale land acquisition, governance
Gevaña, Dixon Tuzon
Dizon, Josefina T; Pulhin, Juan M; Cruz, Rex Victor O; Im, Sang-Jun
Assessment of Equity in Two Community Based Forest Management Regimes in the Philippines
The study employed an intra-community analysis of equity based on the people’s perception of equity, relationships
between the participants’ characteristics (gender, educational attainment, economic status and type of membership),
and their perceptions of goals (improved living condition and forest condition) under the two tenure regimes
namely: CBFMA Project in Banila and Co-management Project in Barobbob, Nueva Vizcaya. Results revealed
that equity in terms of gender, educational attainment, economic status and type of membership in the People’s
Organization (PO) generally exists in areas of access to leadership roles, livelihood opportunities, PO services,
access to forest-based resources, sharing of cost and responsibilities in community forestry activities, and
implementation of policies. Moreover, the living condition of the community and forest condition were noted to
have improved along with the perceived existence of equity. Test of correlation revealed few significant
relationships on the participants’ characteristics, perception of equity and CBFM goals. Moreover, results of the
test of difference between the participants’ perceptions of equity and goals highlighted the strong and weak areas
the two tenure regimes where policy improvements should be done.
Keywords: equity, access, forest resources, tenure regime
Ghate, Rucha
Ghate, Suresh
Conservative Attitude of Forest Dwelling Communities: Hope for JFM to Succeed- Evidence
from Repeated Field Experiments in Central India
Decentralization in natural resource management is becoming a norm in majority of developing countries for
ensuring economic efficiency, sustainability of the resource, and socio-economic equity. In the Indian forestry
sector, decentralization got ushered in through programs like JFM, and successive legislations since the Forest
Policy, 1988. Although several studies have documented suitability of the participatory approach, often questions
are raised whether the relationship between forest and forest dwelling communities continues to be symbiotic,
or it has changed under the influence of globalization and commercialization. Based on four repeated field
experiments in a community located in central India, this paper indicates that in case of indigenous communities,
their relationship with forest continues to be non-exploitative and non-commercial. By increasing complexity in
subsequent games, an attempt has been made to create real-life like situation in the context of forest use - open
access and with JFM, where individuals in a community harvest forest products – timber, fodder, fuel wood,
either independently or after consulting the community. The findings of the paper support participatory
management strategy that provides opportunities for communities to make collective decisions through enhanced
communication. The paper conforms the argument that decentralization would not only encourage sustainable
resource use due to increased sense of ownership, but could potentially lay foundation for equitable distribution
Keywords: decentralization, communication, attitude of communities, repeated field experiments, India
Ghosh, Santadas
Mangroves, Creeks and Reserve Forest as Natural Insurance: Findings from the Indian Sundarban
In May 2009, cyclone Aila resulted in an unprecedented disaster on the 54 inhabited islands holding more than
3 million people in Indian Sundarban. The event was not a huge disaster in terms of human death. Its gravity is
to be understood in terms of livelihood loss of a large agricultural population for more than a year. The submersion
of all the low lying islands by sea water for days and months had left salt deposits enough to render most of the
population without their all important monsoon paddy for a year. With few other livelihood options, the ensuing
economic tragedy continues to be grave and gradually unfolding. The adjacent mangrove forest is a Tiger Reserve
(World Heritage Site) and is conserved with an exclusionist policy. This leaves the local poor with little option to
fall back on the mangrove forest as a natural insurance. The other common resource to the islanders is the
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surrounding salt water rivers and creeks which produce fish and crab. In the aftermath of Aila, it had perceivably
played a role in helping a section of the affected people to cope with their immediate livelihood loss. But it is
perhaps insufficient and limited by its carrying capacity to provide alternative livelihood to a huge population
affected by that disastrous event.
Keywords: Sundarban, reserve forest, natural insurance, extreme event
Ghotge, Nitya Sambamurti
Pandharipande, Kaustubh
Unequal Rights on Common Lands
For several centuries now, nomadic communities in India, pastoral and non pastoral have depended on the
commons for a livelihood and for survival . Under British rule, many of these groups were designated criminal
because of their inability to pay revenue to the crown and their “commons ” were designated as waste lands as
they yielded no taxes . The modern nation state despite proclaiming to be a democracy fails to include the needs
and concerns of these communities when planning for the use of the commons and has often reinforced the
notion of nomadic communities being habitual legal offenders by the rules and legislations it prescribes. For
communities like the Pardhis and Phase Pardhis for whom hunting was the primary occupation the Wildlife
Protection Act of 1972 meant the loss of an entire livelihood system .For nomadic herders, Protected Areas and
Sanctuaries denied access to grazing lands which sustained their animals. Since then the State has tried to be
more inclusive but mere legal prescriptions and ensuring the claim to traditional usufruct rights are not sufficient
for ensuring democratic and equal rights to the use of the commons. Even the Panchayati Raj system can exclude
as the commons that nomadic groups depend are away from their home villages. Commons are also diverted to
other uses; SEZ’s, industries, bio fuel plantations, within which these communities have no space. For ecological
sustainability of these lands and the future of communities who depend on them a more inclusive approach
wherein the communities themselves are involved in the design and the future use of the commons both spatially
and temporally is urgently needed. This paper looks at how nomadic communities of South Central India
traditionally view and use the commons as well as their plans for their future.
Keywords: nomadic communities, livelihoods, pastoralism, Panchayati Raj, forest and grazing rights
Giri, Kalpana
Ojha, Hemant
Participation and Economic Innovations: Technocracy Dilemmas in Community Forest Management
Despite communities’ institutional recognition and improvement in forest condition, livelihood benefits to local
communities, especially the poor and disadvantaged groups, remain limited. Drawing upon the experience of a
participatory action research project, that aims to understand processes through which economic innovations
can address livelihood challenges in Nepal, we contend the need for problematizing the participatory approach
itself to unravel the complex pathways of – and constraints to – livelihoods innovations in Community Forestry.
We argue that technocracy limits space for economic innovations in community forests through regulatory
practices and bureaucratic behaviour. Despite legal autonomy, local communities face significant hurdles and
impediments as they plan to undertake innovative actions in forest management, use, marketing, and benefit
sharing. A key conclusion is that livelihood innovations in Community Forestry may be more related to the
relationship with bureaucratic and regulatory structures rather than the commonly assumed internal processes
and capacities of the local communities. Thus, technocracy is impeding economic innovations despite the
significant participatory gains in community forestry.
Keywords: bureaucracy, devolution, economic innovation, Nepal, infra-sphere
Glaab, Katharina;
Charlotte, Laura
Sustainability and Legitimacy in Governance of Agricultural Biotechnology
Agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech) promises to overcome global problems of food security, but critics maintain
that the genetic modification of crops entails a range of unpredictable risks to environment and health. Next to
the difficult assessment of risks, the governance of agbiotech is a highly contested area due to actor constellations,
distribution of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and differing interests. Considering agbiotech not only as a
technology, but as a system of representations incorporating ideas, images and beliefs of the appropriate handling
of and behavior to this particular technology, this ideational dimension has important implications for its
governance. Accordingly, governance and collective action for a sustainability transition rest on consent and
legitimacy among social actors, and the ability to universalize particular interests. Following a power theoretical
explanation, this paper argues that collective action for sustainable governance of the commons rests on the
interplay of material forces such as economic and technological resources as well as ideational forces such as
legitimacy and discursive power. These theoretical assumptions will be empirically scrutinized with first results
from fieldwork on the governance of agricultural biotechnology in China methodological employing a process
tracing approach.
Keywords: governance, agricultural biotechnology, China, power, process tracing
Goldman, Mara Jill
Pastoralists under Pressure: Mobility and Property Management in Tanzanian and Kenyan
For pastoralists in the rangelands of Tanzania and Kenya in East Africa, mobility (of livestock and sometimes
people) has always been an essential technique to survive and thrive in the arid and semi-arid environments,
where rainfall is variable, and drought common.  Customary institutional mechanisms facilitate mobility across
space and between different social and ecological units, where land was historically held in ‘common’.  Today
common rangelands have been partitioned into villages, conservation areas, and private parcels, making mobility
particularly challenging. As mobility becomes more important in the face of growing climatic variation, it is
becoming more of a challenge—socially, physically, and legally. This paper looks at the interface of customary
institutions with new forms of land use, classifications, and legal structures, struggling with how to maintain and
manage mobility in Tanzanian rangelands.
Keywords: institutions, grazing lands, pastoralism, property
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Gole, Tadesse
Merga, Melaku
Social Discrimination and Forest Resources Use: The Case of Bonga Forest in Southwestern
There are three major occupational castes among the Kafa people of southwestern Ethiopia: (1) the Kafechoprimarily farmers and who constitute the higher class, (2) the artisans (black smiths, potters and tanners) and (3)
the Manja- primarily hunter-gatherers. The Manjas constitute the lowest class in the social strata of the Kafa
people. Traditionally, the Manjas were not allowed to own land or any resource and could not practice agriculture.
Hence, they depended on the forest as hunters and gatherers. In spite of equality promote by the government,
such discrimination among the Kafa people still persists. In this study, we investigated the patterns of forest use
by the Manjas and Kafechos of the Kafa people. The study revealed that the Manjas are stills predominantly
dependent on forest products. Now a days, they have access to land. However, nobody shall buy agricultural
product from Manjas due to social discrimination. The major sources of livelihood for Manjas are fuel wood
collection, charcoal production and wood work. The Manjas also do not receive fair price for their forest products
due to their social status and lack of confidence with their ‘superiors’. Game from hunting is the major source of
protein for the Manjas. The impacts of such discrimination on the livelihood of the Manjas and forest conditions
are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: forest governance, inequality, Ethiopia
Gole, Tadesse
Merga, Melaku
Demographic and Socio-economic Correlates of Participatory Forest Management and the Local
People’s Perception: The Case of Chilimo Forest
The study examines the socio-economic and demographic correlates of participatory forest management and the
attitude that the local communities have towards the approach. The basic data used in this study come from
household survey. Correlates of participatory forest management were analyzed by descriptive, bivariate and
logistic regression models. The analyses demonstrated the differences in the participation level and the demographic
and socio-economic characteristics of the farm households. Except the household size, all variables entered into
the model appear to be acceptable at five percent significance. The logistic regression indicates the participation
of local communities as forest user group is positively and significantly correlated with literacy status, income
and current land size owned. Perception toward the PFM approach was also analyzed by descriptive and
multinomial logistic regression. In this analysis, the probability of model chi-square 57.700 was 0.000 less than
or equal to the level of significance of 0.05 proves the existence of a relationship between the independent
variables and the dependent variable. Accordingly, participation and literacy status were correlated positively
with perception while household size correlated negatively. Descriptive part of the analyses also indicated
nearly half (49%) of the respondents were among high perception category towards the PFM approach. About 97
percent of the total respondents reported the decrease in rate of deforestation and an increase total forest cover
since the introduction of PFM approach into the Chilimo forest. To develop the PFM approach as strategy and
policy nations wide, creating off-farm employment opportunities, alternative income sources as well as
incorporating family planning activities are recommended.
Keywords: participatory forest management, local institutions, Africa
González, Marco Antonio
Local Certification of Community Production as a Way to Rebuilt Local Commons and Communities
During the last four decades the intense globalization of Mexican economy has lead to the impoverishment of
the majority of rural communities particularly in the Southern Mexico with an important indigenous population.
Community livelihoods increasingly rely on remittances and subsidies. Local agriculture has lost viability,
communities´ territories and natural resources have lost value for community members. Community governance
is also affected: local authorities have weakened and communities´ assemblies loss participation and capacity to
rule natural commons.
Since the mid nineties twelve communities in the Sierra Sur in Oaxca, Mexico engaged in biodiversity protection
and sustainable use, integrating a regional association: the Sistema Comunitario para la Biodiversidad (SICOBI).
Through the years they have carried on sustainable land use planning, developed bodies of rules for natural
commons management and use, and have defined conservation areas within their territories. It is to be said that
the SICOBI is located in a region defined as biodiversity hot-spot by the National Commission for Biodiversity of
Within SICOBI´ strategy local conservation efforts are based on the revitalization of local economies through
sustainable agriculture, use of natural resources and the development of market tools that enable the SICOBI to
value its products in alternative markets. In 2004 the SICOBI created the brand “Pueblos y Selvas” (People and
Forests). Producers under “Pueblos y Selvas” follow a similar scheme to that of the European “denomination of
origin” defining rules that aim to promote sustainable and fair productive systems. The rules are developed with
the advice of specialists and are discussed and accepted by communities´ assemblies.
“Pueblos y Selvas” has helped communities to re-value natural commons through the creation of a new common,
the branch itself, that allows a compensation for the contributions to sustainability and local development that
local producers are doing. Communities of SICOBI produce and sell organic, corn, coffee, beans, honey, medicinal
herbs, ornamental plants, but also environmental and touristic services. The SICOBI management scheme represents
a viable option for biodiversity conservation in regions of high biodiversity value inhabited by poor people, as it
promotes local development and governance.
Keywords: impoverished rural communities, increasing reliance on remittances and subsidies, weakening of the
collective spaces of decision-making, common-pool resources management, protection of biodiversity, regional
organization, market tools
Gooch, Geoffrey David
LiveDiverse Research Team
LiveDiverse– Helping to Overcome Combined Biophysical, Socio-Economic and Cultural-Spiritual
Vulnerability through Participatory Scenarios
Ecosystems are a form of commons vital to human well-being, both through the intrinsic values that they represent
and through the ecosystems services that they can provide. The LiveDiverse project examines the interactions
between ecosystems and human livelihoods in four parts of the world, India, Costa Rica, South Africa and
Vietnam. The case areas, which are focused in and around water and protected areas, represent a variety of
cultural contexts, political systems and climates. The protect uses an approach based on the combination of
biophysical, socio-economic and cultural-spiritual vulnerability.  The results so far show that the calculation of
biophysical vulnerability for the case areas is problematic, as existing methods such as the Environmental
Vulnerability Index (EVI) are based on country scale, and not on smaller geographical regions. The results of the
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work on socio-economic vulnerability demonstrate that in this case vulnerability is a combination of lack of
resources, and of strategies to influence households and communities interaction with their environs. Cultural
and spiritual vulnerability appear to be dependent on the interaction of the ‘old’ and the ‘new’, the preferences
of younger generations, and the level of dependency on traditional methods of production. Through a combination
of participatory studies of biophysical, socio-economic and cultural-spiritual vulnerability, the project provides
scenarios of alternative future policy options for sustainable development. These include ways of improving
rural populations’ livelihoods through better management of the protected areas and the development of systems
through which local people receive a larger share of the benefits in return for their active engagement in protection
Keywords: Protected Areas, water, vulnerability, governance, Vietnam, Costa Rica, India, South Africa
Gooch, Geoffrey David
Rieu-Clarke, Alistair
Institutions, Value Based Strategies and Policy Instruments for Integrating Biodiversity and
Livelihood Concerns in the Context of Developing Countries
The move to sustainable ecosystem governance also necessitates a greater understanding of the processes of
institutions in governance, and involves analyses of the institutions (formal and informal) within which governance
can be developed. These may be formal institutions that are created to embody and protect the values of societies,
or informal institutions such as liberty, democracy, rights, citizenship, welfare, community and the rule of law.
We also need to bear in mind the differences between institutional forms, between formal and informal institutions,
and between institutional structures. Young claims that a ‘prevalent distinction of institutions is between rules of
the game, or settled practices, and the formal organizations who are the players and who have formal hierarchies
of decision-making (Young 1999) and the interaction of these will be looked at in detail in LiveDiverse. Institutions,
in the form of organisational structures or norms and values, are important for sustainable ecosystem governance
as we will attempt to demonstrate. We will also examine how information is treated in different ways in different
institutional contexts. The role of institutions in ecosystem governance is not unproblematic, however, as there
is no common understanding of what they are in different parts of the world. The reason for this is perhaps
because there is here, as in many areas of policy analysis, a lack of comparative studies (Scott 1995). By including
case areas from four continents LiveDiverse will help to produce new knowledge in this field. North claims that
institutions create society’s structural incitement, and that economic achievements are built to a large extent on
economic and political institutions (North 1998). He also states that individual’s and group’s beliefs, which
determine their choices, are a result of learning over time, from generation to generation. Members of an institution
are also considered to hold common values (Peters 1999), which can be ‘webs of interrelated rules and norms’
(Nee 1998), p.8). Peters and Pierre (Peters and Pierre 1998) also stress the way that informal institutions (norms,
values, rules and practices) shape political behaviour, as do many others (Krasner 1983; Krasner 1993). Rowlinson
(Rowlinson 1997) claims that organisations (formal institutions) are enclosed by (informal) institutions and social
structures, such as laws and state legal systems, and formal institutions (or organisations) can be said to be
associated with change and action, while informal institutions with stability and durability. However, this does
not imply that actors within organisations cannot change routines and rules. In some cases they can, and will
(Rowlinson  1997, p.89).
In this paper the results of the legal and institutional analyses in the four case basins will be presented. This
analysis includes the mapping of the main actors and institutions, as well as the legal and policy frameworks
within which these actors and institutions work.
Keywords: law, policy, institutions, actors, governance
Gooch, Geoffrey David
Innovative Analytical Framework and Methodology for the Study of Biodiversity-VulnerabilityLivelihood Nexus
The challenge of combining the need for improved livelihoods for rural people in developing countries with the
challenge of protecting diversity necessitates new ways of integrating perspectives and analysing problems. This
can be achieved by combining analyses of biophysical, socio-economic and cultural-spiritual, and by presenting
the results in the forms of GIS based maps, which can help us identify potential hot-spots. Participatory scenarios
can also help us to combine local knowledge and local people’s visions of the future with scientific knowledge
and experience. The Live Diverse project doses just this. The overlying methodology for the project can be
exemplified in the following way. A region may be faced with significant problems of biodiversity loss, yet
because of a good economy, competent management systems, and political will, the potential threats can be
managed without major problems for the population. On the other hand, biodiversity in an area may be considered
less threatened than in the first example, yet constitute a much larger challenge if the area does not have the
capacity to respond to such threats in an equitable and sustainable manner. A third form of vulnerability focuses
on areas which are considered sensitive and valuable from a cultural/spiritual perspective; for example, in parts
of the world trees, water bodies, mountains etc. are seen as vitally important from a religious and cultural
perspective. Three forms of vulnerability assessment therefore need to be considered, and to be combined to
produce an integrated biodiversity analysis. These are:
1. A bio-physical analysis of the case area through which biological diversity can be ssessed;
2. A livelihood (socio-economic) analysis, though which human capacity to both manage biodiversity threats
while at the same time providing livelihoods for the local population, is assessed;
3. A cultural/spiritual analysis, through which human perceptions of the cultural/spiritual value of biodiversity
are assessed. In this paper apart from the overview of the project and its various components, the methodology
and analytical framework used for the study would be presented. We hope this would make a contribution
tot eh studies of complex commons.
Keywords: Integrated Assessment, biodiversity, livelihoods, participatory scenarios, vulnerability
Gunawardena, Asha
Natural Disasters Reconstruction Aid as Common Management Issue: Implications for Equity
In this study, we examine two types of aid transfers - boats and houses - that were made to reconstruct and
rehabilitate tsunami-affected coastal fishery communities in Sri Lanka.  We investigate the distributional impacts
of these aid transfers and the effectiveness of targeting of such aid transfers.  The study also attempts to quantify
the factors underlying the allocation of these transfers.  Data for this study comes from the Census of Tsunami,
conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics in 2005, and a follow-up survey undertaken by us in 2008
for a sub-sample of fishery households.  Our findings suggest that that there was better targeting of households
with regard to the allocation of houses than boats.  The findings also show that housing transfers resulted in
improved asset equality among fishery households compared to what existed in the pre-Tsunami period.  The
boat transfers on the other hand were not only poorly targeted but also increased asset inequality among the
studied fishery communities.  The findings of the study also reveal that households who had access to social
networks were more likely to receive aid transfers.  Apart from household characteristics, regional disparities also
played a role in the allocation of aid due to differences in access to infrastructure facilities, political preferences
or the presence and absence of political turmoil.  The findings of the study highlight the importance of making a
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special effort to identify certain sub-sets of people such as the very poor and marginalized groups, as well as
households who lost human capital, when it comes to targeting aid in disaster situations.
Keywords: aid targeting and distribution, coastal commons, social transfers, post-disaster development,
reconstruction and rehabilitation, Sri Lanka
Gupta, Sanjay
Tucker, Satya Prakash;  Anjum, Humera
The Public Trust Doctrine and Water as a Public Good
The National Water Policy, 2002 of the Government of India, declaring water as a prime natural resource, a
basic human need and a precious national asset, asserts that ‘adequate safe drinking water facilities should be
provided to the entire population both in urban and in rural areas, drinking water needs of human beings and
animals should be the first charge on any available water, and in view of the vital importance of water for human
and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds,
and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of this resource and its optimal, economical
and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency’. This policy statement by the Government of India
signifies an avowal of the water as a community resource held by the State in ‘public trust’ in recognition of its
duty to respect the principle of inter-generational equity. The Supreme Court in a number of cases has also
interpreted the role of the State vis-à-vis national natural resources in terms of Public Trust Doctrine. Further,
explicitly defining its role vis-à-vis national natural resources under the section ‘Principles’ of the National
Environmental Policy 2006 Government of India says that ‘The State is not an absolute owner, but a trustee of all
natural resources, which are by nature meant for public use and enjoyment, subject to reasonable conditions,
necessary to protect the legitimate interest of a large number of people, or for matters of strategic national
Government of Andhra Pradesh through its recent legislations, administrative actions and irrigation management
programmes including Participatory Irrigation Management and water use efficiency is operationalizing the concept
of Water of a Public Good and Citizen Right in the state.
Keywords: water, governance, policy, Participatory Irrigation Management
Gupta, Usha
Estimation of Welfare Losses from Urban Air Pollution Using Panel Data from Household Health
This chapter estimates the welfare losses due to increased air pollution in the urban industrial city of Kanpur in
India. These losses are measured in terms of morbidity costs that people incur due to exposure to high levels of
air pollution. The estimated morbidity costs cover loss in work days, reduction in efficiency in performing
routine jobs and mitigating activities. The distinguishing features of this study are that it uses seasonal health
diary data collected through a household survey and incorporates both working and nonworking people in the
valuation of urban air pollution. The total annual welfare losses from air pollution to the population of Kanpur
are estimated to be INR 310 million.
Keywords: urban air pollution, household health data, Kanpur
Halder, Ashitava
Islam, Anisul
Co-management of Wetlands and its Contribution to the Livelihoods of Poor People
The sustainability of open water fisheries in Bangladesh and elsewhere is threatened by increasing fishing pressure,
fishing practices, and loss of wetlands. The traditional fisheries management system in Bangladesh is for the
government to lease out fishing rights, often to influential persons, this has not limited exploitation to sustainable
levels or achieved an equitable distribution of returns. Several projects have tried to establish co-management
systems through forming Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and linking these with the concerned government
A comparative analysis is made of two water bodies - Jethua Beel in Hail Haor supported by MACH project and
Goniar Beel in Halir Haor supported by CBFM 2 project. To explore the present water body management
systems, various participatory methods were followed and fish catch and household consumption data were
analysed. This found that sustainability of co-management and performance of the CBOs are constrained by a
lack of clearly defined benefit utilization, a mismatch between resource scale and management initiatives, and a
lack of government commitment. The main project-based differences are that fishers of Jethua Beel have access
to a revolving fund to invest in diversifying their livelihoods, and the Jethua CBO sits in a higher co-management
committee with other CBOs and government.
Keywords: fisheries, wetlands, co-management
Hall, Ruth
The Many Faces of the Investor Rush in Southern Africa: Towards a Typology of Commercial Land
Deals and Implications for the Commons
The popular term ‘land grabbing’, while effective as activist terminology, obscures vast differences in the legality,
structure and outcomes of commercial land deals and deflects attention from the roles of domestic elites and
governments as partners, intermediaries and beneficiaries. As multilateral institutions debate regulatory frameworks
– FAO voluntary guidelines, World Bank’s “principles”, G8 “non-binding principles”, AU’s land policy guidelines
– competition grows over defining the terms of the debate. Borras and Franco (forthcoming) usefully distinguish
two paradigms: ‘securing land rights’ through ‘good governance’, with an emphasis on procedural guarantees
and efficient administration; and a ‘food sovereignty’ and ‘land sovereignty’ approach, which questions not only
processes through which land uses and rights are transformed, but also the direction of change. Attention must
therefore be given both to processes and outcomes, and to alternative forms of investment.
This paper reviews experiences of recent land deals which have curtailed rural communities’ access to land and
water in Southern Africa. Drawing on a regional review conducted during 2010 of the rise of commercial land
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deals, it summarises initial evidence of the characteristics of this new wave of deals on communal land, and
maps the distribution of these investments across the region. The paper proposes a schematic analytical framework
for distinguishing between different types of land deals in the region. It is argued that this is important for
considering how investments might be better structured to benefit, rather than bypass, local communities. It
addresses questions of scale and duration; initiation and process; production sectors; employment; natural resource
use; determination, payment and distribution of compensation; investment partnerships and repatriation of profits;
and end users. These dimensions are among the determinants of the degree to which rural communities are
excluded from new processes of accumulation, are incorporated on adverse terms, or benefit from new pathways
of development.
Keywords: land rights, land governance, land grabbing, land deals, agro investment, biofuels, mining
Haque, Enamul
Khan, Zakir Hossain M.
Red Wells, Green Wells and the Costs of Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh
Arsenic poisoning is a major public health concern in Bangladesh that affects between 27 to 60 percent of the
population. This study uses primary data to examine health impacts and costs associated with arsenic contamination
of groundwater. The study estimates that some 7 to 12 million work-days per year are lost as a result of arsenic
exposure. In addition, individuals who are sick spend between BDT 207 (USD 3.5) million to 369 (USD 6.25)
million per year on medical costs. Individually, each sick person bears a minimum cost of BDT 1057 (USD 18)
or 0.6 percent of annual income as a result of not being able to collect drinking water from ‘safe’ sources. The
total cost of illness to households as a result of exposure to arsenic contaminated water is between BDT 557
(USD 9) and BDT 994 (USD 17) million per year for Bangladesh Schooling years are found to have a strong
impact in terms of reducing the probability of sickness at the individual level. This shows the impact of education
on safe health.
Keywords: arsenic poisoning, Bangladesh
Haque, Emdad
Khan, Munjurul
Mobilization of Stakeholders in Partnership Projects: Lessons Learned from Wetland Management
and Knowledge Advancement Programs in Bangladesh
Effective participation of stakeholders in the decision-making and implementation process results in providing
ownership or a sense of belongings to both common property management issues as well as in community
development projects. In this paper, we have examined the role of selected institutions and their partnerships,
which are vital to manage natural resources sustainably, in determining their performance. The first set of
development and wetland resource management projects that we have investigated has revealed that the topdown, command and control, expert-oriented natural resource management system in Bangladesh created
conditions that facilitated gains of wealth and power by vested groups, accelerated marginalization, exploitation
and deprivation of the local resource users and conflicts in resource management. Such management system not
only excluded local resource users from their access to and control over resources, but also created opportunities
for degradation of natural resources and thus, undermined their sustainability. These issues and problems in turn
generated a demand for cross-scale institutional partnership among government organization (GO), nongovernmental organization (NGO) and community based organization (CBO) in resources management to facilitate
effective and efficient management of natural resources. The second case has assessed the mobilization process
of a collaborative initiative regarding knowledge and practice in natural resource management in Bangladesh. It
has been found that establishing a system of participatory governance, including transparency and accountability,
from the commencement of the projects of programs are crucial in sustaining the mobilization of stakeholders. A
multi-faceted field investigation method has been followed in the study. These included key informant interviews,
focus group discussions, participation observation and triangulation. By examining development initiatives in
wetland resource management and advancing knowledge of participatory natural resource management in
Bangladesh, this paper analyses structures, processes and outcome of partnerships among GO, NGO and CBO
to assess its effectiveness in NRM as well as among the universities (as knowledge stakeholders), NGOs, and
community-based local organizations. Based on the best practices and lessons learned from the study, sharing of
power through appropriate institutional mechanisms, mobilization of diverse stakeholders as well as local resource
users in cross-scale institutional linkages and their participation in decision-making processes have been found
to be critical for devising effective multi-level institutional partnerships.
Keywords: partnerships, government organization (GO), non-governmental organization (NGO) and communitybased organization (CBO), Bangladesh
Michael Hara, Mafaniso
Ecosystem Approach to management in South African Small Pelagic Fisheries
South Africa is striving to implement an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. Multi-disciplinary Research partnership
has been recognized as very important in the development of an EAF. Decision support tools are helpful in
synthesizing information from various sources and also serve as tools facilitating communication. For the SA
pelagic fisheries, such tools have been under development at the Marine Research (MA-RE) Institute of the
University of Cape Town and PLAAS in collaboration with a diverse group of other stakeholders from natural
sciences, social sciences, resource management, industry and NGOs since 2006. The multi-disciplinary group
that has been collaborating on the initiative has provided good experience in terms of the difference in conceptual
approaches, methodological and analytical approaches and how these can accommodate each other. In the
short term, the recent geographic shift raises a number of pertinent issues: Is this due to climate change, is it due
to fishing pressure? What are the impacts of such ecosystem changes on both natural and social systems? As an
example, it has been hypothesized that a change in small species dominance (sardine vs. anchovy) in the natural
system that might be reflected in the composition of the catch in the pelagic fishery could influence the genetic
diversity of small pelagics, and manifest itself in the social system in terms of the number of jobs in canning vs.
reduction. The development of an EAF is thus regarded as extremely important for the natural resource and the
social systems that depend on the resource.
Keywords: South Africa, ecosystem approach, fisheries, multi-disciplinarity, natural system, socio-economic
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Squires, Heather
Managing Expectations: Reflections on Participatory Modelling for Social Learning in MultiStakeholder Projects – The Case of Invest in Fish South West
Marine fisheries is contested terrain. Invest in Fish South West was a four-year project in England’s south west
which used bio-economic modelling, alongside deliberation and other participatory tools, to support stakeholders
to explore consensus-based recommendations for European marine fisheries. The multi-stakeholder partnership
(MSP) aimed to create a united voice to European and domestic policy makers, supported through participatory
modelling. The participatory modelling had two explicit aims: to support the deliberative and consensus building
process; and to legitimise decisions to policy makers and other stakeholders. This paper explores the experience
of modelling as an aid to stakeholder participation and to social learning. In situating the model in the context of
the broad analytic-deliberative process, we contend that the model contributed marginally to both stakeholder
participation and to social learning. This experience highlights the significance of a networked approach to
planning and assessing for social learning and the importance of managing expectations for integrating technical
science-based tools into multi-stakeholder platforms. These lessons are vital in an era of post-normal science
where multiple knowledge claims are increasingly be made, and tools needed, to support management of marine
Keywords: participatory modelling, multi-stakeholder platforms, marine fisheries, social learning, deliberative
Hernandez-Gamez, Lysete Sandra
Moving from Environmental Economics to Ecological Economics: What Difference Does it Make
for Forest Management under the Carbon Market Framework?
The conceptualisation of nature in environmental economics disregards the most important principle in the
relationship between the economic system and its natural environment.  A comparative analysis show that the
approach from environmental economics orients natural resources management to a merely strategic rationale
where the dynamics, changes and responses of ecosystems are ignored in both theory and practice. In contrast,
ecological economics gives a leap forward into a shift in the opposite way by providing an energetic flow
approach for understanding the impacts of the economic-nature interaction. However, even ecological economics
broadens the comprehension on the subject there is still a disconnection between the new knowledge and the
policy making process. The successful transfer would have enormous differences in forest management, shifting
from the current perspective of them as carbon credits producers for offsetting to a reconstructed framework of
local, less intensive and sustainable management.
Keywords: environmental economics, ecological economics, forest management, carbon market
Herrod, Kate
Creating New Urban Commons, A Baltimore Case Study
In 2003, Baltimore was a city in distress, with over 14,000 vacant houses and a population that had dropped by
more than one-third since 1950. Tired of alleyway crime, residents decided to gate and beautify their alleys,
creating common spaces outside their backdoors.
Residents faced significant legal and political challenges before, in April 2007, a landmark ordinance passed
allowing for alley gating and greening. This historic legislation culminated from the efforts of government, residents,
private sector and nonprofit partners, including Ashoka’s Community Greens.
This new ordinance protected the city from frivolous lawsuits and provided residents with a transparent, reasonable,
and replicable process. Dozens of blocks in Baltimore are now taking advantage of this ordinance. Because of
the social, environmental, and fiscal benefits it provides, other cities are beginning alley greening programs,
customized to their unique needs. None, however, appear as community-driven as Baltimore.
Baltimore’s program rests at a unique intersection of grass-roots responsibility (residents must undertake the
process primarily on their own including gaining their neighbors’ consents and raising funds for improvements)
and top-down, municipal authority (a city wide ordinance and application process that must function in order for
the program to spread city-wide).
This paper will explore the context for and the challenges of creating Baltimore’s alley gating and greening
initiative. It will also cover the process residents underwent, the legislation that was ultimately passed and the
impact alley gating and greening has had to date. In addition, it will address how other cities’ green alley
programs are evolving and key elements for replication
Keywords: alley, gating, greening, urban redevelopment, commons
Hiroe, Ishihara
Why Does Under-Use/ Abandonment of CPRs Matter to the Local Community? Case Study of Tai
District, Toyooka, Japan
This paper will focus on the issue of under-use and abandonment of CPRs which has been overlooked in its
literature. CPR literature has intensively focused on CPRs with incentive to over-use the natural resources which
leads to environmental degradation. Due to this slant in the literature or its scarecity, the issue of under-use/
abandonment has rarely been discussed, although it is causing serious losses of ecosystem services and
repercussions to the local community. The aim of this paper is two-folds:
1. Through literature review, the paper will clarify the interlinked relationship CPRs and local community when
livelihood of community members is heavily dependent on the natural resource extracted from CPRs. This
will enable us to identify the premises that the current CPRs literature holds and expand its scope to discuss
the issue of under-use/ abandonment.
2. By using the case-study in Tai-district, Toyooka, Japan, the paper will look into the historical change of
livelihood which has lead to under-use/abandonment of CPRs and its repercussion to the local community.
This process will be termed as “dis-embedding” process following Polanyi’s argument on the “embeddness”
since community members gradually decreased their dependence on CPRs. 
Lastly the paper will investigates into some of the measures that are taken to revive the CPRs using symbolic
value of flagship species, Oriental White Storks, which are feeding on the abandoned CPRs.
Keywords: under-use, abandonment, “dis-embedding”, social structure, wetland management
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Hossain, Abdullah Abraham
Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Toriman, Mohd Hj. Ekhwan
Social Learning in Facing Challenges of Sustainable Development: A Case of Langat River Basin,
This paper explains the findings of the research on implementation of integrated river basin management (IRBM)
in Langat River Basin, Malaysia. This study utilized institutional analysis and development framework to identify
institutional challenges associated with IRBM implementation in the study area. Three categories of action arena
were defined and scope for stakeholder participation in decision making was identified. This analysis revealed
that polycentric institutional arrangements under Federal administration are capable to coordinate and integrate
river basin management by extending the scope for iterative learning processes that could address institutional
challenges for adaptive and ecosystem based management approaches. Using stakeholder interview data, binary
logit regression model and ordinal regression model analyses were carried out to find out present effect of
influencing factors of IRBM implementation and outcome of present learning environment in study area. R2
value for these model analyses were 0.41 and 0.27 respectively at 1% significance level. It was found that social
learning could significantly influence IRBM implementation in the study area (Odd ratio for social learning was
17.11). It has opened up scope for future research in the study area. Finding of this study is envisaged to be useful
to those who are concerned to strategize IRBM and sustainable development and further research on LRB and
Keywords: Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) in Langat River Basin, Malaysia
Hovmand, Peter
Digital Commons for Modeling Commons
Computer modeling and simulation are playing an increasing role in understanding, designing, and managing
natural resource commons. In particular, computer modeling and simulation make it possible to consider many
more complex sets of interactions over time and different actors than would be possible using more conventional
research methods. However, these efforts have historically been left in the hands of expert modelers and frequently
relied on proprietary and expensive modeling software and computers. This limits the possibilities for reviewing
and replicating the results by scientists and public. It also contributes to a situation where already marginalized
communities are excluded from the process used to design the policies that will determine the fate of the commons
on which they depend. Most importantly, modeling and simulation to understand and influence policy and
program design for the benefit of the very poor must also pay attention to ensure that such knowledge is not only
developed in a participatory way, but made available to widest possible constituencies. This has motivated
efforts to involve more stakeholders in the modeling process using participatory techniques and share the tools,
models, and methods for analyzing commons. This paper takes up a set of technical and institutional issues
related to creating digital commons for computer modeling of natural resource commons. Only through such a
digital commons are we likely to affect change that is beneficial for the most vulnerable and poor.
Keywords: System Dynamics, agent based modeling, computer simulation, participatory methods
Hovmand, Peter
System Dynamics Modeling with Communities: Modeler Perspective
This paper reflects on the application of system dynamics modeling of commons with communities in Andhra
Pradesh and Rajasthan in collaboration with FES. This paper focuses specifically on the effectiveness of combining
participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods with system dynamics, the capacity building approach taken in the
project, and implications for future work from a modeler’s perspective. The paper highlights some the ways that
this work is being seen internationally in other communities and topical in areas such as a health, childhood
obesity, community development, and structural racism. The paper also summarizes some of the limitations and
challenges that will need to be considered in work to increase participation by historically marginalized
communities, and proposes an agenda for future research, capacity building, and action.
Keywords: System Dynamics, Participatory Rural Appraisal, marginalized
Huq, Muhammad Jahedul
The Role of Leadership and Management in the Governance of Freshwater Wetlands in Bangladesh:
An Evaluation of Performance
Bangladesh has enormous wetlands and indeed during the rainy season, about half of the country could be
classified as wetland. Generally haors, baors, beels and jheels are commonly identified as fresh water wetlands
in Bangladesh. These freshwater wetlands are very important for most fertile and productive ecosystems and
breeding ground for fisheries and reservoir for irrigation. But since independence of Bangladesh, large-scale
transformations including changes in the landuse pattern, increased human activities, direct extraction and habitat
loss have seriously threatened the wetland’s ecosystem. Therefore, it is deemed essential to evaluate the role of
leadership and management for sustainable utilization of wetlands in Bangladesh. This study will use institutional
analysis, stakeholder analysis as well as SWOT analysis for institutions, wetland rules and regulations in order to
get an in-depth understanding of loopholes of leadership and management of wetlands in Bangladesh. Hence
this research will contribute to knowledge for new policies that will promote sustainable and an effective wetland
management system, which will not only ensures the conservation of wetlands in a sustainable manner but also
create a lot of new opportunities for future generation.
Keywords: wetland, Bangladesh, land use, leadership, governance
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Inoue, Makoto
Prototype Design Guidelines for ‘Collaborative Governance’ of Natural Resource
Current forest management in Japan and tropical and sub-tropical Asian counties requires collaboration between
the local people and outsiders affected by globalisation. When designing the governance of local commons
under such circumstances, there are three possible strategies by which local people may respond to external
influences. The first is ‘resistance strategy,’ in which people do not adapt to globalisation and mostly refuse
involvement by outsiders in order to preserve their autonomy. The second is ‘adjustment strategy’ meant to
assimilate the benefits of globalisation. The third is ‘eclectic strategy,’ which is a compromise that incorporates a
partial resistance strategy and limited adjustment strategy. This third strategy presents an advantage in reconciling
contradictory concepts such as ‘closure/openness’ and ‘inherent values/universal values’. Under this strategy,
‘collaborative governance’ (kyouchi in Japanese) of natural resources could be achieved. This type of governance
is organised through collaboration among various stakeholders who have a range of interests in local resource
use and management. In the field, however, the opinions of people residing in forest regions, usually minorities
with less political power, might not be ultimately reflected in governance, even though equal participation by all
stakeholders is formally ensured. In order to overcome such issues, this study offers prototype design guidelines
for collaborative governance. These guidelines are derived from and evolved out of the design principles for
CPRs, and enable conditions for sustainability of the commons, where researchers have pointed out the importance
of linkage with outside organisations and nested enterprises. In particular, this paper proposes three vital guidelines
to bring about collaborative governance of the forests: ‘graduated membership’ and ‘commitment principle’,
which are underpinned by ‘trust building’.
Keywords: collaborative governance, design guidelines, graduated membership, commitment principle, CPR
Inram, Verina
Governing Forest Commons in the Congo Basin: Non-Timber Forest Product Value Chains
Probably eaten by dinosaurs 130 million years ago, today eru (Gnetum africanum and bucholzianum leaves are
harvested from the humid forests of Central Africa: the basis of a lucrative US$14 million dollar regional trade
and marketed to the African diaspora in Europe. An important source of nutrition in popular dishes and used in
traditional medicine, it is remarkable that Gnetum has survived; let alone being the focus of a significant trade.
But for how long? Increasing demand and unsustainable harvests have resulted in decreasing availability if this
forest vine. These leaves are one example of non-timber forest product (NTFP) chains originating from the Congo
basin. Based on value chain analysis, this paper illustrates the variety of arrangements, values, actors and processes
involved in getting nine NTFPs including bee products (honey, wax, propolis), bush mango, pygeum, raffia, gum
arabic, cola nuts, raffia, bamboo and wild plums from forests to consumers. The study shows that how the forests
and the NTFP trade are governed is critical for the continued survival of species and the livelihoods of those
dependent upon them. These value chains operate in extremes of regulation as well as, paradoxically, voids.
Public actors perform market functions and private actors undertake regulatory responsibilities, both in the
absence of effective or efficient formal institutions and with multiple, overlapping customary and formal centralised
and devolved or decentralised institutions, rights and responsibilities governing forest access, exploitation and
trade. The mechanisms used to fill these gaps and create more favourable chains, the values of these products
and impacts on livelihoods and forests are described, analysed and discussed.
Keywords: forest, governance, non timber forest products, trade, regulation
Irawati, Rika Harini
Fauzan, Achmad Uzair; Melati; Purnomo, Herry
Value Chain Governance and Gender in the Furniture Industry
Value chain analysis has emerged as a novel approach for understanding how power, benefits and costs are
embodied and distributed to various actors, men and women. The Indonesian furniture industry demonstrates a
long chain of production to consumption, from tree growers, semi-finished producers, finished product producers,
and retailers to exporters. Each value chain actor is connected by intermediaries. Indonesian furniture contributed
2% of the global wood furniture trade (valued US$ 85 billion in 2007).  This paper describes the role of gender
along furniture value chains in Jepara District, the center of Indonesian furniture with annual exports of US$ 150
million to Europe, USA, Australia and Japan.
Studies combining gender with furniture value chain analysis have rarely been undertaken. The study describes
women’ roles in every type of value-chain governance namely: market based, balanced network, directed network
and hierarchy. Each value-chain governance type generates different kinds of involvement for women in the
furniture industry. Market based value-chains provide a case with the lowest level of gender segregation in its
production process, but women’s involvement is heavily undervalued. Balanced network chain tends to go
toward a clearer gender segregated production for efficiency reason. Directed network value chain type give a
stronger inclination for gender segregated processes, and the hierarchical chain gives the strongest one due to
the mechanization of its production systems.  The study also identifies the major constraints hindering women
from competing favorably in furniture production labor markets in Jepara.  Although this study is carried out at
the local level its lessons learned can be used in other parts of the world. At the global level, we will compare this
study with lesson learned from the Chinese bamboo and Zambian honey bee value chain. 
Keywords: Jepara, furniture, gender, value chain analysis, governance
Isaacs, Moenieba
Formalising the Informal Fishers - Small-Scale Fisheries Policy, Marine Protected Areas and its
Impacts on Fisher Livelihoods in South Africa, Case Studies of Struisbaai and Arniston, South
With the new democracy, the reallocation of fishing rights favoured an established fishing industry and previously
disadvantaged individuals and groups (elite capturing) in fishing communities - thereby excluding the bona fide
fishers from the formal allocation process. These bona fide (informal fishers) were categorised as subsistence,
artisanal and interim rights holders. The informal fishers were discontented with the rights allocation system and
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decided to challenge the allocation system legally. In November 2007, Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism (DEAT) through settlement agreement with the informal fishers, committed to formalise access rights to
the excluded fishers through developing a small-scale fisheries policy. A task team of representatives along the
coast together with department officials from Marine and Coastal Management (MCM) are in the process of
drafting this policy. 
The main argument of this paper centers on whether formalising the informal poor and marginalized fishers
through the governance processes involved in drafting a small-scale fisheries policy will decrease their vulnerability
and improve their livelihoods. Findings suggest with no one organization representing fishers in the communities
of Struisbaai and Arniston (Kassiesbaai) in the southern coast of South Africa the space is wide open for the elite
(rights holders) to capture the benefits. Moreover, DEAT’s failure to address access rights equitable and access to
Marine Protected Areas have resulted in many fishers entering MPAs, fish undersize species, and harvest lucrative
abalone species.
The conceptual framework draws on the concepts institutional dimension of fisheries governance and the formal
and informal nature of action space in context of developing a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa,
and the vulnerability of fishers with weak agency. Data were collected mainly through fieldwork using qualitative
methods of key informants, focus group interviews, household interviews, and participatory observations in
communities of Arniston and Struisbaai.
Keywords: governance, institutions, fisheries, small-scale, Marine Protected Areas, poaching
Islam, Gazi Md Nurul
Noh, Kusairi Mohd; Yew, Tai Shzee
Assessing the Impact of Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study of the Redang Island Marine Park
Malaysia is rich in coral reef ecosystem. The country has 9,323 km of coastline and 3,600km2
 of coral reef area.
The coral reefs in the marine waters are the important habitats for fish species and destinations of tourists. This
sector contributes benefits to the economy and livelihoods of many resource dependent households. The
government has established Marine Parks to protect these coral reefs with a goal to conserve the habitats and to
protect marine environment and valuable resources. However, fishing is not allowed in the marine protected
areas (MPA) confined within two nautical miles from the shore at low tide. The marine habitats have been
declined considerably over the years due to the use of destructive fishing gears, tourist activities and infrastructural
development. The management of marine parks is less effective because of inadequate manpower, logistics and
financial resources. This paper presents the impact of MPAs on the livelihoods of fishers and other households in
the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. The results of this study are derived from a random sample of 300 households
who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire and through informal discussions with various groups.
The study will highlight the livelihood impact of fishers and other tourism workers in the MPA sites. This study
will review the existing management performance in marine parks that affects the coral reefs ecosystems and
livelihood options of the resource users. The paper presents some useful information for the policy makers in
formulating policies that can promote sustainable use of coral reefs ecosystem.
Keywords: Marine Protected Areas, coral reefs, livelihoods, fisheries
Ismarson, Iwen Yuvanho
Fujisaki, Shigeaki
An Institutional Analysis of Deforestation: A Case Study on a Village Inside Bukit Barisan Selatan
National Park, West Lampung Regency, Lampung Province, Indonesia
Indonesian forest areas - established and controlled by the government - cover 120,350,000 hectares or 65.89%
of the country’s total land area.  They play a vital role in the lives of the poor, in the provision of ecosystem
services and in sustaining biodiversity.  However, deforestation is currently continuing and damaging 42% of
the country’s forest area. The continuation of deforestation, especially in Conservation Forest, the last fortress of
the country’s forest areas, strongly indicates an institutional problem of the failure of government to enforce
formal laws on forest conservation. This study aims to identify the sources and impacts of this government failure
in enforcing forest conservation laws.  In order to achieve the research purposes and benefits, I employed a
single-case study methodology to an extreme case of the establishment of a village by a local government.  Since
the village is located inside a National Park, a kind of Conservation Forest controlled and managed by the central
government, the establishment of the village triggered conflict between central and local government.  For data
collection, I conducted field work and used multiple sources of evidence, namely, documentations, archival
records, direct and participant observation, and open-ended interviews with relevant respondents from central
and local government and non-governmental organizations.  This study focuses on institutions and institutional
changes which are reflected in the history of the forest area and people at the case study site, the conflict process
in regard to the establishment of the village inside the park, and the perception of the parties involved in the
conflict.  The results show that the government failure in enforcing forest conservation laws, as currently reflected
in park deforestation and the establishment of the village inside the park, derived from two institutional problems
in the past, namely, (1) government negligence on eight desiderata or requirements of law, that law should (a) be
of general application, (b) be publicized or at least made available to affected parties beforehand, (c) be coherent,
(d) be prospective in application, (e) be consistent, (f) be clear and intelligible, (g) not require conduct beyond
the powers of the affected party, and (h) reflect congruence between rules as announced and their actual
administration; and (2) the weaknesses of the law enforcement apparatus.  These underlying institutional factors
resulted in deforestation caused proximately by agricultural expansion, and the insecurity of the local people,
which contributed to further deforestation.  To resolve the problems, I offer a policy of forest area rationalization
and a change in function of forest area at the case study site from Conservation Forest to Protection Forest, in
order to grant local people rights for the utilization of the forest area, to maintain government control, and to
reduce the tensions between central and local government.  Further, in order to save the remaining forest inside
the park, I recommend strong law enforcement, which also must be supported by control of spontaneous migration
to the case study site and prudent policy on the establishment of a new autonomous administrative area
Keywords: institutions, deforestation, forest conservation, National Park
Iwasaki, Shimpei
Challenges to and Potentials of Cross-Scale Linkages for Environmental Conservation: A Focus of
Natural Resource Management Network in Kuraburi Estuary
Estuary and lagoon ecosystems pose a special challenge to commons theory and common property resource
management by making the exclusion problem and the subtractability problem more difficult to deal with.
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Together with climate variability, these areas are physically subject to various influences from not only the
coastal and brackish environment but also the adjacent marine and terrestrial areas including watershed. The
regional resources in the ecotone spaces pose cross-boundary issues so that elaborations are required to move
beyond a community-based resource management situation within a limited area. Under the circumstance,
cross-scale institutions that are in tune with the scales where ecosystems function shall be taken into account.
Given multiple and heterogeneous resource users are involved in the ecological-social-economic system, building
natural resource management (NRM) network consisting of various resource user groups is of importance to deal
with the exclusion problem and the subtractability problem.
Based on the recognition, this paper aims to seek for effectiveness and challenges of NRM network building in a
case study of Kuraburi Estuary, Thailand where two NRM networks have been already formulated by the initiatives
of local peoples and NGOs. This study places emphasis on assessing actual and potential effects of NRM network
building while understanding each network activity. It highlighted the significance of NRM network building to
mobilize collaborative relationship among the stakeholders while identified several challenges in developing
partnership linkages at the vertical level among villagers and NGOs and governments in order to ensure the
legitimacy of collaborative works for wise use of natural resource. Based on these analyses, this paper draws
some implications about the role of linkages across institutions, and identifications of pressing constraints and
positive strengths toward integrated natural resource management in the wider ecotone spaces.
Keywords: cross-scale linkage, network, common arena, heterogeneity, Kuraburi Estuary
Jacaúna, Tiago da Silva
Ferreira, Lúcia
The Dilemmas of the System of Common Ownership of Fishing Lakes in Brazilian Amazon
This paper examines the local fishing resources management initiatives, known as “fishing deals”, and the obstacles
faced by fishermen belonging to rural communities in Brazilian Amazon. The research was developed among
communities from the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas. The field research has produced
evidence of the organizational potential, the communicative skill, the social capital and the political culture of
fishermen groups that, when threatened by the decrease of some of the fish stock, got organized to control the
use and the appropriators of fishing resources in aquatic environments close to their area of residence. Nonetheless,
the maintenance of such mechanism is threatened by other groups, interested in the commercial exploitation of
the communal territories, since they still lack the State endorsement. According to Brazilian law, the fishing
resources are state property and the State alone can legislate on their protection. However, the recent scenery
displays the inefficiency of governmental organs in the surveillance and containment of the over exploitation of
fishing resources. This has led the people inhabiting the rural areas of the Amazon, such as the groups of
fishermen covered by the present study, to develop autonomous forms of management to avoid the scarcity of
fish. As a result, a process of decentralization of fishing resources has been in course in Brazil since 2002. By
means of complementary directives to the current fishing legislation, the State has created criteria to guide the
discussion of the “fishing deals”, enabling their legalization. Nevertheless, the deals established by the subjects
covered by this study remain yet to be legalized, leading to the obstruction and impairment of local management
systems and giving rise to several social conflicts - since the other appropriators don’t abide to the local rules for
the appropriation of fishing resources.
Keywords: fishing, common property, social conflicts
Jain, Angela
Dienel, Hans Liudger; Bonaker, Alva
Road space in Hyderabad as an Urban Common: Otto von Gierke’s Cooperative Law Applied to
the Discussion on the Use of Road Space in Hyderabad
We propose to present a paper which applies the theory of commons of the German law historian Otto von
Gierke (1841-1921) to the actual discussion on the use of road space in Indian megacities, with special emphasis
given to road space in Hyderabad.
In the late 19th and early 20th Century, Gierke developed the idea of a common and cooperative “German
L a w ” ,   w h i c h   h e   c o n t r a s t e d   a g a i n s t   a n   i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c   “ R o m a n   L a w ”   i n   h i s   b o o k   “ D a s   D e u t s c h e
Genossenschaftsrecht” (German Cooperative Law). This cooperative law emerged during the middle ages in
j90 13
rural communities, brotherhoods and guilds. Groups with collective consciousness developed a legal
understanding of common ownership, which defined joint use of commons. This tradition, which he believed to
be particular strong in German culture, was a backbone for the success of modern cooperatives and the idea of
commons since the 19th Century.
In emerging Megacities like Hyderabad, urban space and especially road space is a hard-fought Urban Common.
As the need for mobility is growing, an increasing part of the population is demanding more space of the road.
On average, every Indian citizen travelled 285 km a year during the 1950’s. In a span of five decades, the annual
travel distance jumped to 3470 km (Singh 2006, 398). As in most developing countries, walking and cycling
count for a high percentage of travel in the modal split of Indian cities (Pucher et al. 2005, 190). But, decentralization
has affected non-motorized and therefore sustainable transport modes: Trips-lengths have increased for most
urban residents, leading to more overall travel demand and thus more traffic on the roadways and public transport
The paper will present the discussion on the use of road space for street vendors, pedestrians, cyclists, cars,
buses, two- and three wheelers during the last years, using the analytical framework of Gierke’s cooperative law.
Both authors are members of a long-term applied research project Sustainable Hyderabad*, funded by the
German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Their sub-project Low Emission Lifestyles – Communication
and Participation Strategies develops and tests new instituional arrangements to integrate citizens’ views and
participation into spatial planning processes.
The planning approach of sustainable transport management schemes has shown so far, that road-space is mainly
taken by motorized vehicles and pedestrians are marginalized. This has been verified and documented in the
course of a Citizens’ Exhibition (“Ready to Move?!”), in accompanying online-discussions, as well as in a conference
(“Citizens Charter on Urban Transport”). All three action research-oriented activities pointed out the lack of
safety for pedestrians, caused by missing or obstructed footpaths, leading to a high number of traffic accidents.
These results are taken up in the successive research process. Governance as well as practical solutions for an
equitable partake in Urban Commons, like public space and roads, will be discussed in the presentation.
* The full title of the project is: Climate and Energy in a Complex Transition Process towards Sustainable Hyderabad
– Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies by Changing Institutions, Governance Structures, Lifestyles and Consumption
Patterns. Coordinated by: Humboldt-University of Berlin.
Keywords: megacities, India, cooperative law, road space
Jain, Kalpana
Jain, Nihal
Promoting Sustainable Collective Action: Lessons from Behavioural Sciences
Several tools and techniques are used by psychologists and the counsellors for behaviour shaping. Some of the
techniques such as contingency management of reinforcement, modelling procedures and rational emotive
approaches have considerable relevance for community groups. In community development activities, rights
and incentives provided for motivating community members act as reinforcement for collective management of
resources. If the benefit flow from collectively managed resources increases, it further acts as reinforcer. The
extension activities such as exposure visits to some exemplary cases or success stories provide as models for
communities. The participatory exercises, community meetings and other sensitization activities act like rational
emotive approaches of behaviour shaping. This study has been carried out in south Rajasthan where Joint Forest
Management approach has been implemented for nearly two decades. The delivery and process of community
development activities in selected villages were analyzed in each community to understand how they compared
with the community behaviour shaping approaches. This was then related to the effectiveness of community
institutions. The results indicated decline in effectiveness of institutions in many cases which was primarily
associated with absence of proper scheduling of reinforcement while delivering development activities. While
in some cases sustained collective action was observed where a combination of factors motivated community
members. In overall, it was evident that collective action remained sustained when the combination of rights,
incentives, benefits and sensitization processes was delivered in a manner that they acted as reinforcers of the
desired behaviour. Based on these observations, a strategy of delivering a combination of development interventions
is discussed to promote sustainable community institutions.
Keywords: behaviour shaping, participatory forest management, contingency management, collective action,
Jain, Nihal Chand
Providing Incentives for Sustainability: Rationality Beyond Economic Considerations
For achieving sustainability through collective management of forest and other natural resources, the incentives
should be attractive enough that communities feel motivated to regulate the use of resources. When people have
rights over the resources, they can derive benefits from products flowing from the resources. If benefits are not
significant, additional incentives can be provided to communities through development investments. With this
consideration, many government and non-government agencies, implementing the participatory resource
management programmes, emphasize on providing additional incentives in various forms to local communities.
This paper examines the effectiveness of such provision of incentives in motivating local communities for
sustainable management of resources. The analysis is based on some case studies from Rajasthan and review of
information from other parts of India, where different forms of additional incentives have been provided by
implementing agencies, in addition to the benefits flowing from the resources managed. This revealed that it is
not merely the economic incentives, which always motivate communities. Rather it is the emotional attachment
of people and feeling of belongingness to resources, which drive people’s action. The rights, benefits, additional
incentives in terms of development investments and emotional attachment make a combination which needs to
be considered in totality. However, generally this understanding is hardly applied in the programmes being
implemented, and as a result sustainable collective action is often not achieved despite several efforts and
considerable investments. Based on this analysis, this paper outlines key considerations of a strategy for achieving
sustainable collective action.
Keywords: sustainability, incentives, collective action, emotional attachment
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Jara, Mazibuko Kanyiso
Changing landscapes of democracy, rural governance, traditional power and degraded commons
in a former apartheid homeland
This paper will review the role of the South African Traditional Leadership and Governance Framework Act
(TLGFA) of 2002 in resuscitating defunct tribal boundaries and authorities in four villages (Ndlambe, Ngqumeya,
Prudhoe and Rabula) in a former apartheid homeland (Bantustan), the Ciskei. Apartheid-era legislation imposed
tribal boundaries and authorities without consultation and consideration of actual practices and realities on the
ground. In certain parts of the former Ciskei this imposition led to dissent and resistance that over time led to the
eventual collapse of the tribal boundaries and authorities. By the time of the transition from apartheid to a
democratic political dispensation these were replaced by diverse, community-based systems, rules, structures
and mechanisms of local governance, justice, management of common property and customary law. These
regimes were also shaped by post-1994 legislation on rural local government and traditional leaders. Legislation
on rural local government made it possible for former homeland rural areas to be incorporated into democraticallyelected municipal systems and structures. On the other hand, the TLGFA together with the Communal Land
Rights Act of 2004 have re-enacted apartheid-era tribal boundaries and authorities.
Based on continuing research in the mentioned four villages, the paper will trace the impact of the TLGFA in
resuscitating tribal boundaries and authorities, and on local experiments with community-based systems, rules,
structures and mechanisms. The traditional councils seem to be an emerging terrain of struggle. Key questions
addressed in the paper are: what is the relevance and implications of contestations over rural governance in the
former Ciskei to meanings and debates on boundaries of authority, identity, common property and space? What
are the implications of changing landscapes of rural governance, tribal boundaries and traditional authorities in
the former Ciskei for the management of common property resources?
Keywords: customary law, common property, traditional leadership, boundaries, land, rural governance,
Jetti, Archana
Microfinance, Gender and the Commons: Current Challenges and Future Possibilities
Microfinance encompasses a broad range of financial services provided to people or groups of people otherwise
unable to access mainstream financial services. Microfinance has gained importance since the 1980s within the
international development field as an effective tool to alleviate poverty, and in many contexts, it is also understood
as an effective tool for addressing gender inequality (Armendariz and Morduch 2010; Hulme and Arun 2009).
The Microfinance institutions (MFIs) work on the premise that poor people are unable to engage in income
generating activities due to inadequate access to saving, credit, insurance and other such financial facilities.
Therefore, MFIs around the world concentrate their activities on providing these services through innovative
means to suit each country’s unique needs. It has become a vast global industry involving a continuum of interest
groups, ranging from non-for-profit organizations to corporate banks. This paper argues that the predominant
microfinance model of lending to the poor, especially women, through group collateral has significant association
with the utilisation of commons. A majority of the loan recipient of microfinance loans in the developing world
make at least a part of their living by utilising common pool resources (CPR) such as forests, fisheries, agricultural
lands, mineral resources, waterways and the like. Since the loan size offered through microfinance initiatives is
small, it is tempting to ignore the environmental impacts of income generating activities (microenterprise) that
are undertaken by recipients of microfinance. But the volume of microfinance loans recipients around the world,
106,584,679 million as of 2007(Daley-Harris 2009), is large enough to warrant further research on the association
between microfinance, gender and the commons. This paper seeks to draw the connection between microfinance,
gender and the commons. In doing so, the paper proposes a broader theoretical framework, the Capability
Approach, to evaluate microfinance initiatives which can accommodate gendered as well as environmental
Keywords: gender, microfinance, commons, Capability Approach, poverty, development
Jha, Nabi Kanta
Gooch, Pernille; Farooquee, Nehal Ahmed; Maikhuri, Rakesh Kumar;
Das, Debashish
The Future of Pastoralism in Central Himalaya under Changing Scenarios of Nature ‘Conservation’
Pastoralism in the high altitude Himalayan and trans-Himalayan region is an important source of sustainable
livelihood where due to extreme climate conditions and rugged topography intensive agriculture is not possible.
The developments in last decades have tracked the remote mountain populations from the mainstream economic
growth to the peripheral existence. The situation of mountain pastoralists and forest dwellers has deteriorated
substantially due to negligence and political unwillingness. The Van Gujjars, a forest dwelling semi-nomadic
buffalo herder community of Indian Central Himalaya, is facing the uncertain future due to changing rules of
power of states and pressure from ‘conservation’ lobbies. They are crucially dependent on their surrounding
forests and alpine pastures for fodder, fuel, food and building materials. But now they are losing their common
grazing resources and prohibited to enter into traditional alpine and tree line grazing meadows (which are now
under Govind National Park, Uttarkashi) with their buffaloes in 2009. Overgrazing is a major threat to vegetation
and biodiversity, but it is well researched that moderate grazing is essential for maintaining species richness of
forests and alpine. Sudden complete removal of grazing livestock from the forests and alpines traditionally
maintained by grazing without any scientific study, may cause reverse results (loss of species richness due to over
dominance of some species) as happened in Valley of Flower National Park. The Bhotiya tribe of northern
districts of Uttarakhand transformed their livelihood as well as lifestyle from livestock (goat and sheep) herding to
jobs in towns and cities with a huge government plannings and support. There were no question marks before
them when they left the life of pastoralists as it is in case of Van Gujjars. This ethnic forest dwelling community
is forced to leave their grazing lands to provide space for ‘nature conservation’ without any reasonable solution
for their future. The traditional sustainable relation between the ethnic society and nature is on threshold.
Keywords: Indian Central Himalaya, pastoralism, Van Gujjars
Jha, Shishir
Towards Examining A Spill Over Economy
At the heart of capitalist enterprise is a sacred view of property. This idea of property informs our understandings
of physical and knowledge commons. Property is by its very nature, located in an exclusivist relation to a
resource or a commodity. It is “exclusively” owned and by its very nature prevents others from accessing it,
unless granted permission to do so. It is in the Locke an sense, the fruit of someone’s labor. This Locke an view,
the transformation of nature into property through the exertion of one’s labor power, is at the heart of all dominant
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political economic understandings of property: whether tangible or intangible. Ideas of productivity and capitalist
efficiency have been further built on the economic and political freedoms that such property allows its owner.
Much of the legislative energy in modern capitalist systems is therefore devoted towards a free and untrammeled
exercise of such rights and towards preventing others from trespassing such property rights. Such logic has
worked impeccably for the capitalist enterprise. However doubts appear to be surfacing regarding whether such
exclusivity in the use and exercise of property is necessarily productive.   Inotherwords
can an enterprise become more robust if instead of preventing others from accessing the fruits of its labour it
actually encourages a “spill” over so that others take advantage of such spills and buildbetter[more inclusive]
systems? The idea behind a spill over with respect to knowledge in particular is that by actually encouraging
others to use “your” [so called propertied] knowledge or by relinquishing control over knowledge there emerges
an even greater likelihood that such knowledge is more effectively used. These are referred to as the anti-rivalries
characteristic of a good by Stephen Weber, such as Open Source Software [i.e., goods with spill over characteristics].
Are such “spill over” characteristics the building block of a new form of knowledge commons? Does it militate
against the dominant ideas of property as held by classical political economists of nineteenth and earlier centuries,
and which largely forms the normative basis of our current understanding of property relations? What are the
implications for an economy that encourages “spillovers” as opposed to an economy that is deeply anxious of
such spillovers? These are some issues that need further examining and investigation.
Keywords: knowledge commons
Jonnalgadda, Rajeswar
Jauhari, VP; Gadhalay, Sanjay
The Changing Climate of Carbon Accounting at Commons
The fast degrading environment after the Industrial Revolution has been a classic case of the “Tragedy of Commons”
wherein International Community has an “open access” to environment as an externality, largely without any
effective regulations in place. Both the extreme forms
of monopoly – whether absolute Statism or the Invisible Hand of Free market – have been proven not only
ineffective, but even counterproductive in the management of environment as a common pool resource (CPR).
The peripheral stakeholders of the Commons who have
no control in decision-making, but heavily dependent on CPRS may turn hostile if they see no stakes for themselves
in preserving the Commons. The role of planned agricultural projects and tribal communities and other forest
dwellers in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions through
deforestation (REDD Plus) on one hand, and the contribution of small and marginal farmers in the mitigation of
climate change through sustainable agriculture on the other hand, have been blatantly ignored for  their potential
of carbon  sequestration. These two groups have been treated more as a part of the problem, rather thansolution.
However, the recent policy shift at UNFCCC, at least in principle, and FAO’S new guidelines for the mitigation
of climate change through agriculture (MICCA) have brought community involvement and participatory
management of commons in agriculture, forestry and other
land use (AFOLU) to the Center stage of climate change framework. It is in this background that the opportunity
in Commons has been rediscovered in inculcating active participation of local communities at regional level and
in generating consensus among the quarrelling nations
at global level on climate change, in treating environment as a Global Common, rather than a commodity. Of
late, there has been a realization that traditional community management institutions go beyond and far above
the logic of game theory in meeting the goals of sustainable
development. The proposed paper depicts Environment as a global common and explores the potential of
economic, technological and institutional instruments in agriculture and forestry in metamorphosing the ‘tragedy
of commons’ intoan ‘opportunityin commons’. With the natural advantage of countries like India and others
who have a larger portion of the GDP contributed through forestry and agriculture which needs planned efforts
for management its being proposed through the paper and presentation leading to a peer group review that
interests  of the countries like India who have lot more at stake due to a naturally larger period of the year
available for agriculture and employment of people who depend on the same should also be eligible for special
CERS under the CDM program of UNFCC , enabled through a National Carbon database project which goes into
the economic planning database. Efforts are underway to institute a detailed project with GOI and MOEF in this
space, subsequent to a Peer group review and academic discussion across experts and institutions with an
interest in guiding policy  and international opinion in these space as the UNFCC evolves and accepts the REDD
recommendations gradually.
Keywords: climate change, environment, global common, cars
Joshie, Sanjay
Priyadarshini, Pratiti; Peipert, Devin; Rao, Jagdeesh; Chaturvedi,
Rahul; Singh, Subrata
Analyzing Policy Environment for Securing Access and Legal Entitlements to Grazing lands -
Rajasthan Scenario
Rajasthan is the largest state in India with nearly two third of its area in the arid or semi-arid zone. In large parts
of the state mixed farming is predominant with animal husbandry and agriculture forming the primary sources of
livelihood. Over the past 22 years (1984-2007), significant quantities of common lands, most of which being
grazing lands have been diverted for other land uses. Further, grazing lands have degraded due to the lack of
tenurial rights to communities and effective governance mechanisms. Poor livestock keepers in the absence of
water and fodder need to migrate with their livestock to new frontiers increasing their vulnerability.
The Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act provisions to facilitate the Panchayats to mainstream natural resource
management, regenerating village commons and more importantly work towards management and appropriation
of the resource thereby facilitating the sustainability of the works undertaken under different programmes. The
paper attempts to analyze the present Acts and Policies and make propositions for securing tenure in favor of the
communities and thereby improving the governance of the common lands.
Keywords: public policy, Rajasthan, grazing lands
Jyotishi, Amalendu
Institutionalizing Common Pool Resources Insights from Tawas Fisheries Co-operative
With growing concerns over tribal rights and amidst continual raw between the government and peoples cooperative for the livelihood of tribal population, there are many supporters of a decentralised people’s coj96 13
operative management for natural resources. Based on this premises however, this paper looks into micro realities
to unearth the foundation of co-operative management to explore what induces co-operation or conflict. How
the decisions at the constitution of the co-operative affect daily operations? What needs to be done to ensure the
relevance of the institution with changing circumstances? With the case study of Tawas Matsya Sangh, we
explore the internal and external dynamics of the co-operative and their effects on the livelihood of the people.
This paper concludes that the co-operative system works very well when equity among the members is ensured,
even when the composition of the group is heterogeneous. Further it concludes that all the potential members
who can benefit from the resource system must be included in the co-operative. It reiterates the age-old conflict
between equality and efficiency and suggests that pursuing one on the expense of other is not a wise decision.
Keywords: privatization, participatory socialism, social movements, communal councils, new state forms
Kabiri, Ngeta
Democracy and Environmental Governance in Africa
Democratic decision-making in environmental governance has been forwarded as a means of securing
environmental sustainability. In practice, however, it should be expected that public support for the environment
can be withheld, or at worst it could assume the dimension of blocking the environmental conservation project.
This paper inquires into how democratic participation in environmental governance may interact with the
institutional settings to undermine environmental sustainability. Because of the dominance of positing a positive
relationship between democracy and environmental sustainability in the literature, we investigate in this case the
possibility of alternative scenarios, namely democratically generated unsustainable environmental outcomes.
Cases from Kenya are used to examine this possibility. The conclusion suggests that a positive relationship can
be anticipated with certainty only if specified at the level of voters who are defined as green.
Keywords: democracy, environmental governance, Kenya, qualitative research, sustainability
Kadekodi, Gopal K.
Dealing with Extraction of Mineral and Oils Underground
It is a well known ecological fact that the best known forests, river basins and fertile landscapes are also rich
below ground with natural resources such as fossil oils and minerals (United Nations, 1970; World Bank, 1977).
Added to this is the fact that the history of the world has seen a continual modification of the landscape of the
earth both above and underground for anthropocentric purposes. Thirdly, it is also well known to all scientists
that most of such land conversions are irreversible. How to reconcile these three, as the coming ‘spaceship
Earth’, a word borrowed from Kenneth Boulding is sinking?
Referring to Indian sub-continent, Indian sub-soils are rich in onshore and off shore crude oils and gas, coal, iron
ore, copper, bauxite and many such minerals, all of which fall under the category of exhaustible resources. They
are locked under a total forest area of about 3.29 million sq kms of land, about 8.4 million ha of rivers and
streams, and another 2.1 million ha of water bodies, 55.5 million ha of sandy areas and so on. It is also the land
of quite high population density (324/sq km) dependent on agricultural lands (of about 200 million ha). Of all
variety of land use categories, the common lands dominate with an area of about 83 million ha. This includes the
forestlands; pasture lands, and current fallow and Cultural wastelands. As has been the practice through the
development process, these lands have been the first targets for land conversions for extracting minerals and oils.
As argued by Dasgupta and Heal (1979), Pindyck (1978) for this sub-continent, we need to give a very special
attention to conversion of such common property resources.
Though it is a value judgment over intergeneration, precautionary principles and search for alternative resources
for exhaustible and even replaceable resources prompt some legal binding, politically and socially adherable
rules of governance.
Keywords: fossil oils, land conversion, common resources, governance
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Kai, Mausch
Cynthia, Bantilan
Definitions of Homogenous Groundnut Production Domains- A Tool to Assess Transferability and
Spillover Effects From ICRISAT Groundnut Technologies
Sustained, well-targeted, and effectively used investments in R&D have improved agricultural productivity
worldwide and thereby contributed to food security. In this context, research spillover effects refer to a situation
in which a technology that is generated for a specific target region or product is also applicable to other locations
or products that are not targeted during the research process. The focus here will be the across-location spillovers,
which occur when a technology designed for a specific target location is also applied in other locations (Deb/
Bantilan 2001). Efforts to quantify these effects have shown that their contribution to the overall impact can be
substantial at times (see e.g. Davis et al. 1987, Brennan et al 1997). The thorough understanding and quantification
of the spillover effects that emerged from past research is one important tool in the priority setting process of
international research institutions like the CGIAR centers in order to maximize their impact.
Based on the methodology developed by Davis et al 1987 and others, this paper will enhance the measurement
of potential agro climatic homogenous spillover domains using example of the International Crops Research for
the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) groundnut research and variety release. Due to the regionalized structure of
ICRISAT and other CGIAR centers, a special focus is set on the interlink ages among the African and Asian
locations. Results show that the spillover potential is rather high based on agro climatic similarities across the
locations. Nevertheless, the actual spillover realization is by far lower due to differences in market structure,
governance factors and other socioeconomic factors. To overcome these bottlenecks through new innovations
along the research continuum as well as along the commodity value chain is crucial in order to achieve higher
impact from the funds invested and therefore increase the poverty reduction impact from ICRISAT research
Keywords: spillover effects, Africa and Asia, agricultural research, priority setting, budget allocation
Kaleekal, Thomson
State Policies Transnational Adaptations and Development Futures of Coastal Commons in India
The common property nature of coastal commons continues to challenge the governance process in India. The
spatial restructuring envisaged in the Indian Marine Fisheries Regulation Act 1980 which partitioned the Indian
exclusive economic zone between coastal states and the central government did not succeed enough to resolve
complexity of management and needs of various coastal communities. Commons ruined further, economic
disparities widened and social conflicts escalated many fold. Nation State blamed its federal counterparts for the
degradation of coastal commons and decided to strengthen centralized management authorities further. Policy
makers on the other hand strongly believed that more centralized powers and controls are essential to manage
the problems and proposed a number of legislations to strengthen Central government’s control over marine
commons and to protect the customary rights of traditional fishermen. This paper critically explores the implications
of the newly proposed legislations and policies to accommodate and promote transnational interests in coastal
commons in India. The paper analyses the salient features of the proposed bills with special reference to the roles
envisaged to fisher communities, industrial fishing enterprises and non- governmental organizations in the
management of coastal commons. It summarizes the probable risks and opportunities of the shift in policy
Keywords: coastal commons, trans nationalism, policy making, governance, nationalization  
Joy, Kallarakal
Suhas, Paranjpe
Exploring Interconnections between Biodiversity and Cultural-spiritual Diversity and Development
of Driver-specific Cultural-spiritual Vulnerability Indices in Riparian Systems in Some Developing
Cultural and spiritual diversity and natural biodiversity are deeply linked, mainly because biodiversity hot spots
are also locations occupied by diverse indigenous peoples who have had a living interaction with the biodiversity
of their surroundings as part of their living and for whom local biodiversity is an important livelihood resource.
However, cultural and spiritual diversity is also a value in itself because cultural practices and preferences a)
represent and are an expression of diversity that parallels natural biodiversity in the natural (biophysical) world
and b) have historically evolved in interaction with the natural biodiversity in an area and so have an important
role in preserving/reducing biodiversity. Spiritual diversity is often linked to spiritual values and ritual dos and
don’ts that preserve biodiversity through reference to there spiritual rather than simply cultural aspect. An important
example is that of ‘sacred groves’ in India.
Seen in the context of biodiversity, cultural and spiritual biodiversity may be seen as well adapted context
specific coping/resilience mechanisms with important learning’s and insights for biodiversity preservation. Modern
processes, ranging from global to local, tend to disrupt the relationship between biodiversity and cultural and
spiritual biodiversity and create cultural and spiritual vulnerability. Coping with them and minimizing these
vulnerabilities is now coming to be recognized as being as important as coping with socio-economic and
biophysical vulnerabilities.
The paper explores the interconnections between natural biodiversity, livelihoods and cultural and spiritual
diversity among the major communities in the four riparian case study area in the Terraba River Basin in Costa
Rica, Ba Be abd Na Hang protected areas in Vietnam, the area surrounding the Kruger National Park in South
Africa and the Warna River basin in India. It also suggests the development of driver-specific vulnerability indices
as a methodology to help develop developmental strategies that can minimize cultural and spiritual vulnerabilities
and attempts to apply them in the case study areas.
Keywords: biodiversity, indigenous, cultural and spiritual diversity, vulnerability indices, coping/resilience
Kamaladasa, Badra
Protecting of Reservations in Irrigation schemes- Legal, Institutional and Social Issues
Reservation in an Irrigation scheme which is a vey important common that is needed for the sustainability of the
whole system, can be broadly classified in to two types, one on the catchment and the other associated with the
headwork’s and down stream system. Reservation on the catchment is usually set apart to ensure quality and
quantity of inflow to the reservoir. Due to limited land resources in a country like Sri Lanka, it is difficult to
enforce strict regulations on catchments. Most of the time it is considered as a buffer zone where certain human
activities are allowed as long as these do not conflict with the prime objective of the catchment reservations. But
the reservations set apart adjoining the irrigation headwork’s and downstream system are to be protected strictly
as areas thus reserved are essential for safety of the structures, use as access by the operation and maintenance
personnel or may need for future developments of the project.
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In the recent past it was observed that incident of encroaching irrigation reservation had been increased. It was
further observed that authority over the reservations is vested with many government organizations, which are
individually responsible for land, or environment matters in the scheme or operation & management of the
scheme. Overlapping these functions had prevented timely action on unauthorized activities in the reservations.
In this paper shortcomings in the current legal and institutional framework will be discussed with the suggestions
for improving the system. The social background that led the individuals to encroach the reservations also will be
highlighted to suggest what intervention the government can make to control this situation.
Keywords: reservations, encroachments, conservation
Kameswari, Vyakaranam
Computer Mediated Communities: Stretching the Boundaries?
Literature on Common Property Resources (CPR) mentions the role of communication process in evolving
consensus use arrangements and commitments. It refers to the significance of communication in the context of
arriving at joint use strategies and availability of information (regarding the resource) as a precondition to pose
and solve allocation problems (Ostrom et al, 1992). In these works, information is rarely seen as a stand-alone
History of communication technologies reveals distinct phases and the age of interactive communication began
in 1946 with the invention of mainframe computer (Rogers, 1986). This has led to the capacity to communicate
across barriers of space and time in an interactive manner-giving rise to what is commonly referred to as information
Information society is characterized by exponential growth in the production, flow and access to information
through spread and use of digital communication technologies. These newly created Computer Mediated
Communities (CMCS) share many features like interaction, common purpose, a sense of identity and belonging,
shared norms and unwritten rules with possibilities of exclusion or rejection in case of misuse, with real
communities (MC Quail, 2008). If information is viewed as a resource, can the principles surrounding the
governance of Common Property Resources (CPRS) be applied to its usage in the era of digital communication
This paper examines the idea of information as a resource and its conception as a CPR in the present scenario.
Further, it compares the characteristics of virtual communities’ vis-à-vis real communities that use and share
conventional CPRS. It is proposed that information is a resource and technology has led to its increasing use as
a common property. However, some features of Computer Mediated Communities pose a challenge to its access
and use age.
Keywords: communication, digital technologies, information society, computer mediated communities
Kamran, Muhammad Asif
Bastakoti, Ram Chandra
External Disturbances and Institutional Responses in Management of Small-scale Irrigation Systems
in Pakistan and Nepal
Irrigation systems operate under the environment of pressure from several external and contextual factors. The
small-scale community irrigation systems are exposed to the risks from fluctuating natural events such as increasing
floods unpredictability due to irregular rainfall patterns; droughts and degradation of riverbeds and soil erosion.
In such context, this paper looks on the institutional change and resulting water rights and operational rules-inuse in the small-scale community-managed irrigation systems in Pakistan and Nepal. The findings show that
farmer-managed irrigation systems (FMIS) have been better able to cope with such external disturbances by
following the local irrigation customs and collective action. In contrary, the agency-managed irrigation systems
(AMIS) working under strong bureaucratic control and fixed rules are facing serious threats. The study draws
conclusion on how the two different management regimes governing irrigation systems leads to different operational
rules-in-use and management outcomes; and their ability to cope with the external disturbances.
Keywords: external disturbances, institutional change, water rights, Nepal, Pakistan
Kashwan, Prakash
The Collectives’ Conundrum: Explaining Communities’ Poor Enthusiasm for Collective Forest
‘The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006’ has been
heralded as a remarkable departure in India’s forest governance. With a stated objective of correcting “historical
injustices”, the act devolves statutory power to village assemblies to deliberate around questions of individual
and collective forest rights. While many commons initiatives are marred by insufficient rights devolved to local
communities, the FRA apparently addresses this issue. However, for the two years that the act has been in
implementation, number of collective claims filed under FRA has been abysmally low. This paper attempts to
explain this puzzling phenomenon by investigating the gamut of institutions that impinge on the community’s
decision and actions toward staking claims for collective forest rights provided for in the act. Based on yearlong
fieldwork, the paper considers political economy consequences of institutions and arrangements related to forest
conservation and
electoral politics at micro-, and meso-levels. A careful inquiry into the subjectivities of actors involved reveals
why actions may not align with incentives visible to the analyst.
Keywords: institutional analysis, political economy, right-based approaches, multi-method research, South Asia
Kashwan, Prakash
Holahan, Rob
Missing the Woods for the Carbon? Scrutinizing Carbon Forestry Programs for Sustainable
Amid the heated debates around REDD financing, little attention is being paid to the effectiveness of REDD at
promoting local sustainable development, despite this being a stated goal of its CDM predecessor. A great deal
of empirical and theoretical literature now argues the importance of linking global projects with local incentives
to ensure long run program viability. We add to the debate over REDD through a theoretical and empirical
analysis of the institutional architecture that REDD is likely to inherit from CDM forestry projects. We begin by
first analyzing the circumstances under which the idea of market-based carbon trading came to be institutionalized
under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This piece of history characterized by bargaining among major
geo-politic players, led to the institutional arrangements that were put in place, which in turn continues to define
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the contours of debate around carbon forestry. Second, we offer a theoretical analysis of the proposed REDD
institutions by employing a lens of New Institutional Economics – by focusing on transaction costs, incentives
structures, and property rights of local forest users to better understand implementation on the ground. Given the
contested nature of forest tenures around the world, particular attention is paid to discussing property rights in
carbon credits to be traded under REDD. Implications of the incentives structures and property rights are drawn
for proper monitoring and enforcements. Finally, insights gleaned from theoretical analysis are buttressed by an
empirical analysis of reported results of the carbon forestry projects implemented in Africa, Asia, and Latin
America under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and voluntary carbon markets. At the end of this
analysis we pose important questions for sustainability of REDD interventions and implications thereof for climate
change mitigation and adaptation
Keywords: institutions, governance, forests
Kashwan, Prakash
Schlüter, Achim
“Sensing Subjectivities”: Methods for a Thick Understanding of Complex Institutional Contexts
Institutions are recognized to be vital to all human endeavors. Important work has been done by common
property scholars in analyzing institutions and how they affect governance of common pool resources. Perhaps
more could be done in reflecting upon, and making explicit the research strategies that help scholars grapple
with institutional diversity and complexity. This is particularly relevant to traditional societies characterized by
hierarchical social relations, cultural institutions, and in many cases, a deeply feudal and colonial past. How
exactly do scholars account for the overcrowded space of ‘institutional context’? The present paper is an attempt
at contributing to the goal of reflecting on and scrutinizing methods for institutional analysis in such contexts.
The point of departure for this paper is the proposition that in effect, institutions are ‘rules of the game, as
understood by the subjects in question’. Such understanding is shaped by the processes ‘beyond the everyday’
that make the ‘everyday’ happen, as scholars of institutional ethnography have argued. However, subjectivities
owe a great deal to the historical accumulation of institutional memories passed down through lived experiences
of the subjects. This paper thus expands the institutional ethnography approaches and applies it to a study of the
institutions of property rights operating in the ambiguous zone between legality and illegality. Such ambiguous
spaces are often inhabited by a variety of institutions in social, cultural, and political milieus that must be
accounted for by institutional ethnographers. In doing this, we also enlighten the concept of ‘institutional
interlocking’ in novel ways.
Keywords: power, authority, social exclusion
Katel, Om N.
Schmidt-vogt, Dietrich
Forest, People and Livelihoods: The Need for Participatory Management in Jig Me Singye Wang
Chuck National Park, Bhutan
Forest conservation in Bhutan is dubbed a success because of the ratification of several international conventions
at the international level and enactment of several acts at the national level. The success of forest conservation in
Bhutan is further supported by the fact that the 72.5% of the country’s total land area under forest cover and
declaration of more than half of the total land area under protected area systems. However it has been observed
that residents in protected areas are dependent on the forest resources such as fuel wood, timber and NTFPS for
their livelihoods and suffer from restrictions caused by PA management and loss of financial support from donor
agencies for conservation. The research presented here is carried out in Jig me Singye Wang chuck National Park
(JSWNP) in Bhutan, which is gazetted in 1995. It examines the experiences of forest resources use by the local
communities in JSWNP in Bhutan in the last fifteen years and assesses knowledge perception and attitudes of the
people to Park Forest management and to show the constraints and challenges of the forest management and
conservation in Bhutan. This paper also recommends for the suitable institutional arrangements including
decentralization for ensuring livelihood options for rural people and augmentation of forest resources, as both
are crucial for the nation’s development.
Keywords: forest conservation, Bhutan, livelihoods, local community, decentralization
Kavoori, Purnendu
Criminal, Weed and Vermin: The Ecology and ideology of ‘Wastelands’- Towards a Historical and
Pastoral Perspective
As in many other aspects of contemporary concern the basic foundation of policy that shapes our approach to
grassland resources was formed during the years of colonial rule. As against primitive forms of accumulation
based on force, colonial systems of extraction were primarily economic. The Criminalization of groups formed a
part of this process. It was not only human beings however that Colonialism marginalized, the logic of exclusion
extended to other species as well. In much the same way that colonialism created the criminal tribe, that it
created the Vermin, we believe it had a role to play in the construction of the administrative category that we call
wastelands. Like Vermin, weeds were not born they were made. In the years following independence the discourses
on criminality eventually gave way to an altogether different framework; whereas the colonial state had sought
legitimacy in the language of ‘Law and Order’, the post-colonial state evolved the language of ‘Development’.
The manner in which mainstream development impacted on the grassland habitat was largely shaped by a focus
on productivity and marketability. In practical terms this meant an emphasis on agricultural expansion and
intensification. So also in the larger thrust of development priorities within the area of primary production,
grasslands had not only a very small and insignificant place, what perspective did exist was largely based on
reasoning which in the long term actually ran contrary to their sustainable and ecologically sound utilization.
Last but not least development intervention directly and indirectly undermined the institutions that supported
grasslands. In recent times this process has become more systematic as the state has sought to appropriate large
tracts of grassland in the interests of private industry. It does appear tragically that history repeats itself and India
since independence had much the same vision of grasslands, as did the colonial rulers
Keywords: development, pastor lists, grasslands, ideology
Kawai, Masayuki
“Moderate Industrialization” and Commons: Alternative Development Strategy to Oil Palm
Plantation in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
In this study I would like to propose the “Moderate Industrialization” strategy as partial adaptation of
industrialization by simultaneously maintaining local commons in order to realize sustainable community
development. Dayaks, an indigenous people in Kalimantan, have been living self-sufficiently with slash-andk104 13
burn agriculture, hunting, fishing and gathering NTFPS. They managed large customary land sustain ably as
commons until 1960’s with plenty of natural resources and low population density. During 1970’s, however,
large-scale commercial logging forged. Since then, local people have been incorporated in mainstream economy
by working in logging company and joining the illegal logging activities. Local commons were disturbed and
couldn’t function anymore. Deforestation proceeded dramatically. In 2000’s, logging company0activities decreased
because of resource shortage. The current central administration enforced restriction of illegal logging. Due to
this local people fell into economic difficulty. In such situation large oil palm program by PIR (Perusahaan Inti
Rakyat) scheme is expanding rapidly in East Kalimantan. Now local people are required to adopt it. Although oil
palm could alleviate poverty and increase local economy, it is well known that it leads to negative environmental
and social effects such as large-scale irreversible deforestation, biodiversity loss and wide range of land dispute.
In this study I introduce a concept of the “Moderate Industrialization” as an alternative strategy to oil palm, which
is environmentally, and socially sound strategy. It would be realized by establishing small, dispersed but modern
high-yielding rubber blocks though UPP  (Unit Pelaksana Proyek) scheme. “Moderate Industrialization” thus
could play an important role to reconstruct local commons through satisfying household economy needs and
relieving utilization pressure for natural resources and might be able to facilitate local people to contribute
positively on the issues related to global commons in the stand point of natural resources and biodiversity
Keywords: oil palm, rubber, PIR, UPP, moderate industrialization
Kazunobu, Ikeya
The Pig Herder and Common Resources in Bangladesh
It is unknown that native pigs are living in Bangladesh and were of an old genetic type found on the Eurasia
continent. I have done my fieldwork to investigate the actual conditions of this type of the nomadic pig husbandry
since 2007. I followed the herds and observed the feeding and routes of movement. Pig groups were moved in
each season, and the depended on the availability of feeding resources. During the dry season, pigs are kept in
cultivated fields after harvesting. In the rainy season, pigs can live near flooded rivers. Pigs are also kept in
rubbish disposal areas. In my report I discuss the changing relationship between the pig herder and farmer or
urban-dweller over common resources.
Keywords: territoriality, conflict, nomadism, land use, commons, pig
Kenney-Lazar, Miles
Threats to Common Forest Resources and Resource Regimes: Plantation Development in Laos
Out of the seven million inhabitants of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), 80% live in rural areas and
engage in subsistence agriculture. Such farmers use most of their land and labor to produce rice, which they
often does not have enough of throughout the year. In order to supplement the rest of their diet, farming households
depend upon the collection of common forest resources. Forest products also meet other livelihood needs such
as house construction, cooking fuel, and income generation. Unfortunately, though, the forests of Laos are
quickly disappearing, mainly due to large-scale development projects by foreign investors in mining, hydropower,
and plantation sectors. Limited private land tenure reform has occurred in the countryside for agricultural land,
but there has been little implementation of communal tenure over common resource land, such as the forest.
While informal, communal tenure regimes exist within villages for forest resources, they go unrecognized when
such land is granted to foreign investors for private development. As a case study, this research examines a
10,000-hectare rubber plantation conceded to and developed by a Vietnamese company in Attapeu Province,
southern Lao PDR. The study found that most of the granted area was forest land that was both used by farming
households and that fell within the borders of their villages. At the time of research, villages had lost large
percentages of forestland, thus leading to the degradation of forest-dependent village livelihoods. The ease with
which such land has changed hands illustrates the vulnerability of informal resource regimes and the lack of
institutionalized communal land tenure in Laos. In order to protect future losses of common resource land, ways
must be found to strengthen and enforce communal tenure throughout the country.
Keywords: foreign investment, plantations, forest products, land tenure, Laos
Khan, Mizan
Action Research in Academia: The Case of the Project “Building Environmental Governance
Capacity in Bangladesh” (BEGCB)
The efficacy of action research is contested. The debate is a reflection of the discourse between the ‘positivist’
and ‘constructivist’ approaches to knowledge generation. But if one delves into the basic questions of what is
knowledge, who generates it or what purpose it is meant to serve, the differences are narrowed down. There
seems to be a consensus that action research has some inherent strength, such as it’s grounding to real-life
contexts and problems. Apart from its esoteric purpose of knowledge generation, academic or so-called scientific
research also has a heuristic purpose of solving development problems that societies face. Here at its best, action
research provides mutual benefit both for the practitioners and academics. The paper builds on this frame and
argues that environmental science and management in general, but climate change in particular, warrants building
a strong bridge between action research and academia, for carrying out by the latter the dual function of teaching
and research in an era of ‘post-normal science.’ The BEGCB project is firmly grounded to this rationale.
Keywords: environmental science and management, climate change, action research and academia
Khan, Mohammad Tanzimuddin
Chevron’s Seismic Survey, USAID’S Nishorgo Project, the Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh:
A Critical Review
The paper mainly reviews the USAID-funded Nishorgo project which is an environmental project undertaken for
the conservation of the officially declared protected areas of Bangladesh. This project is based on a co-management
a p p r o a c h   h a v i n g   t h e  ma j o r   f e a t u r e s   o f   P u b l i c - P r i v a t e   P a r t n e r s h i p   a r r a n g eme n t s . B o t h s t a t e a n d n o n -
stateactorsincluding the
local communities are the participants in the project. However, the operation of this project coincides with the
business interests of the US-based multinational company- Chevron in the project sites. In fact, it conducted a
seismic survey in the Lawachhara forest areas of northeastern Bangladesh. But the survey raised a public controversy
as it violated the municipal laws of the country on wildlife conservation. This paper takes a Gramscian perspective
to review the two different but related MNC and donor projects. In this regard, the first project of seismic survey
provides a case study for the analysis of Chevron’s operation in Bangladesh, while the second project reviews
USAID sponsored Nishorgo. Based on field works, interviews, and content analysis of local newspapers, this
paper finds that both projects appear to have some other purposes, which are largely related to the economic
interests of the USA. In both cases, members of the local public and private agencies appear to partner with their
international cohorts, and neglect the genuine responsibility of conserving the forests, thus further complicating
the principles of public-private partnership empirically
Keywords: public-private partnership, co-management approach, Nishorgo project, Chevron, USAID, forestry
project, conservation, co-option, historic bloc
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Khan, S.M. Munjurul
Emdad, Haque
Participatory Wetland Resource Governance: Role of Local Resource Users in Cross-Scale DecisionMaking Arrangement - A Case Study of Hakaluki Haor in Bangladesh
Governance in wetland resources management in most regions of the world is a critical issue that affects millions
of people’s livelihood as they depend heavily on these resources. The significance of governance in wetland
resource management is not only limited to its primary stakeholders (i.e. fishermen, farmers, local poor and
women as their livelihoods are dependent on the resources), but also other stakeholders, such as, policy makers,
government agencies, development agencies, researchers, planners, NGOs, local elites, local government
representatives, and political agents. This is because of the involvement of the latter groups in the policy formulation,
administration, and decision-making process in resource management across the scales. Stakeholders influence
and shape the outcomes of governance to sustain collective action in natural resource management. In that
respect, considering the multi-stakeholder participatory approach in governance structures and processes of
wetland resource management, it is necessary to produce results and attain goals through collective actions. This
multi-stakeholder participatory governance approach embraces attributes of good governance, i.e. accountability,
responsibility, transparency, fairness and equity, across the scales. Hakaluki haor has been selected for this
study, as this wetland provides immense support to livelihoods, to investigate role of local users in decisionmaking process to take account of their interests in the existing top-down, command and control management
system. During our field investigation local resource users were involved in participatory rural appraisal methods.
This paper, by evaluating the relative presence or absence, strength or weakness of these attributes of governance,
highlighted the form and nature of governance that exists in NRM institutions. Our study finds that effective
participation of community-based organization is crucial, especially for the disadvantaged groups, to take a
proactive role in decision-making process to ensure their interests in the management approach that promotes
the decentralization of power and decision-making. However, strong participation of resource users is also
needed to meet organizational demands, i.e. capacity building, empowerment and social conditions. Also,
cross-scale institutional linkages, both horizontal and vertical, can create opportunities for multi-level environmental
governance in NRM with equitable decision-making processes.
Keywords: Bangladesh, participatory governance, resource users, natural resource, institutional linkages, Hakaluki
Khatri, Dil Bahadur
Payments for Environmental Services in Kulekhani Watershed of Nepal: An Institutional Analysis
of Mechanisms for Sharing Hydroelectricity Revenue
Valuable services provided by natural ecosystems have been dwindling in recent decades, posing a threat to
human well being. Different environmental policy instruments have been devised to tackle this issue. PES is one
such approach, which aims to provide economic incentives to resource managers to change their behaviour
towards conservation. In recent years, this approach has been promoted by development organizations not only
for enhancing ecosystem conservation but also for supporting rural development. In the same lime, many scholars
and development professionals have envisioned the PES an option for providing sustainable financing for the
community based forest management (Mata and Kerr 2006 and Pokharel et al. 2009) In this context, this paper
examines how scheme of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) has been implemented in collaboration
with existing local resource management institutions, particularly community forestry, to try to achieve both
environmental and developmental goals. The paper will present the result of a study conducted in Kulekhani
Watershed of Nepal which will analyze the institutional dynamics of hydroelectricity revenue sharing mechanisms
in Kulekhani watershed of Nepal conducted study on the institutional dimensions of PES in Kulekhani, Nepal. In
doing so, it will use the institutional analyze framework developed by Corbera et al. (2009) and Corbera and
Brown (2008) borrowing basic conceptual elements from different institutional scholars. The framework consists
of the concept of institutional design drawn from the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework of
Ostrom (2005); the concept of institutional interplay of Young (2002); and the concept of institutional performance
of Mitchell (2008). Based on the analysis the paper will draw conceptual and policy implications.
Keywords: community forestry, PES, institutional analysis, Nepal
Kimani, Samuel Munyua
Ongugo, Paul O; Kamau Emily Obonyo
Conflicting Policies: Institutional Approaches Towards Decentralization And Governance Of
Common Pool Resources In Kenya
Decentralization refers to ‘any act by which a central government cedes rights of decision making over resources
to actors and institutions at lower levels in a politico-administrative and territorial hierarchy’ (Blazer et al, 2005;
Meinzen-Dick and Knox, 2001). Kenya’s history of a highly centralized forest governance regime has recently
seen a shift in policy and legislation authorizing decentralization in the sector (Forests Act 2005).
 But what is it that gets decentralized in the forestry and natural resources sectors? And is decentralization
effective in meeting the goals of equity, sustainability and poverty reduction in an environment characterized by
conflicting policies? This paper attempts to answer these questions. Agarwal and Ostrom (2001) suggest that to
better understand the resource management outcomes of decentralized programs; it is worthwhile to examine
the rights and capacities that are transferred to actors at lower levels. Using both primary and secondary data
from two Kenyan forest resources, an analysis was done to find out key roles played by relevant institutions in
understanding what is expected to be decentralized what policy environments are required to ensure the
effectiveness of a decentralized forest resource management system.
 Results indicate that despite the similarities in ecology, in the prominence of both forests in local and national
economies, including conservation of biological diversity, there are some sharp differences in the institutional
regimes for their management.
 The study concludes that heterogeneity of community stakeholders which includes: Government institutions
(Ministries), Parastatals (KWS & KFS), International organizations and NGO’s should contribute towards reducing
their overlapping mandates and policies in common pool resource management. This will not only provide clear
jurisdiction of governance but also enhance transparency in decision-making and equitable benefits distribution,
which has for long been wanting
Keywords: decentralization, governance, policies
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Kimmich, Christian
Challenged Commons: Electricity Governance and Provision for Groundwater Irrigation and the
Impact on Common-Pool Tank Irrigation in Dry-Land Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh, India
Subsidized electricity for irrigation in India has led to inefficient energy and groundwater allocation and to the
deterioration of tank irrigation commons in dry-land agriculture. The States as ‘natural monopolies’ still
predominantly provides electricity infrastructure. Governed in close relation to the polity, electricity supply
became an extension of economic policy through subsidization. Andhra Pradesh was at the forefront of restructuring
its electricity utilities. An independent regulator and unbundled units of electricity distribution were set up.
While accountability of the utilities increased, subsidization has not ceased till today. Which factors enforce this
trend? How can a more sustainable development path evolve?
This paper draws from an institutional analysis framework that handles properties of transactions and characteristics
of actors and respective situations of interaction. The framework builds upon theories of transaction, infrastructure
governance and deploys a model derived from game theory. Economic viability of the involved production
systems is calculated. The micro-level analysis is embedded within an institutional choice context of the state
with regards to the respective policies.
Preliminary findings suggest that the political economy of subsidized groundwater irrigation is strongly interlinked
with tank and canal irrigation systems. Tank irrigation became increasingly neglected as bore well irrigation
spread. Although subsidized, groundwater irrigation requires costly and high-risk private investments into borewells and pump-sets. In contrast, canal irrigation is largely provided by the state at low cost to the farmers. While
regional disparities exist, these irrigation systems have to compete in a common national market and increasingly
also internationally. If the state aims at polycentric irrigation and electricity infrastructure governance, a concerted
development in tank, canal and groundwater irrigation policies is crucial. This requires knowledge in managing
infrastructure as commons. The paper concludes with providing insights into the approaches that are currently
under way
Keywords: electricity-irrigation nexus, infrastructure, governance, Andhra Pradesh, institutions
Klain, Sarah Catherine
Spatial Stakeholder Engagement Method Related To Marine Ecosystem Services
From oil spills to dead zones to over-fishing, marine ecosystems are showing alarming signs of distress around
the world. Marine Spatial Planning, which involves allocating human activities over space and time, promises to
improve ocean management and contribute toward restoring, degraded marine ecosystems. My research links
Marine Spatial Planning to ecosystem services. Many natural resource decision-makers have begun to account
for ecosystem services, the benefits that people get from nature. This ecosystem service accounting has focused
on the economic value of nature. Although cultural ecosystem services are frequently mentioned in ecosystem
service research, these intangible values have yet to be systematically identified, characterized and adequately
represented in Marine Spatial Planning processes. In my case study in northern Vancouver Island, I interviewed
a wide array of people whose livelihoods depend on the ocean. Interviewees identified intangible values associated
with the ocean and activities on the ocean, some of which was mapped. With the aim of contributing towards
Marine Spatial Planning, I developed methods to map the monetary and non-monetary values and threats that
ocean-users associate with the sea and identify the limitations of mapping. These methods can inform a wide
array of Marine Spatial Planning efforts in different contexts. My results provide information directly relevant to
my research partners, the Regional District Government of Mount Waddington and the non-governmental
organization Living Oceans Society.
Keywords: Marine Spatial Mapping
Knuffman, Lekha A.
Social Capital and Cooperation on the Commons – Groundwater Governance in Central and Western
Policy makers, social scientists, governments and international funding agencies are greatly committed to
decentralized natural resources governance as a means of livelihood generation in the developing world. The
success of decentralization programs hinge on collective action primarily by the people these programs aim to
serve. The impetus for decentralization is a result of the decades of development and testing of the theory of
common pool resources (CPRs) including water, forests and fisheries among others. Impressive achievements of
CPR theory notwithstanding, it continues to lack an empirically robust and theoretically tractable explanation for
the initial emergence of collective action. My research seeks to enhance the theory of collective action for
groundwater governance and thus influence decentralization policies. Groundwater governance is a largely
overlooked component of watershed management (a key livelihood generation undertaking) in many developing
nations even though irrigation is increasingly dependent on this resource. This study hypothesizes that decisions
about the extraction of critical natural resources for livelihoods (groundwater) depend on the social capital of
individuals and their ability, as opposed to their willingness, for collective action. Social capital refers to social
(mostly informal) interrelationships that allow people to coordinate action to achieve desired goals. Specifically,
the research aims to investigate the relationship, if any, between the civic connectedness of a group members
and the level of cooperation exhibited in groundwater extraction. The methodology designed to address this
question consists of field experiments of the CPR game with three distinct groups: students in Michigan, students
in India and farmers in India combined with a survey based measure of social capital.
Keywords: groundwater, social capital, decentralization, game theory, common property theory
Kobayashi, Hayato
Conditions of ‘Bricolage’ in Community-Based Forestry – Improving Adaptive Capacity and Beyond
The reform in 1999 in Indonesia recognized local communities’ rights to forests and provided the basis for
broader and more active participation of communities in the management of forest resources, which had been
controlled by the Government for decades. However, inconsistency and ambiguity in regulation as well as the
lack of enforcement often resulted in rent seeking behaviours of local elites and marginalisation of politically
weaker groups. “Constructing” history, for example, became a means of making a claim for forests and often
resulted in overlapping claims by different groups. This often disadvantaged weaker groups such as those who
moved as part of the government resettlement schemes. Recent changes in forest management, particularly
triggered by the introduction of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) point to
even greater risks for politically marginalized groups in the absence of a sound governance framework. However,
this paper argues that these groups, while often viewed marginalized and in need of external assistance, actually
hold key for sustainability of commons because of their exercise of bricolage. Bricolage, or what de Certeau
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refers as a tactical act of marginalized groups, is closely associated with the notion of the art of making use of
whatever at hand. While lacking the power of “strategy”, “tactics” opens up greater space for weaker groups to
exercise their agency from the margin. Their characteristics as minority are linked with creativity and diversity
and as such, bricolage is a critical element for adaptive capacity and sustainability of commons. Based on the
study in Indonesia, the paper analyses conditions of bricolage that contribute to the improved sustainability of
Keywords: bricolage, tactics, adaptive capacity, forest
Kolavalli, Shashi
Birner, Regina
The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (Caadp) As a Regional Collective
The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), an initiative of the New Partnership for
Africa’s Development (NEPAD), was developed in response to the neglect of the agricultural sector by donors as
well as African governments. The program is also a response to concerns about the ineffectiveness of development
aid due to absence of ownership and fragmented development interventions. Similarly to other NEPAD initiatives,
especially the African Peer Review Mechanism, CAADP can be understood as an institution by which African
countries aim to build a collective reputation regarding their commitment to improve governance and to develop
agriculture. Most member states expect improved reputation to be rewarded by increased and superior forms of
aid. There are a number of factors that favor a collective strategy of African countries to build their reputation
regarding improved governance and commitment to agriculture: These include negative spill-over effects of poor
governance (e.g., obstacles to developing regional markets); improved bargaining power of African governments
vis-à-vis the donor community; long-standing political efforts to build an African identity; and a donor interest in
reducing transaction costs by interacting with African countries though regional organizations rather than
individually. While realizing these potentials, the CAADP effort to build collective rather than individual reputation
involves the classical free-rider problem of collective action: Countries may not honor their commitments after
having received increased aid—a strategy that will harm all member countries as it undermines the collective
reputation. Since CAADP involves a collective commitment by the donor community, as well, donors face
similar problems of collective action. They, too, may fail to honor their commitments, or revert to individual
rather than harmonized approaches to support African agriculture. The paper discusses the strategies that CAADP
can use to overcome these collective action problems and identifies the factors that will influence its success.
Keywords: agriculture, governance, regional organizations
Komarudin, Heru
Obidzinski, Krystof;  Andriani, Rubeta
Development of Oil Palm Plantations and Local Rights and Livelihoods
Indonesia is one of the world’s leading producers of palm oil and key players in the emergent
Bioenergy market. It is a major supplier of the raw material for biofuel industry (e.g. CPO) and producers of oil
palm-based biofuels. Over the last few years, the global market for biofuels has expended due to the expectation
that biofuels can relieve the global dependency on fossil fuels, mitigate climate change, and offer new opportunities
to improve local livelihoods in developing countries. However, rising demand for CPO gave way to concerns
over deforestation and itsadverse effects on community livelihoods and local rights and access to land and forest
resources. Oil palm plantations have been cultivated for many years in Sumatra and Kalimantan with adverse
effects on forest and local people. Now, oil palm investments are directed towards Papua, the largest intact block
of tropical rainforest left in the Asia-Pacific region, fueling debates about likely costs and benefits.
Drawing on data from two provinces in Papua, this paper seeks to inform the on-going dialogues about the
advantages and disadvantages of the development of oil palm in Papua This will be done by (1) examining legal
and institutional frameworks relating to the development of oil palm, CPO, and biofuel production; (2) assessing
the environmental, social and economic impacts of feedstock development; and (3) recommending options to
advance responsible investments in oil plantations, particularly CPO-based biofuel industry
Keywords: agriculture, governance, plantation
Konstantinidis, Dorothea
Gonzalez, Marco Antonio
Challenges in Confronting Climate Change: Rural communities, Commons, and Resilience
This paper suggests that specific measures need to be taken in order to decrease communities’ vulnerabilities
against external incursions and to increase their ability to cope with the challenges that climate change presents. 
In the face of climate change, commons play a crucial role in rural communities’ efforts to be resilient. Natural
resource commons and the sustainable management of their territory provide communities with a basis and the
means to adapt to and handle the adverse impacts of climate change. 
In the international context it is the mitigation potential of community commons that has been receiving growing
interest. This has brought about new incursions of powerful external actors but also confronts communities with
the creation of new dimensions related to community commons like the creation of new commodities or rights. 
Controversial initiatives like Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) increase the
international profile of community resources and their maintenance. However, there is also a risk of overriding
community rights, augmenting social and territorial fragmentation and ignoring community needs related to
rural livelihoods and adoption. 
We argue that actions to fight climate change taken in the context of community commons must first and foremost
serve to improve the resilience of rural communities. Therefore, global mitigation efforts cannot be pursued
isolated from local adaptation and livelihood needs. In order to accomplish this task, it will be key to promote
efforts that emphasize the integrity of the territory while reclaiming and improving the capacity of communities
to effectively govern it.
In conclusion, drawing on experience with rural communities in Oaxaca, we suggest specific precautions that
need to be taken in order to overcome present vulnerabilities and prevent the creation of new ones as communities
face the threats and opportunities of climate change.
Keywords: forests, resilience, rural communities, governance, adaptation, territory
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Koontz, Tom
Sen, Sucharita
Community Responses to Government Defunding of Water Projects: A Comparative Study in
India and the USA
Decentralization is not a binary phenomenon. When central governments decentralize natural resource
management, they often retain an interest in the success of the local efforts to solve natural resource problems. As
such, many communities have seen continued central government investments in “decentralized” programs.
These outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same
time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in
this paper is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based natural resource
management. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding
runs out. This study compares coping strategies used by community-based project leaders in two different contexts,
India and the United States. These strategies include aggregation of efforts across larger scales, desegregation
down to lower scales, increased user contributions, and mission shifts to obtain new funding sources. We
investigate how variables such as institutions; biophysical, cultural and political context; organizational mission;
leadership; and member engagement affect the resilience of community-based management efforts facing
substantial government disinvestments.
Keywords: decentralization, government funding, community response, institutions, water
Koppen, Barbara
Mapedza, Everisto
Roman Water Law in Rural Africa: Finishing the Unfinished Business of Colonial Dispossession
An important question in the light of Africa’s recent refocus on irrigation development is how smallholder
farmers’ own arrangements to better develop and manage water can be fully understood, stimulated, and built
upon. This taps water users’ financial, social and institutional capital and promotes ownership and sustainability
of public investments by national and international governments and development agencies. Ironically, though,
the recent wave of new water laws across the continent risk leading to the opposite, at least according to the
texts. Based on literature and empirical research in West Africa, Southern Africa, and Latin America, this paper
unravels this contradiction. It explains the water law reforms towards sophisticated nation-wide administrative
permit systems as a colonial legacy. Imposing permit systems in plural legal contexts dispossesses local water
rights regimes, a feature as old as its roots in Roman water law. Vesting ownership of water resources in the
Roman emperor and, later, the European colonizers, has systematically served to dispossess indigenous prior
users. There was hardly debate about the suitability of the laws when ownership of water resources shifted to the
independent states. The recent global efforts towards Integrated Water Resource Management revived these
often-dormant laws. In Africa a second driver of water law reform accelerated this: the discourse that permit
systems are the most effective way to regulate water allocation, registration, tax payment, and pollution prevention.
This paper demystifies that assumption and recommends how, in theory, permit system or any other formal
water rights system could effectively target and regulate the few large-scale users, while recognizing and even
prioritizing water uses by the majority of small-scale users. In practice, the key challenge goes beyond a merely
legal recognition of existing arrangements and is to ensure better investments in the development of Africa’s
abundant water resources.
Keywords: water, irrigation, governance, law, Africa
Korankutty, Baiju
Institutional Dynamics of Local Self Governance Systems in the Malabar Coast, Kerala
The effectiveness of state laws continues to challenge the top-down management of common property resources
in many coastal villages in Kerala. Most often, state’s response to common property management is unidirectional
and opens up channels to transform common property rights to open access. Amidst these institutional struggles,
local self governing institutions continue to challenge state legal systems and evolve multi-dimensional governance
systems. This paper documents the working of intrinsically diverse ‘kadakkody’ (sea court) system in the Malabar
Coast of Kerala, India and discusses how the local level community-based self-governing institutions change due
to technological developments and state interventions. The Kadakkodi system that existed in the study area
during the pre-mechanisation era was an integrated complex governing system of the artisanal fishermen with
regulative, normative and cognitive functions. The paper addresses three questions. What was the nature and
functions of the kadakkodi system during the pre-mechanisation era? What are the major drivers of change? How
did this system overcome stresses and adapt to the challenges of globalisation?
Keywords: Kadakkodi, self governance, common property, community-based management, institutions, conflict
Krause, Tostem
Whose Values and Valuable for Whom? – Biodiversity as Global Commons and the Yasuni-ITT
The notion of value is innately significant to human society. Even though values are assigned to most objects
around us, the debate of what should be valued and based on what grounds is re-emerging with regards to
ecosystems, biodiversity and other environmental goods and services. Ecuador’s Amazon region, encompassing
only three percent of the whole South American Amazon rainforest, harbors astounding biodiversity richness
and pristine rainforests. This is especially true for the Yasuni National Park, a UNESCO world biosphere reserve.
However, oil exploration is eating into the remaining undamaged areas of the park, with consequences reaching
far beyond the risks of pollution and disturbance to the ecosystem and its inhabitants.
This paper will discuss the different perceptions of values with regards to the Ecuadorian Yasuni-ITT initiative
and relates those to the technical proposal that puts forward to forego oil exploration, based on the condition
that Ecuador will be compensated with at least half of the expected revenues. Assuming that the Yasuni National
Park and its biodiversity represent a global commons, this paper will examine the theoretical motivation and
reasoning of the ambiguous and innovative proposal put forward by the Ecuadorian government. Furthermore,
it is argued that instead of focusing purely on the carbon dioxide not emitted through the initiative, the focus
should be the significant biodiversity and the environmental services in Yasuni and possibilities of marketing
these will be explored.
Keywords: Ecuador, Yasuni National Park, oil, biodiversity
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Krishnan, Jyothi
George, Abey
Losing Sight of the Commons: The Case of Decentralization in Kerala, India
Decentralization assumes that local people play an active role in decision-making processes. This involves making
decisions about the use of natural resources in a way that benefits the maximum number of people, without
destroying the resource base. In most cases however, decentralization is confined to allocation of financial
resources, and constituting representative institutional arrangements for the management of the same. While
there is an increasing thrust on decentralized natural resource management, concerns of sustainable natural
resource use and management are not central to such efforts. This is evident in the case of decentralization of
forest and water resources. Lacking in all such efforts is an appreciation of the concept of the commons and
stewardship of natural resources. Without such an appreciation, decentralization amounts to distribution of the
existing resource amongst ‘stakeholders’ (in practice this is heavily skewed in favor of the local elites and the
powerful sections). Reviewing efforts at decentralized natural resource management in the southern state of
Kerala in India, which is known for its achievements in decentralization, this paper looks into how the concept
of the commons and sustainable natural resource use has been neglected in efforts at decentralization. One of
the unique features of decentralization in the state is a high degree of people’s participation. The paper argues
that by failing to conceptualize local natural resources as a commons, and by paying little attention to the
protection and sustainable use of these commons, the decentralization experiment in the state of Kerala lost out
on a huge opportunity to orient local institutions and people to the importance of restoration and sustainable
management of natural resources.
Keywords: governance, Natural Resource Management, Commons
Krishnan, Sunderrajan
Arriving at Principles for Effective Water Management by the Panchayats: Evidences From Studies
in Ten States across India
The Panchayats of India are institutions that are constitutionally mandated to perform various functions that
facilitate local self-governance. For natural resource management and water in particular, various sub-sect oral
power centers already exist. Entangling these power centers and tying them up with the Panchayats is a process
that is surely happening today, but very slowly and quite variably across the states and within sub-sectors of
water. Today we have a cross-state heterogeneous picture of devolution on water that within a state itself is partly
devolved in differing levels across sub-sectors. Furthermore, there exists too another project of the decentralization
process in water management that lays emphasis on apolitical local people’s institutions. There has been a
parallel movement at the center towards central acts and schemes, which necessitate more responsibility to the
Panchayats in terms of planning, implementation and monitoring of these schemes. These and other external
pressures such as those from multi-lateral donor and policy institutions have been instrumental in influencing
this process of Panchayat empowerment in water management. The ability of the Panchayats, then, to actualize
effective collective action by the community for decision-making on water management, gets hampered due to
this current atmosphere of partial and incomplete devolution. Moreover, there are local factors of variegated
political affiliations, allegiance to caste/community agglomerations and existing power inequities. How then,
still, do we find that lustrous Panchayat which has been able to overcome all the inertia of the country and
managed to find its own way of making use of whatever fund, power and legal strength it can hold on to and
create path-defining local examples of self-governance in water management? These examples show us the way
ahead and serve as models for others to follow
Keywords: panchayats, water governance, decentralization  
Kulkarni, Himanshu
Groundwater Management through the ‘Commons’ Lens: Recognizing Complexity
The complex nature and diverse contextual regime of groundwater problems in India compel the development
of a strategic approach to groundwater management. The complexity itself is due to the wide diversity not only
in the hydro geological framework that defines the accumulation and movement of groundwater in different
physical settings, but also in the social and economic drivers that determine groundwater use patterns and
changes therein through a time-line. For the purpose of understanding the complexity, India can be divided into
six or seven different ‘settings’. Each setting can be described on the basis of hydro geological systems (including
the variability within one setting), the social-economic factors that are influenced by (and which, in turn influence)
groundwater resource status and response strategies adopted by policy makers and communities to mitigate
groundwater related challenges. Clearly, each setting warrants a strategic outlook if groundwater is to be managed
on a ‘commons-basis’.
The development of strategies to respond to groundwater over-use and deteriorating groundwater quality require
a ‘process-based’ approach, wherein there is a need to redefine the institutional structure that looks into groundwater
problems in India. The process-based approach has many advantages over the current ‘institutional silo’ approach.
First and foremost, it begins with a principle: the principle of perceiving groundwater resources under the category
‘commons’. Further, ‘processes’ are central to addressing groundwater problems and do not necessarily involve
one-off solutions that are expected constitute a ‘pill for all ills’. Second, strategy development can happen efficiently
only in a ‘phased’ manner, with each strategy subject to adaptation and refinement as experience is gained.
Keywords: groundwater, hydrogeology, typology, sociology, characteristics, strategies, processes
Kulkarni, Himanshu
Vijay, Shankar P.S.; Krishnan, Sunderrajan
Groundwater Governance: Backing CPR Principles with a Process-Based Approach
Access to groundwater is “open”, and therefore difficult to control or restrict, despite its Common Pool nature.
The fugitive character of groundwater cannot be uniquely defined, given the range of conditions controlling the
accumulation and movement of groundwater resources. India is now the largest user of groundwater in the
world. This has led to many problems, the foremost being the high degree of groundwater vulnerability – likely
to affect at least 60% of India’s population. This vulnerability has been a consequence of many factors: the rapid
shift from a community-based to individual “access” has imposed great challenges in efforts of demand-side
community management of groundwater; complex issues surrounding the mismatch between administrative,
hydrologic and aquifer boundaries have imposed limitations on clear-cut guidelines of groundwater governance;
India’s water focus has been embedded in the management of surface-water systems, developed through public
funding, leaving groundwater resources development in the hands of numerous individual private investments.
Finally, the rigid separation in sect oral governance while looking at water - drinking water is dealt with separately
from irrigation, for ‘departmental’ convenience – widens the divide between ‘uses’.
Notwithstanding limitations on managing groundwater as a ‘common pool’ resource, it has become imperative
for India to develop a ‘governance’ process that will back efficient, equitable and sustainable management of
groundwater on the ground. India’s groundwater governance vision must combine efficiency in supply, ensures
equitable access and resource management through demand-regulation and ensures a process of data gathering
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that is oriented towards enabling site and situation-specific decision support to ensure sustainability of groundwater
availability and quality. Such governance requires a healthy combination of collaborations, law making, facilitation,
piloting and space for evolving a separate policy on groundwater for the country. Some promising ongoing
initiatives in India are currently looking into some of these factors and could form the basis of developing clearer
CPR-based groundwater governance in India
Keywords: groundwater, Common Pool Resource, boundaries, processes, supply, demand
Kumar, Anil
Trivedi, B. K.
Having No Community Land in Resource Poor Region Creates a Sustainable System: Case Study
of Kanga yam grassland
Examples of sustainable management of tropical grassland on very large area are difficult to locate. The management
of Kanga yam grassland spread over 4000 sq km in south India, in a sustainable way for hundreds of years; hardly
make a news inspite of the frequent drought because of the collective action of the people and use of innovative
technologies. The most important factor has been the absence of communal grazing lands, negating the play of
‘tragedy of Commons’. The cultivators in the Kanga yam grassland had occupancy rights since last 200 years
(Hunter, 1881) which encouraged them to invest in the unproductive land over generations, building wells for
drinking water to animals, identifying and using Balsmodendron berry as live fence (Voelcker, 1893) around the
grazing areas, taking a collective decision to discourage goats in the region which damage the live fence etc.
Thus, the paddock system of livestock rearing evolved, following the principles of rotational grazing and required
minimal labour input because of the live fence around the grazing areas. The sustainable system was also reflected
in stable human population during last century (growth rate: 0.45% p.a. between 1891-1991) and a healthy
gender ratio (1046 female/1000 male). The study supports the observations of Dick and Gregoria (2004) that
property rights should be of sufficient long duration to allow one to reap the rewards of investment and should
be backed by an effective socially and sanctioned enforcement institution. The Kanga yam grassland offers an
insight into the collective action in a resource poor region creating a sustainable system over hundreds of years
which could be replicated elsewhere.
Keywords: Kanga yam grassland, property rights, tropical grassland
Kumar, Dinesh
Bassi, Nitin; Kumar, Harish
Institutional Change Needs for Sustainable Urban Water Management in India
Rise in population coupled with rapid economic growth is seen as a major factor resulting in higher rate of water
resources depletion globally. The problem of water scarcity is more acute in cities and towns of the developing
world, where most of the challenges of water supply, sanitation and environmental sustainability are still
unanswered. In these towns and cities, urban water systems are troubled with: 1) inefficient water pricing; 2)
heavy leakage & unaccounted for water losses; 3) contamination of the supplied water and; 4) lack of political
will, and institutional & financial capability for carrying out reforms. Situation in Indian urban centers is much
alarming where distribution losses alone are in the order of 30-50 per cent of the total water supplied. The
condition is even worse for informal settlements and slums in these urban areas where basic water and sanitation
infrastructure are altogether missing. In order to meet these growing urban water management challenges, there
is need for paradigm shift, i.e., shift in the way the urban water resources are managed.
This research paper highlights the institutional change needs for sustainable urban water management in India.
The institutional change will involve: 1) one or combination of organizational change measures comprising
decentralization, private sector participation and, community-based management; 2) directive reforms and; 3)
human resource development. The finer aspects will depend upon the physical and socio-economic environment,
political situation and administrative set up that exist in the urban area. The institutional changes will be more so
important for small urban towns where public utilities are given little attention. All these together can contribute
to making Indian cities better prepared for averting the risk, in face of rapid urbanization, climate change and
water scarcity.
Keywords: India, urban water management, organizational change, directive reforms, human resources
Kumar, Manish
Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli
Vegetation Surveys and Institutional Analysis for Understanding the Selected Van-Panchayats
Systems in the Kumaun Himalayas
Community forestry studies in the Central Himalayas have been mainly restricted to their social or forest health
aspects with little efforts done to combine the two aspects for understanding the Van-Panchayat forests (VPF), a
unique class of traditional community forests comparable to the forest stewardship of the west. The study was
conducted in three villages of the mid-elevation (1800-2000 amsl) Uttarakhand Himalayas and was aimed at
using a -disciplinary approach of understanding the complex Van-panchayats involving forestry and sociological
The study used a dual methodology of combining vegetation surveys with institutional analysis to understand
the inter-relationships between the forests and humans. The vegetation surveys covering 37 ha of VPF and 24 ha
of Reserve Forests selected as controls, involved laying down temporary quadrates (10mX10m for trees and
2mX2m for shrubs and regeneration) in the forests. The institutional analysis involved focus-group discussions
and household surveys with the communities to understand their internal dynamics, conflict resolution mechanisms
and management strategies. 
The analysis showed positive correlation between active community protection and good forest conditions as
evident in the case of Garhgaon village where vigilant protection and controlled extraction has resulted in rapid
regeneration of the forest with high stem density, higher percentage of multiple stems and coppices; and high
canopy cover. Majhera village has shown similar characteristics but the damage in recent months is being reflected
in the lower canopy cover. In contrast, Satkhol village is experiencing continuous pressure on the forests leading
to higher diversity and low canopy cover. Thus, for good forest conditions, protection seems to be key, which in
turn is reflective of the community coordination and involvement. It is also evident that certain vegetative tools
like canopy cover; regeneration density, percentage coppicing and multiple stems can be good indicators of the
affects of people on forests.
Keywords: Kumaun Himalayas, Van-panchayats, multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods, forestry surveys, institutional
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Lama, Mahendra
Climate Change and Natural Resources Management in Eastern Himalayas: A Livelihood
We noticed that the entire eastern Himalayan region had unbelievably warm and pleasant winters in recent
years. This was very visible in 1998-99 and 2008-09. Many people in fact missed usual winter conditions like
fog, chill, frost and snow. The rhododendrons started flowering in the first week of February against the April
May pattern. Environmentalists largely attributed this unique climatic behaviour to global warming. Winter is the
time when forest cover is under a cold spell and gets regenerative space. However, this long spell of dryness led
to forest fires and young seedlings died. In fact, entire North East region, Bhutan and Nepal battled the blaze of
forest fire during February-April of 2009. This literally dried up the many traditional sources  of water. The entire
natural cycle wasdisturbed.
Receding glaciers, hot winters, and poor regenerative cycles have started occurring with greater frequency. All
these may lead to failure of multiple industries, mostly traditional in structure and composition. Continuation of
environmental scarcity, along with an ever-increasing rural-urban development gap in turn could trigger off
large-scale displacement and migration. The most telling impact is likely to be on the hydel power plants primarily
fed by the water supplied by the glaciers in the mountain areas.
The issues of global warming and climate change have started affecting our farmers even when there is not much
of awareness about this at the very local level. What would happen if the rainfall pattern changes and if the entire
hydrological flows in our rivers and rivulets undergo changes because of the glacial erosions? There are visible
phenomenon of phonology that is happening across the hills where traditional seasonality of the crops are
disturbed and the altitude based cropping pattern are fast and unnaturally changing. This could change the entire
recorded pattern of agricultural practices in the hills and could even dislocate the farmers. This will unsettle the
very cradle of civilization in the mountain regions. These farmers have no control over the events at the global
level but get struck by the adverse impact so profusely. This is where the institutions like Indian Council of
Agriculture Research (ICAR) and Universities across the region have to play a very critical role. Firstly, in making
farmers aware about such unnatural phenomenon, developing methods and instruments to shift to a better
agricultural regime and finally building capacity among the farmers to not only cope up with the situation but
helping them in transforming to other sustainable agricultural practices.
We also find that the governments in this part of region are not fully conversed with the negotiations on agriculture
that are going at the global level under World Trade Organization. All these have definite impact on us in areas
varying from subsidies to phyto-sanitary measures and from market access and technology transfer to intellectual
property rights. By now we should have collectively made a case to our national negotiators about the very
specific problems, needs and prospects we have at the regional and local level. Institutions like Agriculture
Department, Spices Board and ICAR have to really look into these issues as urgently as possible. We cannot
afford to bear a silent brunt of the decisions taken at the global level oblivious of the situations we have in the hill
and mountain areas.
Keywords: glacial erosions, eastern Himalayan region
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Larson, Anne M.
Monterroso, Iliana
The Dynamic Forest Commons of Central America: Research and Practice
This article reviews research on forests in Central America under the lens of common pool resources literature.
Beginning with a review of research in the region, it focuses on three particular sites that were part of a study on
tenure reforms from 2006-2009 by the Center for International Forestry Research and the Rights and Resources
Initiative. The sites include the lowland community forestry concessions of the Petén, Guatemala, the communal
forests of the western Guatemalan highlands, and the indigenous territories of Nicaragua’s lowland Caribbean
Coast. Research highlights great variation in terms of the origin of land claims, the type of claimants, the type of
forest, the extent to and means by which the state has accepted or recognized these claims to forest commons,
and the ability to establish common property institutions, among others. While research in Central America
demonstrates increasing interest in this field of study, as well as important progress regarding local rights to forest
commons, it also highlights important challenges. The region’s forest commons and common property institutions
are complex and dynamic. For example, studies show that despite the vast variety in forest commons, the types
of threats they face are similar – particularly with regard to external competition for resources, the role of state
and the ongoing need to defend resource rights. This leads to additional challenges for research, and requires
expanding beyond the traditional questions and methods of common property research into other, related fields
of inquiry. It requires greater attention to the dynamic processes that produce institutions, including territorial
boundaries, and theirassociated organizations.
Keywords: Central America, forest commons, resource rights, research
Larson, Anne M.
Formalizing Indigenous Commons: The Role of ‘Authority’ In the Formation of Territories in
Nicaragua, Bolivia and the Philippines
Indigenous peoples have sometimes sought the formalization of their customary territories to demand the
enforcement of their borders, which have often not been respected by outsiders or the state. The process of
formalization, however, generates new conflicts. This article explores how the recognition of indigenous forest
commons is connected to questions about authority. For communal properties in particular, issues of ‘authority’
are central to shaping how decisions are made, whose opinion or knowledge is taken into account and how
access to land and natural resources is determined in practice. The process of constituting collective territories is
intimately related to the constitution of authority, as it involves not only the negotiation of physical boundaries
but also the recognition of a particular entity to represent the collective. Though an entity that holds leadership
powers may already exist, it is likely to be endowed with new decision-making powers and responsibilities; and
in many cases a new entity will have to be created. This is not a ‘local’ process but rather emerges at the
intersection of relations between the community, or territory, and the state. Similarly, given that ‘authority’
implies legitimacy, such legitimacy will have to be produced. Drawing on a comparison of cases of two indigenous
territories in Nicaragua and Bolivia and an ancestral domain in the Philippines, this article shows how authority
emerges from often conflictive processes of constructing the commons and shapes community rights to – and
powers over – forests and forest resources.
Keywords: authority, indigenous rights, demarcation, forest commons, formalization, property rights
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Larson, Silva
Smajgl, Alex
From Globalisation to Local Migration: System study of the Greater Mekong Region
This paper presents a system view developed for the flow of foreign investment and its impacts on migration
dynamics in the Greater Mekong Region. System view was created using DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-States-ImpactsResponses) framework.
The key driver of interest is foreign investment, an exogenous driver that is also influenced by endogenous
national processes such as policy decisions and internal stability. Foreign investments create pressure on many
aspects of the system, three of which are set as boundaries for this view: energy demand, food production and
water demand. As a result of those pressures, the state of both land and aquatic resources changes. Consequently,
rural livelihoods systems are impacted by these changed states, and the change might create either increase or
decrease in the availability and productivity of the resources. Mechanisms that create direct and indirect pressures
and impacts are presented and discussed.
One of the potential responses of the people in the areas of the lowering resource productivity and availability is
outmigration. Outmigration occurs in two directions. It might manifest as outmigration to other rural system, one
that is experiencing (or is being perceived as experiencing) increase in productivity and availability of resources.
Or, the outmigration might result in exit from the rural system and migration into the urban areas. Either type of
migration can be regional, national or trans-national. Employment opportunities created in the urban areas are
also directly impacted by the foreign investment as a key driver, and are thus susceptible to changes in investment
The dynamic between the impacts and responses is explored in more detail and preliminary findings are presented.
In particular, study was interested in the migration between the rural areas and the outmigration to the urban
systems. Nonetheless, the feedback loop of migration that occurs once employment opportunities in cities decrease
also warrants further research.
Keywords: migration, foreign investment, natural resources
Lazos, Elena
Agro -Biodiversity in Mexico: a Common Resource of Rural Communities or a Property of the
Transnational Industry?
In the recent two decades, agrobiodiversity has been in the centre of multiple discussions in scientific fora as
well as in peasant and indigenous organizations. Face to the introduction of genetically modified organisms in
agriculture, particularly in Mexico, the introduction of Bt maize; the rural organizations have become aware of
the loss of their agro’biodiversity and of the interests of the transnational industries in getting control over it. This
move would represent an massive exclusion of poor peasants from the access of a key common over which they
are highly dependant.
In this work I analyze the contradictions and controversies around the conservation of agro’biodiversity in Mexico
among the national government, the peasant and indigenous organizations, and the transnational industries. The
partnerships established between the government, some corporative rural organizations, and the industries pose
a great challenge for the independent organizations that fight for agrobiodiversity control. 
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Even if the discourse of the government and allies express a concern on agro-biodiversity conservation, they
have a hidden agenda that favors the “modernization” of agriculture through the introduction of Gentetically
Modified Organisms. The Mexican government has given facilities to the transnational industries enabling them
to appropriate gentic biodiversity and to genetically modify local varieties of corn, squashes, beans, tomatoes,
and hot peppers. As Mexico is center of origin of all these species, the privatization and modification of this
genetic biodiversity has also global consequences.
I will also discuss the challenges that independent rural organizations face while trying to protect their agrobiodiversity as a common resource. Even though, there are good examples of some organizations that are
continuously working on this field through a seed exchange program; many others are discouraged by different
factors suc as. The lack of governmental support. Forced out-migration related to the low prices of agricultural
products, the lack of infrastructure and credits for agricultural production, and increasing poverty. The crisis of
rural producers and rural communities has also created that favors e privatization of local agro-biodiversity by
transnational agricultural and food industries .
Keywords: agro -biodiversity, genetically modified organisms in agriculture, transnational industries, peasant
and indigenous organizations, access /exclusion of key commons for poor peasants
Le, Van An
Huynh, Van Chuong
Situation and Property Rights in Agricultural and Unused Lands Upland of Vietnam
The research aims at identifying the status of the management and use of agricultural and unused land in the
upland areas of Central Vietnam via a case study of Hong Bac commune to identify issues relating to the exploitation
and land use. This research is based on the bundles of property rights analysis framework and on field investigations
through site surveys and discussions among the groups, who manage and use the land, including: the local
authorities (State), community and households. The analyzed research results have demonstrated the performance
as well as activities of the property right bundles to the local people and the State as for agricultural land and
unused land; have identified and classified the existing formal and informal rights relating to the two kinds of
land in the survey location; have clarified the reasons of the existence as well as the impact of the rights to the
land exploitation of the local people. The research has evaluated the status and changes of land in general and
agricultural land and unused land in particular, from 2000 to 2008. It has also analyzed the reasons for the
changes of agricultural and unused land and of crop structure. The reasons are the changes in the land policies
of the State, the spontaneous changes in crops and land exploitation of the people for earning their livelihood
due to the general economic changes of the district and the demands of the agricultural product market. All the
rights in the right bundles about properties on agricultural land and unused land are really exist. However, as for
the government, these rights are formal and admitted by the laws, but as for the local people, they are informal
rights and they follow the traditional customs which have great impacts on their lives.
Keywords: governance, land, forests, agriculture
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Legorreta, Díaz María del Carmen
Conrado, Marquez Rosano
The Collective and the Individual: Social and Political Challenges to the Sustainable Management
of Protected Areas in Chiapas, Mexico.
Although the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve in the Lacandon Jungle (Chiapas, Mexico) was created in 1978
under the UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere programme, environmental authorities and local inhabitants have
been unable to generate models for the sustainable management of the protected area’s natural resources. This
is of course a complex problem, given that the implication is that the public good of biodiversity conservation
and sustainable resource use prevails over diverse individual interests. We believe that this inertia could be
unsettled by seeing this problem as an issue of democratic deficiencies in the relationship between the federal
authorities and the communities that own large areas of the reserve. Although in recent years the communication
and trust have grown to a certain degree between these two collective actors, there is still much to be done. But
it does not only correspond to the authorities to face up to the diverse social and political challenges, but also to
the communities’ own institutions and ways of organization. This paper analyzes a set of tensions generated by
various private individual interests that have prevailed over the interests of conservation and sustainable
management in the reserve. We pay special attention to the role played by particular practices (opportunism) in
the internal organization of the town of Nueva Palestina, located within the reserve and we analyze the effects
they have on the failures and limitations to move towards a more sustainable management in the Lacandon
Keywords: Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas (Mexico), democracy, environmental policy, sustainable
development, collective action in the commons
Lele, Sharadchandra
Purushothaman, Seema
Implications of Trends in Access, Benefits and Status of CPLRS in Rural Karnataka
In this study from Karnataka state, India, we define CPLRS as all common land resources to which some part of
public has de facto access to, irrespective of the rights of use, management and control. We then look at the
drivers of change in CPLR area and condition, as well as the ecological and distributional impacts of these
changes, using a clear normative framework. Though historical endowment of CPLRS varies geographically and
temporally, they generate significant use and non-use values at local and global scales (Jodha 1990, Nadkarni
1990, Pasha 1992, Kumar et al 2007). The wider academic literature contains debates about the usefulness of
CPLRS, with advocates pointing to CPLRS as social safety nets, and critics favouring privatisation and land grant
as being more efficient. The latter argument is also strengthened by evidence of declines in dependence and
rural social cohesiveness, failure of state institutions to prevent elite capture of CPLRS, and declining interest in
small farming in India. Added to this, policy and institutional fuzziness and market pressures might make CPLR
history, in the not-so-distant future. When we examine these debates in the context of Karnataka’s CPLRS, we
find an undiminished need to have well-managed rural CPLRS. The paper then looks at the governance reforms
that may be necessary to manage and prevent conversion of CPLRS as well as to revive stakeholder interest.
Keywords: land, Karnataka, benefits
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Lescuyer, Guillaume
Assembe, Mvondo Samuel
Customary Use Rights in the Logging Concessions of Cameroon: An Illustration of the Resilience
of the Local Socio-Ecological Systems
The paradigm of sustainable forest management constitutes a new opportunity to better integrate local populations’
expectations and perceptions in the forest activities. This requirement is explicitly stated in all forest laws of the
Congo Basin countries but its implementation on the field remains under-documented.
In Cameroon, we have reviewed 30 Forest Management Plans (FMP) for logging concessions in order to assess
how these documents effectively include customary use rights (for agriculture, hunting, NTFP and timber). It
appears that the integration of local use rights into the FMP is very heterogeneous and can even been little
compatible with the Forest Law. 
Focusing on nine concessions, we also analyse the implementation of the social prescriptions described in the
FMP. There is an overall problem of enforcement. Local practices are weakly influenced by the management
schemes. Several reasons may explain this low impact: lack of control, hardship to distinguish between personal
and commercial use of forest resources, proximity of the concession to the village, and lack of economic incentive
to abide by the new formal rule. 
Three out of the sampled concessions are FSC-certified: they do not prove to perform better than the noncertified concessions regarding the appreciation and the valorization of local use rights.
To conclude, the creation of logging concessions in the 1990s have had a low impact on local rights and
practices. The local socio-ecological systems appear to be resilient to forest policy and formal management tools.
By contract, extra-sector policies (agriculture and road infrastructure for instance) are the real drivers of change at
the local scale. They have to be better understood and integrated in any attempt to sustainably manage forests
with local stakeholders.
Keywords: socio-ecological system, resilience, forest
Lesorogol, Carolyn
Grazing rights and Practices in a Privatized Commons in Kenya
Considerable empirical research has demonstrated the conditions that result in effective management of CPRs.
Less is known about how rules and practices evolve after CPRs are privatized, although a number of studies
suggest that property rights transitions often lead to multiple, overlapping and contested sets of rights and obligations
in the same resource. In this ethnographic case study, the emergence of new grazing rules and practices is
examined in the aftermath of the privatization of a pastoral commons in Kenya. The study reveals that elements
of private, common, and toll goods all co-exist on the same land and that understandings of rules vary across
individuals characterized by both pragmatic and moral reasoning about the uses to which resources may be put.
In addition, the transition from a fairly well understood communal land management system to the current one
has dislodged former patterns of rule making and enforcement leading to gaps and uncertainties in both areas.
One result of this state of affairs is that decision-making on land use appears to be trending toward smaller scales
while collective action becomes increasingly challenging.
Keywords: grazing lands, Africa, property rights, institutional change
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Lestrelin, Guillaume
Castella, Jean Christophe; Bourgoin, Jeremy
Territorialising Sustainable Development: The Politics of Land-Use Planning in the Lao PDR
With the emergence of the sustainable development paradigm in the late 1980s, land use planning has become
a key arena for political debates over society environment interactions and, in practice, an important means for
territorialisation projects. The paper reviews the main planning approaches that have been employed over the
past three decades in Laos, a country that has long represented a valuable policy testing ground for the proponents
of sustainable development. It highlights three concurrent territorialisation projects that have paved the history
of land use planning and contributed to fuel important tensions between central and sub national governments
and local actors, national and foreign institutions, and land suitability and sustainability approaches. The paper
argues that the latter tensions reflect an important dynamism and reactivity in the planning arena. It concludes
that the capacity of land use planners to adapt to specific contexts and evolving socioenvironmental challenges
should be harnessed in order to reconcile conflicting approaches to planning and, perhaps, to achieve sustainable
Keywords: land use planning, sustainable development, politics, territorialisation, Lao PDR
Levine, Jordan
Slingerland, Edward
Homo economicus or Homo analogicus? Integrating Findings on Human Cognition into the Study
of Social-Ecological Systems
What set of assumptions will serve us best studying our own species’ role in complex, dynamic, social-ecological
systems? Our paper addresses this question by drawing from developments in cognitive linguistics, anthropology,
and psychology, as well as computer science and neurology. Building on the landmark work of Kahneman,
Slovic and Tversky, but incorporating a consideration of the most recent theoretical constructs, we synthesize a
21st-century model of the human condition, informed by a nuanced, yet accessible, understanding of cognition.
At the heart of our model is a human being whose ability to reason by analogy, whose capacity for case-based
learning, and whose perception of the world via cognitive networks of association are each just as central as a
proclivity toward the rational pursuit of self-interest.
Why, one may ask, is this important? What does ‘Homo analogicus’ enable us to do that Homo economicus
cannot? In response, we argue that, while Homo economicus can grant us insight into human behaviour under
a particular set of market-like conditions, the answers to many of today’s social conundrums involve the interaction
of numerous individuals, groups and institutions, each with different relationships to each other, and each
shaped by individual cognitions, a range of cultural influences, and by the wider ecological and geographical
millieu. A pure rational-actor model cannot usefully account for these differences, each of which has a critical
influence on commons management. This point has been argued repeatedly by those in both the cognitively
focused social sciences, as well as by respected economists such as Elinor Ostrom, and Douglass North. Our
interdisciplinary, yet broadly accessible, synthesis takes us one step closer to a truly functional model of the
human condition. Examples drawn from the literature and the field help ground the concepts we present in
tangible terms.
Keywords: cognition, culture, behavior, Homo economicus, case-based learning
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Levrel, Harold
Pioch, Sylvain; Hay, Julien; Spieler, Richard
Compensatory measures in coastal ecosystem: how institutional indicators can help to disentangle
ecosystem services equivalencies?
During the recent years there was an increasing interest in the concept of ecosystem services from the Millenium
Ecosystem Assessment reports in 2005. This concept should enable to make the conservation of biodiversity
more concrete and more sense-making for decision makers.
Ecosystem services can be described from different categories: support, regulation, provisioning and cultural.
According to these categories, provisioning and cultural (recreational) ecosystem services are mainly related to
private property whereas regulation, support and cultural (spiritual) are mainly related to common property. This
is why compensation of injuries coming from damages on ecosystems has been mainly focused on provisioning
and partly on recreational services. At the end, the compensation was a monetary fund devoted to cover the loss
of private incomes due to the damage. However, things are changing now with new regulation systems in United
States (Several Acts on the environmental protection) and European Union (Environmental Liability Directive)
which oblige the responsible of damage on ecosystem to compensate it “physically” and, finally, to restore
regulation and support ecosystem services for the benefit of the entire population.
In this communication we would like to analyse how these new regulation systems run, who govern the natural
damage assessment processes, what type of ecological compensation are adopted, how performances are assessed,
how conventions on ecological equivalencies are adopted, who is in charge of the enforcement, who support
the cost of these new rules and who benefit from these collective services at different scales.
Keywords: ecosystem services, common property, regulation, compensation
Li, Wenjun
Managing Rangeland as a Complex Commons: How Interventions on One Component Impact the
Significant parts of the Inner Mongolian grasslands in China can be considered as a ‘complex commons’. By this
we mean that they comprise a bundle of ‘commons’; of vegetation and sub-surface water that is utilized in
common, of shared indigenous livestock genetic material, shared cultural practices of indigenous groups, and
sometimes shared economic activity, such as herder cooperatives. These commons are often mutually re-enforcing
in supporting the resilience of the grazing system. These commons also supply a bundle of economic functions
and ecosystem services. Previous research on the commons built on Ostrom’s (1990) work on common-pool
resource management, but may have downplayed the complexity that arises when commons are composed of
different but interdependent components as well as multiple functions.
Large parts of the Inner Mongolian rangeland system have been managed as a complex commons for over a
thousand years, and indigenous people established their own management institutions that adapted to its changing
characteristics. However, recent external interventions to promote property rights and so-called “modern high
technology”, have affected both the grassland and livestock commons. In this paper I will focus on technological
interventions relating to livestock, such as the introduction of exotic high-performance breeds to displace
indigenous livestock breeds. This has been a long-term government project in Inner Mongolian pastoral areas,
but implementation over the last few decades has rarely been successful. I will track and analyze herders choices
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of strategy in the face of these interventions, particularly showing how their behavioral choices affected other
components of a complex commons, such as vegetation, and how their choices are associated with traditional
norms, culture and socio-economic relationships.
Keywords: management, complex commons, livestock breed, Inner Mongolia
Lichtenstein, Gabriela
Robson, Jim
Commons Research in Latin America: An Overview
Little is known about the state of commons research across the diverse regions and countries that make up Latin
America. This paper attempts to address that knowledge gap, by focusing on three main questions: 1) what type
of commons under investigation in Latin America? 2) How well represented is Latin America within international
scholarship on the commons? 3) How well is commons research represented in the social and interdisciplinary
sciences in Latin America, and to what degree has the teaching of commons theory made it onto the academic
curricula of major Latin American universities? The findings are based upon the results of a survey sent to IASC
members whose work is based in Latin America, and an exhaustive review of scholarly publications and
conferences, including the proceedings of previous IASC Conferences, papers published in the International
Journal of the Commons, the Commons Digest, along with work on the commons published in other journals.
Keywords: commons, Latin America, research, scholarship
Lichtenstein, Gabriela
Guanaco Management in Patagonia: Lessons for Commons Research
Most literature on traditional commons deals with fisheries, forests, water management and irrigation. Wildlife
use and management, however, has not been widely explored. Although guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are a rather
“uncommon” common-pool resource, they do exhibit the two characteristics of common resources: high
excludability and substractability. These wild relatives of llamas live in South America and are distributed widely
across the region. It is estimated that the original guanaco population numbered 30–50 million, but numbers
have since fallen dramatically, due, in large part, to the introduction of domestic livestock by European settlers.
Farming activities exported to Patagonia rarely considered the use of native species complimentary to domestic
livestock production, and guanacos were viewed as an obstacle to sheep ranching and consequently killed in
large numbers. In recent years, a number of live shearing projects have been established in an attempt to reconcile
habitat and guanaco conservation with economic incentives for local ranchers. However, the low market value
of guanaco fibre leads to conflicts and competition on resource access and use, with many producers hopeful of
receiving official permission to kill guanacos found on their properties. Competition with domestic livestock, the
lack of an open established market for the fibre, uncertainty about resource rights, a deficient legal framework, a
limited number of beneficiaries, the lack of common property institutions and governmental support are
undermining the performance of sustainable use efforts. Using this case study, the paper provides insights into,
and discusses the challenges facing the sustainable use of an uncommon common-pool resource. Lessons are
thus drawn that could contribute to policy decisions as well as sustainable use programmes for other wildlife
species in the region.
Keywords: sustainable use, conservation, local incentives, wildlife, Guanacos
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Lin, Chia-Nan
Tsai, Bor-Wen
Agrarian Land use Change and Constructions of the Commons: A Case of Indigenous Agricultural
Development in Taiwan’s Mountain Area
This study aimed to identify the variety of landuse systems and its social regimes in several specific political and
economic circumstances on Taiwan’s mountain area especially in aboriginals’ agriculture development. We
focused on the agrarian landuse change to analyze the interaction between social institution and environment
capacity, and explore the adaptive process by coupled human-natural relations to constitute the implications of
the commons from several distinct periods of mountain area development. For these reasons, Tayah tribe, an
indigenous community of Atayal people in Taiwan, located at mountain area in the Shihmen reservoir watershed,
was discussed with its complicated progress of mountain agriculture development.
This case shows that the progress of agrarian landuse in mountain area of Taiwan could be divided into four
phases, which were mainly resulted from political and economic situation; each of them represents the product
of dynamic adaptive process between social and ecological system, and also indicates how the land resources be
interpreted /recognized into the concept of the commons at each period of time. These four phases are: (1)
traditional Sweden agriculture before Japan government’s colonization; (2) paddy/rice farming production under
Japanese colonial; (3) monoculture during primary R.O.C. authority in Taiwan; and (4) diverse cash crops connected
with market economy.
Base upon the discussion, the evolution of the implications about the commons would be proposed, and the
results also present interactive relationship in the reconstructions and/or transformations of the commons while
concentrated on landuse issue related to the Social-Ecological System (SES) discourse.
Keywords: land use change, mountain agriculture, Atayal, Taiwan’s Aboriginals, Social-Ecological System (SES)
Lloyd, Richard
Schmitt, Klaus; Trinh, Hiep
Effective Management of Complex Coastal Commons and Increasing Their Resilience to Climate
Change through Co-Management - A Practical Case Study from the Mekong Delta Region, Vietnam
For the past three years the Soc Trang Provincial Sub-department of Forest Protection, Vietnam, in collaboration
with German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) has piloted a project in a coastal village of the Mekong Delta region
to introduce co-management as a tool for the better management of mangrove forests increasing their resilience
to climate change. The pilot project is the basis of this case study, which examines how coastal commons can be
more effectively protected and sustainably used through co-management and increase their resilience to climate
change. The case study explains the concepts of co-management including the four steps of the co-management
process (consultation and organization, negotiation and agreement, implementation and monitoring and
evaluation), and four key principles that must be applied during the process (integrated coastal area management
(ICAM), participation, zonation and monitoring). It then examines the implementation of the co-management
process in the pilot village and identifies some lessons learned. How the introduction of co-management enabled
the village’s resource users and local authorities to organize themselves and negotiate and implement a formal
agreement on their respective roles, responsibilities and rights in the management of the mangrove forest is
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particularly addressed. The complexity of the legal and institutional situation with regard to managing Vietnam’s
coastal commons, which has traditionally been sect oral in approach, is also described. The case study shows
that through co-management it is possible to move towards a more holistic, intersect oral, multi-disciplinary
approach in which the coastal commons are managed as an integrated unit leading to more sustainable resource
use and resilience to climate change.
Keywords: mangroves, co-management, sustainability, climate change, integration
Lobo, Virden Mathew
Ramakrishna, Rajesh
Implication of Forest Rights Act in the Context of Sustainability of Forests and Rights of Individuals
and Communities - Special Reference to Implementation of Community Rights
The Forest Rights Act 2006 came in response to the necessity of recognition of rights of communities living in
and around the forest and dependent on them in one way or the other. The major gain so far has been the
recognition of practice of agriculture as a legitimate use of the forest.
The Act also provides protection to communities against eviction and rehabilitation in the Protected Areas,
Sanctuaries and National Parks by specifying that rehabilitation can only take place by consent for those areas
that are defined as critical wildlife habitat. The lessons that can be learnt from Community Conserved Areas
(CCA) where communities themselves have delineated critical wildlife habitat and have evolved methods which
are inclusive instead of inviolate are important in this regard as they imply that the necessity for inviolate spaces
and hence forcible eviction is limited and even in such limited contexts, the possibility of working out an
amicable solution in the context of CCA exists.
In this context it is proposed to study the issues related to three Sanctuaries / National Parks close to Delhi and
review relevant literature / experiences. The issues emerging show some relationship with the conditions, which
define man/ecology, man/animal relationships. The Wildlife Act attempted to curtail rights relating to natural
resource exploitation with varying degrees of success. The applicability of FRA in national parks and sanctuaries
is an admission of the fact that rehabilitation of the local population did not work as had been planned. Can
provisions in the Act like right to habitat, right to protect forests be used creatively to entitle local communities
to develop micro plans for conservation?
Keywords: critical wildlife habitat, community conserved areas, community forest rights, ecosystem services,
Lopes, José Ribeiro
Local Development in the Inner Rural of Northwest Iberian Peninsula – the Contribute of Common
Property as seen by Stakeholders
Commonlands occupy approximately 1 million ha in NW Iberian Peninsula with high average areas (500 ha in
northern Portugal and 200 ha in Galicia). There are two main management models, stated by law – direct
management by the communities and co-management with the State, the latter being dominant in Galicia and
even more in Portugal and undermining the fulfilment of property rights exercise. This work aims to determine
the potentialities of the contribution of the Iberian Peninsula commonlands to rural and local development,
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using Participatory Rural Appraisal and testing both development indicators domain and centrality. The most
important contribution of communal lands is related to environmental aspects. The prominence given by the
stakeholders to environmental aspects may indicate that global appreciation is mainly due to the potential of
natural resources as a wealth source, while economic and social aspects are more independent of communities’
power and will.
Keywords: rural development, commonlands, Iberian Peninsula, PRA, development indicators
Luoga, Emmanuel
Nzunda, Emmanuel
Grasping at Development? Community Rights and Economic Implications of Biofuel Expansion in
The past three years has seen an explosion of investment interest (both local and foreign) in the biofuels sector in
Tanzania. Much of this investment has been normatively justified on the grounds of improving energy security
and contributing to broader economic goals within the country; the empirical implications of the rapid expansion
of biofuels in Tanzania are currently under investigation. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the
impacts on local property rights and economies of the spread of two major biofuels feedstocks, Jatropha and
sugarcane. It establishes the direction of change in property rights to land and forest resources among relevant
communities following actual and planned investments, and the distribution of those rights among differentiated
actors in society. It explores the factors that influence the dynamics of rights under varying property regimes,
from village land controlled by village level authorities to state-controlled land where communities have de facto
access and control. The paper finally explores the extent to which biofuels investments contribute to local and
regional/national development through job creation, revenue generation and service provision from biofuels
Keywords: biofuel investment, large-scale land acquisition, Tanzania, property rights, economic impacts
Lynch, Owen
Mandating Recognition: International Law and Aboriginal/Native Title
This paper identifies, summarizes and analyzes leading international and national laws and judicial cases
recognizing or otherwise supportive of native/aboriginal title. Indigenous peoples and some other local
communities typically hold these types of property rights. The paper references decisions of the International
Court of Justice (ICJ), the Inter-American Court (IAC), and the African Court of Human and Peoples Rights. (N.B.
Asia has yet to constitute any juridical entity comparable to the IAC or its European and African counterparts.) It
lists and describes major international law conventions, declarations and other instruments. Finally, it summarizes
leading cases and instruments in international customary (comparative/national) law supportive of legal recognition
of community-based property rights. The paper is not intended to be exhaustive; nor is it or one hundred percent
up to date. Rather, it establishes that the trend in international law — as conventionally understood, as well as
customary international law, as evinced by a growing number of nation-states — is towards the legal recognition
of indigenous peoples’ and some other local communities’ community-based property rights (CBPRs), especially
aboriginal/native title. It evinces widespread and growing proof that international law is moving towards (and
arguably already is) mandating legal recognition of indigenous peoples’ and other local communities’ rights to
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indigenous territories and ancestral domains. This emerging mandate is apparent in international conventions
and declarations, as well as more than ten nation states that are already obliged under domestic law, albeit in
differing ways, to recognize indigenous peoples’ and others’ CBPRs, including rights ostensibly within classified/
gazetted/ public forest land and conservation/protected areas.
Keywords: international law, CBPRs
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MacKinnon, Anne
Making Their Own Way: Recognizing the Commons in Water Management, Wyoming 1900-1925
In an era of population growth and climate change, when water management is increasingly important worldwide,
it can be useful to reexamine how water management schemes have been crafted, and how they have changed,
in the past. Especially in the U.S., where management through private property or central government control are
the most familiar approaches to natural resources, it is worth considering an example of a different approach.
This paper takes up an instance of Americans who changed an institution of centralized state management into
an institution with strong attributes of common property management. Such was the case in the years 1900-1925
in Wyoming with management of water, which is there scarce and sought-after. Historical evidence from court
cases, state records and correspondence details how and why, in response to their physical and economic
environment, Wyoming water administrators and water users together made institutional change. They moved
away from their centralized management system, once lauded as a model for the nation, to create a system far
more complex - with aspects recognizable to students of common property.
Keywords: water, institutional change, property rights regimes
Madrigal, Róger
Alpízar, Francisco; Schlüter, Achim
Institutional Determinants of Performance of Community Based Drinking Water Organizations
This paper presents an institutional analysis of the underlying factors affecting the performance of community
based drinking-water organizations (CBDWO) in rural areas of Costa Rica. These organizations provide water to
60 percent of the total rural population. There is, however, a great disparity in their ability to solve collective
action problems related to water provision and hence, they tend to show different levels of performance.
This research tries to understand how different characteristics of the infrastructure, financial aspects and working
rules of the organization, as well as socioeconomic attributes of water users affect the performance of CDBWOs,
in particular their ability to provide water with acceptable levels quality for households in these communities.
Unlike from most of the literature related to collective action in common pool resources that has been constructed
around single case studies and meta-analysis thereof, this research aims to contribute with findings from the
comparison of an N-large sample of CDBWOs. Using a quantitative approach, the paper analyzes different
characteristics of 41 CBDWOs that operate in communities of 150 households on average. An ordered probit
model was estimated with additional information about socioeconomic characteristics and individual perception
of water quality consumed by 800 villagers that live in these communities.
The main results highlight the relevance of a demand-driven approach, downward accountability mechanisms,
size and age of infrastructure, and appropriate support from the government as the main conditions that promote
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higher levels of satisfaction of people with water quality in these settings. The relevance of a demand driven
approach, which includes a local willingness to pay for infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, suggests
that CBDWOs could have high performance levels even without financial help from the government. This is an
important finding for the ongoing debate in Costa Rica about the best way of water provision in rural areas.
Keywords: institutions, drinking-water, local governance
Magole, Lefatshe Innocent
From Community Based to Community Driven; the Evolution of the Commons Management in
the Okavango Delta, Botswana
Botswana was one of the countries in Southern Africa that pioneered Community Based Natural Resource
Management (CBNRM) twenty years ago, together with Zimbabwe, Zambia and Namibia. Whilst the different
countries have recorded different levels of success, within Botswana, different commentators have evaluated the
programme and scored it differently. Some argue that CBNRM has suffered multiple failures; it has failed to
devolve management authority of local resources to communities as well as failed to generate significant benefits
to improve the quality of life of rural communities. The same commentators also argue that where conservation
of species occurred, it was merely incidental, having little or no direct casual effect from CBNRM. However,
other commentators argue that CBNRM has had a mixed bag of results, excelling in some objectives and failing
in others. Noticeably, these commentators argue that CBNRM has injected revenue in rural villages and reduced
the levels of poaching. In this paper I reviewed the roles played by facilitators within five CBNRM projects in four
Okavango Delta villages of Sankuyo, Seronga, Gudigwa and Tubu. Emerging from the analysis is a critical role in
the CBNRM process that should be played by an actor that I refer to as the Broker, without whom the process is
bound to struggle. The success and failures that have been experienced in CBNRM depict firstly the presence or
absence of a Broker. Secondly they depict the strengths and weaknesses of the Broker. I conclude that the niche
for a Broker is a permanent one and its fulfilment will transform natural resource management from Community
Based to Community Driven.
Keywords: CBNRM, Broker
Mahamuni, Kaustubh S
Upasani, Devdutt V.
Springs: A Common Source of a Common Resource
Spring water is the main source of water providing life to people in the mountain region especially in the
Himalaya.  Spring is a natural source of groundwater. Unlike wells, which may be owned and controlled privately;
springs are generally community-owned and community-managed.  Thus, they give a sense of a “common”
resource i.e. groundwater shared through a common mechanism, i.e. the spring.
Decreasing spring discharge has become a matter of concern throughout the Himalayan region.  Springs are
points of ‘natural groundwater discharge’. The decrease in spring-discharge implies either or both of two scenarios
– firstly, the recharge to the system which feeds the springs (mountain aquifers) has reduced; secondly, the
storages of these mountain aquifers are tapped by artificial means such as wells. The recharge areas of these
springs are site specific, depending on the rock type and rock structure. Current trends indicate emphasis on
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spring recharge. Despite the complexity of spring hydrogeology, geomorphology remains the prime factor on
which conventional watershed approaches for spring recharge are being promoted in the Himalayan region.
A systematic process of identifying the type of springs and characterizing them on the basis of their type, discharge
quantities, seasonal factors and water quality is the way forward towards improved spring-water management in
the Himalayan region. In the same vein, the socio-economic and administrative units are extremely crucial in the
management of springs as ‘commons’. A recharge site, for instance, may be located within forestland, private
land, common land, revenue land etc.  The strategies adopted for the purpose of spring recharge will vary
depending on these locations, the type of spring, dependent population etc., and calls for a scientific approach
that includes all the above considerations. 
Keywords: spring, Himalaya, hydrogeology, common resource, socio-economic and administrative contexts
Mahanty, Sango
Protecting the Water Commons in Vietnam’s Craft Villages
Vietnam’s craft villages are rural villages that contain many family-based workshops, specializing in the production
of ‘traditional’ handicrafts as well as newer activities such as solid waste recycling. Recent rapid growth in the
number and size of craft villages has created economic benefits, but also water pollution and risks for health,
agriculture, and other livelihood activities. The government treats water pollution as an externality to be managed
through direct regulations, market-based instruments, public education or self-regulation. However such
mechanisms have been ineffective, given the growing economic significance of craft production for rural
livelihoods, and the significant growth in craft villages that has created many small and dispersed point sources
of pollution. The paper presents research in the Red River Delta of Vietnam on the drivers of reduced water
quality in this craft village region. By considering water quality as a “complex commons”, the research has been
able to identify key actors at different levels of social organisation that need to be involved in finding solutions to
the water quality crisis affecting this region of Vietnam. It analyses the configuration of production chains, direct
and indirect drivers and the incentive (livelihood) structures influencing various stakeholders. The research
highlights the need for stronger coordination between actors at multiple sites, sectors (e.g. state, resource users
and civil society) and at different scales (e.g. local, regional, and national). It concludes that only through such an
approach, is there any prospect of an equitably and sustainably addressing Vietnam’s current water quality crisis.
Keywords: governance, water, complex commons, Vietnam, pollution
Mahanty, Sango
Tacconi, Luca; Helen, Suich
Access and Benefits in Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate
Change: Lessons from a Global Review
Growing interest in mechanisms to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) have
heightened interest in learning from past and present payments for environmental service (PES) schemes – many
of which take place on the commons. Eight payments for environmental service schemes operating in tropical
forests were reviewed to answer the following questions: What have been the impacts of PES schemes on
livelihoods? And what are the implications for the design of incentive mechanisms for REDD? The research finds
that the PES schemes reviewed have provided some benefits to participants, for instance a small amount of
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additional income, investment in community infrastructure and services where payments were made at the
community level, and local capacity building. It highlights key issues that need to be considered in future REDD
schemes, including: a) payments to environmental service providers often have not matched the opportunity
costs faced by participants, which can diminish local livelihoods and ultimately undermine the sustainability of
such schemes; b) high transaction and monitoring costs are involved in initiating and implementing schemes and
require the design of appropriate contracts, e.g. groups contracts instead of with individual households; c) property
rights can pose an important constraint to participation in schemes and the cases present some options for REDD
to proceed in the absence of full ownership rights to forest resources; and d) payment schedules that cover the
full duration of the PES contract need to be developed to benefit livelihoods, and they have to be tied to monitoring
processes to ensure conditionality of payments. Despite the possible improvements in the design of PES schemes
highlighted in the paper, trade-offs will often be needed between environmental and social objectives, and they
will have to be clearly addressed by REDD implementation policies
Keywords: forest commons, environmental services, REDD, climate change, livelihoods, governance, equity,
rights, benefit sharing
Mahdi, Mahdi
Shivakoti, Ganesh P.
Decentralization of Forest Management, Local Institutional Capacity and its Effect on Access of
Local People to Forest Resources: the Case of West Sumatra, Indonesia
This paper studies the readiness of local institutions to receive forest management right in West Sumatra, Indonesia,
where local institutions have existed before the enactment of decentralization. We carried out focus group
discussions to asess their readiness and a survey to learn its effect to households’ access to forest. From these field
works, we found that most local institutions are not ready to fully absorb forest management rights transfer. They
lack capabilities to formulate regulation and negotiation processes against disputed issues, which lead to conflict.
The conflicts rose among people, among local institutions, and between local instituion and local government
after decentralization took place. Consequently, households are facing uncertainty in access to forest resources.
Therefore, the powerful
households get higher benefit than the poors indicating continuation of elite capture even after nearly on decade
of implmentation of decentralization policy.
Keywords: local institution, local institution readiness, decentralization, West Sumatra, forest management
Mai, Yen Hoang
Wan, Melinda
Gender Analysis in Forestry Research: Looking Back and Moving Ahead in International Research
Starting from CIFOR’s own research in the 1990s and 2000s, and extending to broader research outside the
organization, this paper charts out the evolution of the integration of gender in forestry research and management.
It synthesizes research and policy lessons from diverse forestry settings and also analyzes approaches to the
integration of gender analysis in forestry research. Looking back for experiences, it also moves ahead to explore
what new questions and methods can be used to capture changing global realities and foster better understanding
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for policy and for practice. We then propose a conceptual framework and related analytical tools for exploring
and understanding the influence of gender differentiation on forest resource management within a rapidly changing
global context.
Keywords: gender analysis, conceptual framework, analytical tools, forestry research, CIFOR
Makoloo, Maurice Odhiambo
Ochieng, Benson Owuor
Rethinking Forest Governance in Kenya: Evaluating and Re-Inventing Traditional Governance
At independence in 1963, Kenya had a forest cover of over 10% of its total area, quite within the global
recommended levels. Forty years later this cover had dangerously dwindled to about 1.7% only. Factoring in
emerging impacts of climate change, among other factors this has forced new thinking on the management of
forests in Kenya with a view to increasing the forest cover to globally acceptable levels. This has included the
enactment of new forest laws that explicitly seek to involve local communities in the management of the resource
through the formation of Community Forest Associations (CFAs). Additionally, various ministerial orders have
been given that each owner of land should plant at least 10% of their land with forests. Aside from challenges of
enforcing such a directive, they all point to the root cause of the problem as being governance. Sadly, most
traditional African governance systems were eroded by ‘modernity’. This was one of the impacts of colonization.
Existing governance systems at the time the colonial powers arrived in Africa were viewed as ‘primitive’, ‘archaic’,
and ‘backward’. The colonialists, therefore, replaced African governance systems with their own. At independence
new African governments inherited these systems and have retained them to date. Emerging evidence, however,
indicates that these African systems of governance are still relevant especially with respect to environmental
governance including management of forests. Indeed, there is evidence that despite subjugation of many years,
traditional governance systems have refused to die. This paper will interrogate these traditional governance
systems and find out to what level they have been eroded, and thereafter determine what aspects need reinventing to ensure benefits accrue to the communities concerned.
Keywords: governance, forests, knowledge
Makoloo, Maurice Odhiambo
Mugenya, Kevin Otieno
Projecting Voices from the Grassroots: the Case for Community Based Natural Resources
Management in Kenya.
The aim of this study is to emphasize that the local communities play an important role in environmental
conservation and rural development and this is a fact that needs to be considered in the face of growing challenge
of Sustainable Development. 
The rural people who live (and bear the cost of living) with natural resources must be given the responsibility and
right to manage and benefit from these resources thus the justification for a Community Based Natural Resource
Management (CBNRM) Legal Framework (Policy and Law) in Kenya. Community-based approach to the
stewardship of natural resources is a viable alternative to state management and can, if properly implemented,
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result in more equitable distribution of power and economic benefits, reduced conflicts, increased consideration
of traditional and modern environmental knowledge, protection of biological diversity, sustainable utilization of
natural resources and actually help in the adaptation to Climate Change. 
In many cases where the approach has been implemented it has not yielded substantial benefits mainly because
of institutional, environmental and organizational factors. The successful implementation of CBNRM projects
requires a legal and policy framework that empowers local communities and grants them responsibility and
authority for natural resource management. It also requires that an acceptable formula be defined for the sharing
of the benefits and responsibilities. 
Community Based Natural Resource Management is working very well in some countries in Africa, e.g. Botswana
and this justifies that’s its possible. However, the main hurdle first in Kenya to have this system where
decentralization of natural resource management succeed is to look into the existing legal framework even as we
strive to enhance democratic governance following the decentralization that the government is embarking on.
Keywords: governance, wetlands
Maldonado, Jorge Higinio
Rocio, del Pilar Moreno-Sanchez
Evaluating the Role of Co-Management in Improving Governance of Marine Protected Areas: An
Experimental Approach in the Colombian Caribbean
Complexities associated with the management of common pool resources (CPR) threaten governance at some
marine protected areas (MPA). In this paper, using economic experimental games (EEG), we investigate the
effects of both external regulation and the complementarities between internal regulation and non-coercive
authority intervention—what we call co-management—on fishermen’s extraction decisions. We perform EEG
with fishermen inhabiting the influence zone of an MPA in the Colombian Caribbean. The results show that comanagement exhibits the best results, both in terms of resource sustainability and reduction in extraction,
highlighting the importance of strategies that recognize communities as key actors in the decision-making process
for the sustainable use and conservation of CPR in protected areas
Keywords: common-pool resources, governance, co-management, experimental economic games, fisheries, Latin
Mallegowda, Rajeshwari Siddapura
Hussain, Zakir; Hanisch, Markus
Pesticide Residues in Urban Water Bodies- Organic Farming as a Community Based Mitigation
Strategy in Hyderabad Peri-Urban Area
The contamination of natural water bodies and tanks by pesticide residues is of great concern in the Greater
Hyderabad Area. The rural and peri urban agriculture around Hyderabad is conventional with heavy usage of
pesticides and chemicals, highly concentrated on paddy and vegetable cultivation. Agricultural pesticides are
mainly of organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds. These pesticides are considered to be dangerous
not only for the environment but for human beings as well. Pesticide residue reaches the urban water environment
through direct run off, leaching, careless disposal of empty containers, equipment washings. According to a
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study by School of Chemical sciences, India, pesticide concentrations exceeded allowable levels for drinking
water in samples of river water and groundwater in Hyderabad. In order to reduce the levels of agricultural
pesticide and chemical residues in urban water bodies, community based ‘Organic farming’ is being implemented
as an alternative strategy. The paper focuses on the case study conducted in two mandals of peri urban areas
around Hyderabad, Manchal (Rangareddy district) and Bommalaramaram (Nalagonda district). The community
managed sustainable agriculture (CMSA) in these villages was initiated by NGO’s, PEACE and Vikasith Bharath
foundation in cooperation with Self help group members in the year 2006. About 50 farmers in Manchal and 50
farmers in Bommalaramaram are practicing organic vegetable cultivation. The case study unveiled that due to
organic practices in agriculture there is substantial scope for reduction in pesticide residues in common water
bodies around Hyderabad, reduction in cost of cultivation of crops and improved health condition of farmers.
The case study reveals the significant contribution of community managed sustainable agriculture in safeguarding
the urban common property resource (CPR), the water bodies.
Keywords: pesticides, urban water sources, contamination, organic farming, Hyderabad
Mandondo, Alois K.
German, Laura
Customary Rights and Societal Stakes Relating to the Expansion of Tobacco in the Miombo
Woodlands with Particular Reference to Malawi
This study investigates how diverse dimensions of tenure and rights to land and forest resources have shifted in
relation to expanded investments in tobacco, as well as the distribution of associated social, economic and
environmental costs and benefits at both local and societal scales. The study focuses on the miombo woodlands
of southern Africa, with particular reference to Malawi. Detailed focus group discussions were conducted in two
of the country’s prime tobacco growing districts (Kasungu and Mchinji) to unravel shifts in tenure and rights and
the local distribution of externalities. National level perspectives were mainly captured through desk study and
key informant interviews. Assessments reflect mixed fortunes across a range of sectors and scales. At the local
level, the expansion of tobacco engenders fundamental shifts in customary rights, disrupting crucial livelihood
and safety net functions of forested lands. Forests also bear the brunt of tobacco expansion, compounding the
effects of sharply rising patterns of displacement of woodland with extraction of wood for curing and the
construction of barns. Whilst tobacco-induced deforestation may be localized, the mostly negative ecological
externalities associated with it may - because of the public goods nature of impaired ecological services - extend
way beyond the confines of the local. However, tobacco remains the major engine for economic growth and
development in Malawi, its forest and ecological and other impacts notwithstanding – with the identification of
strategies for re-orienting the development onto a more sustainable path remaining a major unresolved challenge.
Keywords: tobacco, forests, local rights, societal stakes
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Manzano, Pablo
Roba, G. M.; Davies, Jonathan
Involving Local Community in Fully Using their Participatory Potential: The Case of Garba Tula in
Northern Kenya
Northern Kenya is a biodiverse drylands area with communal land tenure systems and where competition over
resources and land has led to numerous conflicts. Most of the common lands are under the Trust Land regime,
controlled by the Country Council and not by the Central Government, as many people perceive. This perception,
in spite of a favorable legal frame, often leads to poor accountability to local communities.
Through the implementing partner Wildlife Resource Advocacy Programme (WRAP), IUCN is supporting
predominantly Booran pastoralists to secure their land rights to strengthening the sustainability of their natural
resource based livelihoods. Using Kenya’s Trust Laws is aimed to secure communal land rights and enable
dryland residents to diversify investment across many complementary livelihood strategies and income generating
options. The case of Garba Tula district, an exceptionally biodiverse area covering about 10,000 km2 and home
to ca. 40,000 Booran pastoralists, is a sound example of how the current legal frame can be used innovatively.
Wildlife conservation initiatives had rather diminished the livelihoods of the local people through land grabbing
and increased incidence of human-wildlife conflict. Motivated by interest in benefitting from conservation-related
revenues observed in neighboring districts, as well as in securing their natural resources in the long term, the
Garba Tula community has developed a plan of action for Community Based Natural Resource Management
(CBNRM) with the support of IUCN. Having identified weak land tenure as one of the main obstacles for its
successful development, the community is now well informed about how to assert its rights. Through WRAP,
customary law is being formalized and the CBNRM is thus being adapted. Tasks of the WRAP include natural
resource mapping, planning and development, capacity building, monitoring, and other services to the community.
WRAP as a community trust will also represent the community in the Country Council and will likely play a role
in encouraging investments.
Keywords: governance, pastoralists, Community Based Natural Resource Management, biodiversity, customary
law, legal frame
Mapedza, Everisto
The Political Economy of Irrigation in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia
Why do irrigation schemes designed to alleviate poverty fail? Globally, there have been several attempts to
design sustainable irrigation systems as a means of alleviating poverty in developing countries. Years after the
initial investment, most of the irrigation schemes are no longer operational or operate well below full potential.
This paper is an attempt to draw lessons of experience on the institutional design of irrigation schemes, which are
more likely to contribute to sustainable irrigation schemes. This paper argues that sound irrigation systems have
to be based on good irrigation engineering, which further needs to be complemented by good institutional
arrangements to manage the irrigation scheme sustainably. The role of a good understanding between hydraulic
engineering and a deeper social and institutional understanding is often misunderstood or ignored. Schemes
addressing the two components in irrigation are more likely to result in poverty alleviation in the Amhara Region
of Ethiopia. The paper further argues that whilst the neat bureaucratic irrigation planning never materializes,
there is a need to consider power inequities, gender and the broader political economy of irrigation.
Keywords: power, gender, institutions, Ethiopia
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Marcelo, L. Ciro
Self-management and Self-government in the Venezuelan Process of Communalization of the
Since 2005, Venezuelan executive and legislative power began a shift towards participatory socialism with their
promotion for the creation of communal councils by communities and the introduction of the concept of people’s
power into the Venezuelan legislation. This included passing the Law of Communal Councils, the Law of
Communal Economy and the bills for the Communes Act and the People’s Power Act, framed in the process of
communalization of the State. This legislation introduced the legal possibility for transferring property and
competences for political control to communities and their organizations of first and second degree (communal
councils and communes) by traditional governmental instances (municipal, provincial and national). As part of
this process, the Mayor Office of Libertador Bolivarian Municipality (City of Caracas) in 2009 decentralized its
governance creating 31 parish governments –a sort of co-government between the municipality and the
communities. The “Axis 3 of Gramoven” parish government, however, asked the municipality in March 2010 to
transfer power and competences from the parish government to their proclaimed new communal government in
formation to speed up the process toward self-government. This transfer from the parish government of Libertador
Municipality to the government of a commune in construction in “Axis 3 of Gramoven” driven by the Assembly
of 37 communal councils and 12 urban lands committees constitutes the case study of this article. Based on
interviews to key actors and participant observation at “Axis 3 of Gramoven” assembly meetings, I examine the
most significant changes in terms of government organization, social property (with direct and indirect ownership),
levels of participation and people’s governmental awareness, to characterize reached levels of self-management
and self-government in relation to the existing Republican and the new Communal State forms.
Keywords: self-government, re-territorialization, participatory socialism, urban commons, social property
Marelli, Beatrice
Linking Sustainability of Institutions and the Commons: The Process of Self-governance for Water
Management in Northern Italian Farming Communities
As broad bodies of literature and empirical evidence have demonstrated, management of common-pool resources
implies an institutional construction that would be able to take into account not only physical attributes of the
resources, but also attributes of the community facing the collective action problem. Among these attributes,
there are values of behavior generally accepted by the community as vehicle of shared learning and foundation
of social order, crucial variables of relevance for the institutional analysis. 
After a review of the related literature, it was analyzed how internal and shared values can affect the level of
cooperation and the institutional evolution in local irrigation systems. The discussed hypothesis sustains that
individual values in such communities can interact during the course of time with the process of water management,
leading to an institutional evolution that translates individual demands in changing rules in use. Such a topic has
been addressed applying IAD Framework and Ostrom’s design principles of long-enduring irrigation systems on
small self-organized farming communities in Northern Italy, having as support a qualitative methodology of
analysis based on in depth interviews. 
As a result, it was notable that even if members of the community seem to understand and to accept all such
principles, without exception, these principles by themselves have not led to a sustainable water management.
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This might be due to a lack of a well-supported common vision of the resource, besides by a level of trust and of
positive social capital not sufficiently widespread on the score of improper leaderships experienced.
Keywords: water management, farming communities, institutions, values, northern Italy
Marfo, Emmanuelf
Reconstructing the Commons for Equity and Accountability in Forest Benefit Sharing Arrangements
in Ghana: A Time to Reconcile Law and Custom
In Ghana, the practices associated with the commons are mediated by, among others, the statutory and customary
laws that define multiple and varied tenure rights over land and forest. The forest benefit sharing arrangement in
Ghana has been highly criticised as inequitable and failing to guarantee accountability from local government
and traditional authorities. The Ghanaian Republican constitution provides a formula for distributing forest
revenue; benefits are presumably aimed at communities, but the law specifies chiefs and local government as
beneficiaries without including any measures for downward accountability. This is problematic as there is increasing
evidence that these presumably representative structures have ‘privatised’ these benefits.
Who should benefit from the forest revenues that the government shares with these entities? To a large extent,
local communities have been alienated and local authorities, contrary to the fiduciary principle that is deeply
established in both custom and the Constitution, have not been accountable to local citizens. The paper explores
this subject further, drawing heavily on customary and traditional legal provisions and principles and other
recent empirical observations. The paper then attempts to reconcile custom and formal law to argue that it was
never the intent either under customary institutions or the modern state that chiefs and local authorities should
not be held accountable. Increasingly, green NGOs and civil society groups have been calling for reforms in the
benefit sharing arrangement to ensure that communities have direct benefits by ensuring greater accountability.
Not surprisingly, Parliament has recently called for the passing of legislation to guarantee the downward
accountability of those receiving the benefits from natural resources exploitation that were intended for
communities. If this problem is not resolved, the paper argues that communities will continue to be marginalized
even under emerging economically attractive ecosystem service payment arrangements. Its resolution, however,
would help reconstruct the community sphere as a democratic socio-political setting that has long upheld good
governance principles.
Keywords: accountability, commons, good forest governance, legal pluralism, Ghana
Martin, Gary John
Conservation Designations and the Commons: An Evolving Relationship
We critically review trends in the ways the roles, rights and responsibilities of local peoples are conceptualized
in diverse conservation designations. The 19th century creation of National Parks in the United States, commonly
accepted as the starting point of designating protected areas, was soon followed by initiatives in the British settler
societies, colonial Africa, Europe, and Latin America that broadened the concept. The extensive documentation
of these government conservation areas has given them great visibility. The tradition of setting aside community
and private natural reserves is much older, but relatively poorly recorded which has contributed to their limited
recognition. The emergence over the last twenty years of IUCN’S protected areas matrix raises the profile of both
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overt and formerly covert processes of conservation and sustainable use of landscapes and biodiversity. It also
provides a framework for exploring interactions between communities and conservation initiatives, and the
impact of diverse approaches on common property rights and communal forms of resource management. Parallel
to IUCN’S quest to reconceptualize protected areas, many institutions have proposed new designations in response
to a growing awareness of the need to embrace the complexities of socio-ecological systems and to balance
human livelihoods and rights with conservation efforts. Emergent labels including Globally Important Agricultural
Heritage Systems and Satoyama-like sites have joined established categories such as Biosphere Reserves and
World Heritage Sites. Indigenous and local communities, typically in collaboration with non-government
organizations, have begun to designate their own protected areas as Indigenous and Community Conserved
Areas (ICCAS), Indigenous Biocultural Territories (IBTS), Tribal Parks and broad range of Sui generis categories.
We explore this nascent social movement through case studies from Malaysian Borneo, southern Mexico, Morocco
and other regions that exemplify why conservation must embrace community protected areas that are inalienable,
indivisible and established in perpetuity and where resource users have a role in setting local rules.
Keywords: Protected Areas, conservation governance, resource management, indigenous and local communities,
common property
Martinez, Ana Eugenia
Demographic Factors Impacting Commons Management in Mexico
The total Mexican area under collective tenure is estimated to be 103 million hectares, or roughly 53% of the
country’s territory. In some regions, communal land tenure systems have achieved important gains in terms of
forest conservation and management, as well as contributing to the social development of marginalized areas.
However, factors such as an aging population, social exclusion (most frequently of women and children) and
intense out-migration processes have modified household livelihood strategies and weakened collective capacities
for local government and sustainable management of common resources.
This paper is based on two areas of research: an analysis at the national level that characterizes the demographic
profiles of the country’s communal land owners, and the principal uses of common lands across different types
of ecosystem. The results show an increasing dependence among local families on external inputs (remittances
and direct subsidies to families’ consumption). The second analysis takes a case study approach to present the
main impacts of out-migration process on social organization and forest management in three Mexican forest
regions whose population live under extreme poverty conditions.
Keywords: out-migration, demographic change, poverty, social exclusion, Mexico
Mashingo, Dr Mary Salome
Village Land use Planning and Grazing land Availability for Sustainable Range Management in
In Tanzania a number of Acts have been recently passed that provide for the recognition and formalisation of
village lands. The Acts cover both individual and common property land – the latter being managed under the
authority of the Village Council. The Village Land Act thus provides a relatively secure tenure framework for
communal land uses such as grazing pastures and forests, as well as specific requirements for basic land use
planning and zoning.
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The process of delimitating and formalising village lands is now being implemented. To date, village land use
planning is being carried out throughout the country. Grazing land availability is a challenge to the transformation
of livestock production in Tanzania. Annual total land demarcated for livestock keeping in Tanzania mainland
increased from 706,783 ha in 135 villages to 1,423,201 ha in 266 villages between years 2006 to 2010 respectively.
More investment is required to improve range productivity, range management and assist livestock keepers to
improve livestock husbandry. Appropriate strategies for livestock development need to be identified in consultation
with livestock keepers that fulfil the growing demand for meat and livestock products both in-country and for
This paper will describe the participatory land use planning process being supported by the Ministry of Livestock
Development and Fisheries and development partners. A case study will focus on village land use planning in 3
districts Bahi, Chamwino and Kiteto where only 41 of the 170 villages have land use plans, with some designating
50% of total land as grazing. Challenges will be described including the need for initiatives that will provide for
the mobility required by many livestock keepers; and how the management of these grazing lands will continue
in the face of growing populations.
Tanzania National Livestock policy (2006) supports sustainable range development and management. The Policy’s
main objective is to improve range management and utilisation in order to support sustainable productivity of
livestock for food security, poverty reduction and improvement of pastoralist livelihood. The village land use
planning process is one very positive step towards this.
Namely the Village Land Act No 5 (1999), the Land Use Planning Act No 6 (2007); and the Grazing and Land
Animal Feed Resources Act No 13 (2010).
Keywords: Tanzania
Mathieu, Paul
Andersen, Kirsten Ewers; Dupuy, Julien
Legalization and Certification of Communal Rights to Resources (Land and Forests): the Difficult
Path from Intentions to Implementation.
The paper will review some recent experiences of legalization of communal rights to land and forests in selected
countries in Africa and South-East Asia.
 It will be articulated along the following points:
(i) Summary of recent processes to legalize (i.e. make legally possible) and certify (actual issuance of certificates
or ‘legal proofs of property’) communal rights to NR (land and forests) in Ethiopia, Mozambique, Niger
(pastoral land), some countries in SE Asia (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam possibly).
(ii) Analysis of these processes, along the continuum:
Political and intra-State processes> policy> legal framework > implementation.
(iii)Implementation. Its real extent; main actors; strengths, weaknesses, constraints and enabling factors; coalitions
and conflicting interests.
(iv)Why and how legalizing communal rights to land and forests is important in order to mitigate large-scale land
acquisitions. Current limitations. Constraints and enabling conditions for up scaling quickly and cheaply.
What could be done to quickly implement large scale, massive, affordable legalization of communal rights?
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(v) Short discussion of cross-scale interactions and linkages: from global negociations and land transactions
(States- Foreign ‘global’ investors) to local processes: land claims, legalization of local land rights vs.
dispossession, impoverishment vs. local development, etc.  
Keywords: Sociology, Development Studies, Africa, south East Asia, institutional analysis
Matz, Daniel
Moysey, Stephen; Rangoori, Ravindranath
Investigation of the Impact of the Commonland Protection on Water Resources in Rural India
using Geo-hydrological Methods
Water scarcity is a global problem, and adequate supplies to clean and safe drinking water is a major issue across
the world. India is one of many countries facing water scarcity. India currently has 15% of the world’s population;
however, they are sustained with only 6% of the world’s water resources. The conservation and management of
commonlands benefit the low lying agriculture lands in terms of water and nutrients especially in arid and semi
arid regions of peninsular India. One of the biophysical interventions is to harvest rainwater through the
construction of water harvesting structures (WHSs), or small earthen dams built to capture and store runoff to
augment the water resources. Although the construction of WHSs are gaining popularity in India, geo-hydrological
methods such as tracer tests or water balances are trying to determine if the structures are practical and whether
or not they are helping to ease current water scarcity. At present, scientific assessment of the benefits of water
harvesting to the commonlands in hard rock areas is hardly attempted. A WHS in a small watershed (Salri,
Madhya Pradesh, India) which is located in the hard rock geology of the Deccan Basalts was investigated in
2007-2008 by Oblinger et al. from Clemson University. Oblinger developed a water balance model to investigate
the impact of WHS; specifically, the amount of water that moves to recharge, and the length of time water
remains in the structure. Subsequent fieldwork was under taken in the same watershed in 2009 to further investigate
the effectiveness of the   conservation   of common lands.
The same model developed by Oblinger is used in this study to compare the accuracy of her model, with what
was observed during the 2009 fieldwork. It was found that Oblinger’s model accurately estimates the amount of
water to recharge and the duration of water being present in the structure. Overall, using a simple model, with
limited user inputs and easily accessible data, makes it possible to determine the impact water harvesting has to
conserve water resources and help improve the commonlands.
Keywords: water scarcity, commonlands, geo-hydrology, water harvesting, impact
Mbeyale, Gimbage Ernest
Kajembe, George Chamungwana; Haller, Tobia
The Role of Local Governance Structures in Managing and Mitigating Resource Used Conflicts A
case of Eastern Same District, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
Managing a complex socio-ecological system, particularly under upstream – downstream Common Pool Resources
(CPR) constellation is a challenging undertaking. Though in theory decentralization in the management of CPR
is looked upon as a panacea for solving the management puzzles governments, policy makers and researchers
are still learning on how local governance systems can succeed to operate with minimal input from the central
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government where previously the resources management was centralized. The research was carried out in the
eastern part of Same District in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania to examine the role of local governance structures
both form and informal in management and mitigation of resource use conflict in the study area. The critical CPR
under study included Water for irrigation, forests and Grazing lands. These resources are highly contested among
different resources users and regulators, which have eventually brought about resource use conflict. Different
methods were used for data collection, which includes PRA, household surveys, key informant interview, Oral
biographies, and survey of documented materials. Data was analysed using content analysis, descriptive statistical
analysis was carried out. Stakeholder’s analysis was also used to uncover different characteristics ofstakeholders.
The results indicated that legal and institutional Pluralism was one of the key element that made most of the key
structures to function and that most of the formal structures were customized using local knowledge and experience
to fit into the customs and norms of the local communities. The governance structures that were found effectively
involved and successfully integrated into local norms and customs, they included Ward Development Committee
(WDC), The Ward tribunal, Village and the sub-village levels, water users association, religious leaders, council
of elders and family Elders. We conclude that the role of local governance structures should be acknowledged
and encourage for smooth running of other formal structures.
Keywords: governance structures, conflict management, same district, Tanzania
McCann, Betsy
Increasing Collaboration between Agricultural Development and Land Tenure Reform Initiatives
to Promote Indigenous Public Participation
This paper explores the possibilities of collaborative appeals to increase public participation in agricultural
development and land tenure reform. Based on work done in Department Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, opportunities
are considered that amplify the voice of indigenous populations by considering culturally appropriate methods
for agricultural improvement and inclusion in land tenure reform initiatives. The case study examined is work I
conducted while teaching organic composting methods to the communities of Sepacay, Chichicaste, and Xochela,
while partering in country with the National Coordination of Indigenous Peoples and Campesinos (CONIC).
Using ethnographic and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods, observations regarding organizational
efficacy are made and suggestions for future collaborations are discussed.
Keywords: indigenous, agriculture development, land tenure reform
McKean, Margaret Anne
Mitsumata, Gaku
Changing Scholarship on Changing Commons in Contemporary Japan
Studies of the commons began in Japan decades ago as a study of the struggle over property rights waged
between commoners who wanted to protect their rights and the Japanese government that wanted to extinguish
these rights and capture the resources of the commons for itself. These initial studies by legal scholars recognized
the economic importance of the commons as a foundation for rural livelihoods but did not treat the environmental
value of commons as particularly significant, did not see the Japanese struggle over the commons as similar to
conflicts over shared resources that were occurring elsewhere around the world, nor did they see the ability to
manage a commons as a remarkable institutional solution to free-rider problems inherent in collective action.
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These additional visions of the commons as institutional, social, and environmental capital, as collective action,
and as similar to battles over shared resources outside of Japan did not enter Japanese scholarship on the commons
until the 1970s with the Entropy study group. This paper summarizes the contributions of Japanese scholarship
and the Japanese commons themselves to our larger effort to understand resources, environmental services,
community, and shared purpose. Studying the Japanese commons offers insight into additional variety in legal
institutions, the vitality of commons management methods, and especially the link between using commons for
livelihood in the past and using commons for environmental services and community-building even in an affluent
society today. If commoners around the world can hang on to their commons through the process of economic
growth, they may see their common resources growing greatly in value.
Keywords: Japan, legal scholarship, property law, property ward (zaisanku)
Meguro, Toshio
Management of Wildlife as a Fugitive Natural Resource: A Case of Wildlife Conservation in a
Savanna Ecosystem in Africa
In the realm of wildlife conservation in Africa, benefit-oriented “community-based conservation (CBC)” (Western
and Wright, 1994), and neo-liberalistic “community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)” (Child,
2004) are (re) defined in the past few decades to foster local initiative. This paper discusses the applicability of
these approaches to conservation of wildlife, which is characterized as a fugitive resource ranging from protected
areas to communal and private lands. Pastor lists in the savanna ecosystem of the Southern Kenya have experienced
suzerain/state-led coercive conservation since the early 20th century. A CBC project with tourism enterprise was
launched in the late 1990s, and offered economic benefits to a local community leading to land privatization
and agricultural development. It resulted in a smaller wildlife habitat and more human-wildlife conflicts. Afterwards,
an international NGO made contracts with local landowners parts of whose private lands composed wildlife
corridors for protected areas. Although, the people received tangible benefits such as monetary rewards,
misunderstandings about the contents of the contracts caused friction with the NGO. In consequence, the people
requested more claims and took no initiative in conservation. This situation is resulted from the fugitiveness of
wildlife. In light of the ecosystem approach, the government and the NGO were reluctant to restrain the wildlife
movement. Because of the large proportion of residents to fugitive wild animals, setting private ownership to
them, as CBNRM recommends, was impracticable. Meanwhile, wildlife intruded on local farms and destroyed
crops, but since it was national property, the people had no authority over its management. They complained
about the seriousness of the damage and wanted the government to confine wildlife to protected areas. Therefore,
for CBC to be more effective and successful in managing fugitive natural resources with local initiative, it must be
more sensitive to the possibility of fugitiveness turning to destructiveness and arousing negative local attitudes.
Keywords: wildlife, fugitive resources, community-based conservation, savanna ecosystem, Kenya
Mehra, Deepshikha
Lead Role of Women in Local Forest Governance Guarantee Gender Equity in Costs and Benefits
from Forests? A Study of Four Case Studies from Vidarbha Region in Maharashtra
Joint Forest Management (JFM) program in India, introduced in 1990, identified women as important stakeholders
but subsequently their participation in decision-making was found to be nominal. Most of the JFM Committees
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(JFMCS) were headed by men and women held membership positions that had no powers. Successive revisions,
evolutions and changes in JFM opened opportunities for women to head the JFMCS and thus provided more
power to women in decision-making than before. However, has this resulted in better gender equity? The paper
explores whether women-headed JFMCS have been able to ensure better participation of women than those
headed by men and does this reflect in equity in gender-based distribution of costs and benefits from forests.  
A comparison across four case studies from Vidrabha region in Maharashtra state is done, where two womenheaded JFMCS and two headed by men were studied using methods like household survey, group discussions
and researchers’ observation.
The case studies bring out the fact that participation of women, gender-equity in cost and benefits from forests
and health of a forest institution are linked. A forest institution worked efficiently where active participation of
women was found. It also reflected in higher benefits and lower costs to women from forests as compared to
women in villages were forest institutions were inefficient. However, it was found that mere policy support for
lead role of women in forest protection institutions does not lead to either overall active participation of women
in forest governance or to gender-equity in distribution of costs and benefits from forest. Building leadership
capacities in women and awareness in communities is very important before women are handed lead positions
as they still have to face cultural constrains and hostilities. Positive, rigorous, and constant intervention of gendersupportive NGOs as well as the forest department is very essential in facilitating an effective role of women in
forest management.
Keywords: gender, leadership, costs, benefits, participation, JFM, Vidarbha, India
Meilasari-Sugiana, Astrid Dewi
Community Dynamics and Natural Resource Governance: Building Adaptive Management Capacity
for Increased Social Capability
The governance of Tongke Tongke’s mangroves in Indonesia, suggests that social institutions and local rules lead
to their protection and sustainability. Social institutions, as neighbourly ties, collective identity, reciprocity and
a shared obligation to protect the social and ecological landscapes, motivate community members to make
responsible decisions over mangrove management.  Community members act to benefit the overall good even
when avowing individual rights.  This leads to innovative power structures which are more locally sensitive and
environmentally appropriate
Keywords: governance, Community Based Natural Resource Management, dynamics, social capital, trans
boundary, institutions, policies, practice, complexity, power relations, common property, privatization
Menon, Dolly
Collections from Commons – A Crucial Component of Survival Strategy of the Poor: Experience
from West Bengal.
The dependence of the very poor, on collections from commons is a theme that is often reflected in important
studies on the CPR-poverty nexus.
In the Indian CPR literature, this relation has been worked out mostly in the context of very dry, forested or fragile
mountainous areas. The work has mostly related, harvesting of commons and income generating activities of the
poor (i.e. collection for sale).
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This paper looks at collections from commons, mainly for consumption by the very poor households. Collections,
therefore, act to improve nutritional well-being of the poor.
The paper forms a part of the author’s PhD work, based on a 7 village study set in West Bengal where these
villages together, cover all three agro-climatic zones of the State namely, Eastern Himalayas, dry lands of Eastern
hills and the flood prone Gangetic Plains. The paper also looks at collections from village common water resources,
particularly, ponds. In this sense, the pond is the eco-system whose status is important from the point of well
being of the poor.
The aim of the paper is to vindicate the hypothesis- that poor, everywhere and anywhere, collect from the
commons. What they collect and from which source, depends on endowment of common resources, special to
that area. There is an attempt to statistically forge the link between poverty (low income) and collections from the
commons using a binomial logit regression.
Also there is information on timing of collections. So collections during lean agricultural season, acquire importance
of being safety nets for the very poor.
The simple policy prescription is that conservation of the common resources of the village act as best poverty
alleviation exercise, in the absence of targeted programs of the state to affect levels of living.
Keywords: agro climatic zones, collections for consumption, from common land & in and around water bodies,
collection for fuel, food calendar, ecosystem degradation
Merino, Leticia
Forest Communities and Forest Policies in Mexico and their Contribution to the Mitigation of the
Globate Climate Change Process
Mexican forests have high biological diversity and productivity. There are mainly owned by local communities.
This work analyzes the diverse socio-environmental conditions of these forest communities, and the coherence
of forest policies in the context of the concern on Global Climate Change and the REDD initiative, with
communities´ conditions and needs, through four sections:
(i) The discussion of the social, ecological, governance and economic conditions of forest communities, based
on the results of a recent survey, designed using the IFRI method as a conceptual and methodological frame
and applied in a sample of 106 communities.
(ii) The analysis oftheseresultsthatshows: 
• The presence of a close relation between the development of community forestry, the control of pressures
on forests and the presence of protection and conservation activities. 
• Communities with a relatively developed forest economy tend to be those with solid local governance,
social capital, incentives to protect the forest and knowledge and technical capacities to do so. These
communities are those with the highest socio-environmental resilience, the more able to face new
environmental stressors. They are a small minority within the country, but a viable model to avoid deforestation
and deterioration in Mexico.
(iii) The economic performance of Mexican forest sector during 2000 – 2008 that shows a pronounced deterioration
in terms of production volume, value added, commercial balance, and contributions of forestry to local
employment and income. 
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(iv)The analysis of forest policies including: the distribution of investment, the institutional performance,
governmental enforcement capacities and the level of centralization.
We found that policy– including the programs of Payment for Environmental Services and the government´ s
proposal for REDD- is oriented by an over-simplified, restrictive and centralized vision largely that favors
reforestation and restrictive conservation, undermines and over-regulates communities´ forest production and
poorly values the roll of local institutions and socialcapitalfor common forest conservation and governance.
 As a preliminary conclusion I underline the need for policies and donors´ interventions oriented by the goal to
strengthen resilience, towards the enhancement of communities´ incentives as well as their governance and
management capacities.
Keywords: community forestry, local governance, resilience, forest policies, REDD
Merino, Sonia Elsy
Community-based Marine Turtle’s Conservation, a Complexity Analysis
By analysing a community-based marine turtle’s conservation initiative we concluded that in Cape Verde, among
decision makers and developers, and coordination and policy implementing institutions, inclusively scientists,
there is yet a difficulty in understanding and integrating the eco-systemic and human dimensions into marine
resources management. Besides, there is also difficulties in understanding and applying the time scale strategic
vision when establishing implementation instruments. In such direction here we attempt to un-wrap the complex
nature of marine turtle conservation, the multiple-dimensional picture in which occurs as coastal common. We
aim to emphasise the multiple-scale and multiple-level nature of forces menacing local populations of marine
turtles and its supporting ecosystem, in such way contributing to an improved comprehension of the resources
management and its operational implementation in the national environmental management system. We aim at
influencing against the directions local coastal dynamics takes place, in an insular nation with a strongly sensitive
to environmental changes eco-geography. We conclude on the appealing need for reinforcing policy strategies
and legal frameworks with major integrative instruments and tools particularly for marine resources management,
including concepts such as commons property rights and community-based conservation and co-management
and the establishment of community conserved protected areas. Analysing local marine turtles conservation we
fundament the need for a) introducing new policy and legal frameworks to legalise the right for local fishing
communities involvement in the management and governance of their coastal commons, b) a mandatory
institutional articulation of the local implementation of the environmental policy and c) the establishment of
operational and flexible tools aiming institutional and financial sustainability for the local level implementation
of the conservation policy. That all contributing for more effectively and operationally to articulate national
efforts in a time and space bounded strategic vision. All that contributing for the sustainable development and
improved livelihoods of small scale fishing communities
Keywords: community-based conservation, marine turtles, Cape Verde islands, coastal common, complexity
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Meyer, Claas
Thiel, Andreas
Multi-faceted Scalar Institutional Change in the European Water Management: the Implementation
of the Water Framework Directive in Eastern Germany
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) represents the latest European approach to meeting the challenges
of managing the complex common pool resource ‘water’ in an appropriate and integrated way. The transposition
of the WFD within the European Union member states requires institutional change, in order to comply with
several of its substantive or procedural requirements. The paper investigates changes in water governance in
Germany regarding the configuration, scope and spatial extent of issues considered in water management.
Specifically, it wonders how prescriptions to adopt River Basin Planning and Management change governance.
In contrast to previous water planning and management according to administrative boundaries, this implies a
shift in the scale. The paper will present based on qualitative methods an illustrative case study of the Odra river
basin and the governance of nutrient pollution. A conceptual framework is constructed to evaluate institutional
change at three levels: formal institutional change, institutional change concerning the formal and informal
interfaces between actors, and changes in actors’ mental models. Correspondingly, three theoretical propositions
will be elaborated on: a) formal rule making considers actors’ alternative pay offs, b) in order to analyse
communication mechanisms a transaction and transition cost heuristic is applied, and finally c) changes in
formal and operational rules seem to change actors’ perceptions of problems and “mental models”. Empirically,
the paper describes institutional change in each of these spheres including all different levels of governance
(local, regional, national and international). It concludes that elevated costs would prevent formal institutional
change. Formal and semi-formalised ways of interaction between state actors affiliated with different territorial
delimitations are presented. Furthermore, an emerging change in the mental models of the object of river
management and the hydrographic region, attributable to changes in actors and issues involved in the management
is determined through the assessments of actors involved.
Keywords: water governance, European water framework directive, Odra river basin, institutional change,
hydrographic boundaries
Meyer-Ueding, Jennifer
Rommel, Jens; Hanisch, Markus
The Role of Social Capital and Further Assets for Collective Action and User Participation to
Solve Water Resource Problems In Future Megacities - Results of a Household Survey on Water
Use in Hyderabad
Emerging megacities like the South-Indian city Hyderabad face huge challenges of water scarcity, partly due to
population growth, and increasingly accompanied by the negative effects of climate change. Collective action of
water resource users in urban areas could help addressing some of these problems. When calling for such
bottom-up approaches it has to be assessed in how far the local conditions allow for collective action among the
inhabitants. Social capital on the macro level (formal and informal networks, generalized norms of reciprocity,
and trust that foster collective action) is identified to be a decisive factor facilitating cooperation as it may reduce
reciprocital uncertainty, incentives to defect, and transaction costs. Especially in urban areas that are characterized
by increasing individualism, social capital is a critical issue. This paper explores asset-related preconditions for
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collective action and local self-help approaches on water issues in Hyderabad. It is examined whether and in
how far highly and scarcely affluent neighborhoods differ regarding their inhabitants’ willingness for collective
action on water management. A focus is laid on the importance of different assets and the role of social capital.
From a survey of 502 inhabitants and water consumers in Hyderabad we identify the key determinants affecting
the probability that neighbours are willing to address their water-related problems collectively. The results show
that the amount of social capital among neighbors has a significant impact on their willingness to organize
collective management and that the different assets have different degrees of influence on collective action
differing by neighborhoods. From these findings we draw conclusions for decentralized collective water
management in Hyderabad and similar urban areas.
Keywords: social capital, water, collective action, megacities
Michel, David
What Good is Protecting the World’s Climate System? Global Public Goods and International
Public Policymaking
International policymakers increasingly confront momentous challenges of collaborating to govern the global
commons.  Where they succeed, all countries reap the benefits.  Where they fall short, peoples everywhere may
suffer from their failure.  Crafting global climate policy is typically cast as a question of forging international
cooperation to furnish the public good of a stable climate system.  Supplying public goods, however, raises
difficult hurdles to collective action. Since all parties receive the common benefit whether they help produce the
good or not, countries face strong incentives to free ride on others’ efforts rather than shoulder the burden with
them. Since all states make the same calculation, few if any will act and, all too often, the public good go
unprovided.  This grim logic underlies numerous pessimistic assessments of the prospects for organizing global
cooperation to effectively counter global warming. 
Yet all public goods are not created equal.  Providing some goods requires parties contribute private resources to
ensure the collective welfare. Providing other goods demands parties conserve a collective resource rather than
consume it for private benefit.  So-called best-shot, weakest-link, and lumpy goods differ from standard public
goods in the extent of cooperation between parties or in the aggregate effort across parties needed to secure their
supply. Different characteristics in different combinations in turn set different challenges for collective action. 
Often, these crucial qualities are not objectively inherent to the goods but socially constructed by collective
understandings between the parties. Rather than a single social dilemma, climate change can be construed as
presenting any of several public goods problems, each raising its own obstacles and opportunities for international
cooperation. Differentiating among the diverse types of public goods and scrutinizing the shared conceptions
shaping distinct provision puzzles can illuminate alternative possible frameworks for collective action and suggest
fruitful new approaches to climate collaboration.
Keywords: governance, public goods, climate change
Mishra, Arabinda
Mukhopadhyay, Pranab
Dependence and Sustainability in Common Groundwater Use in Maharashtra, India
Irrigation is an invaluable input for increasing agricultural productivity and the sustenance of water bodies
whether private or common property depends on the manner of current use. 
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This paper examines the presence of different regimes of property rights on water and its distributive structure in
Maharashtra (India) using 990 household survey covering 18 talukas and 9 ecological zones. We categorise
users in three non-overlapping categories of water source – those who use only private sources, those who only
use CPWR and those use mixed sources (both private and CPWR). 
We find that irrigation pump ownership is concentrated among the largest land owning category. We also find
that there is a secular increase in the average production from exclusive CPWR sources as the irrigated land size
increases in all three seasons. This clearly indicates that the use of CPWR increases with land size. The access to
CPWR in addition to private sources seems to provide a boost to agricultural incomes that is not achievable by
mere private or CPWR sources alone. CPWRs assume importance so far as supplementing incomes from private
sources in concerned. They also of course are important as exclusive source of irrigation for a certain group of
land owners. The expansive theme the paper addresses is who depends on CPWR and what is the degree of this
dependence. Our attempts to answer these questions indicate options for sustainable use of water resources in
rural India.
Keywords: water, irrigation, property rights, distributive structure
Mishra, Banikanta
Mishra, Sagarika
Participative Water Management in Industrial and Non-industrial Districts of Odisha: A Comparison
of Pre-1991 and Post-1991 Period
When Pani Panchayats (Water Users Association) were introduced in Odisha, there was a lot of resistance from
common people, and quite justifiably so. Though focus of these WUAs was on irrigation, the whole concept
needs to be studied from a macro perspective of management of what we may call “water commons”. In fact, it
is quite similar to the concept of “river commons”. The focus of this paper is on analyzing the overall concept of
water commons in Odisha, with particular emphasis on irrigation and somewhat on drinking water. We believe
that the attitude towards WUA would have varied depending on the characteristics of the localities. In Odisha,
we sometimes talk about the North-South divide. Besides, some research has categorized Odisha’s districts into
different categories like KBK, mining, industrial, and others. We would analyze whether the attitude towards
WUA and its success have been different in different categories of districts, especially between industrial and
non-industrial districts. In particular, we would try to gauge farmer’s attitude towards volumetric measurement of
water and ferret out whether this attitude depends on the extent of land-holding by the farmer. Another central
focus of the research would be to find out whether there has been a change in all these from the pre-reform
period and the post-reform era, taking 1991 as the cutoff-year when the LPG (liberalization, privatization,
globalization) led process started in the country, with ramifications throughout all the states including Odisha. In
the course of our research, we would bring out the traditional conflicts – that have been far more pronounced in
recent times - between water allocation for agriculture vis-à-vis industry, which are quite significant in places like
Sambalpur and whether these conflicts have been somewhat influenced by the agrarian history of the localities.
Keywords: water commons, water management, water users’ association, industrialisation, irrigation
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Mishra, Banikanta
Nayak, Birendra Kumar
Effect of Joint Forest Management Programme on Community Forest Management in Odisha
Joint Forest Management (JFM) is an initiative whereby both the state government and the local communities are
supposed to jointly work towards protecting the forest in the community. This movement is said to be quite
strong in Odisha, an agriculture-dependent-state with a huge tribal population, especially in its backward KBK
districts. The process of and the attitude towards forest management in Odisha perhaps has undergone a significant
change due to the industrialization in the recent two decades, which has, among other things, led to diversion of
forest land towards mining and other industrial activities. This paper proposes to analyze this change besides
finding out if JFM has had an impact on it and how. In particular, the study would like to ascertain if the reliance
of tribals on NTFP (non-timber forest-products, sometimes referred to as Minor Forest Products) – as measured
by, say, the number of households dependent on NTFP for supplemental income and sustenance living or the
proportion of household income derived from these - has decreased due to JFM. In this context the instance of
Kendu Leaves collection would be analyzed with regard to its role in changing the socio-economic profile of
communities. We would try to decipher, using econometric techniques, as to what extent rainfall, irrigation
potential, and other variables have affected the NTFP-dependence among local households. We would try to
determine as to how households in these communities choose land-use between agriculture and NTFP extraction,
since the tradeoff may have important implication for long-run forestation in the localities. In this context, we
would try to analyze a specific issue: how households in degraded forests in Odisha responded to firewood
shortage. Finally, we plan to reflect upon the changes that the answers to the above questions might have
undergone due to reforms-led industrialization during the last two decades.
Keywords: Joint Forest Management, Community Forest Management, non-timber forest produce, tribal livelihood,
Mishra, Prajna Paramita
Reddy, M Gopinath
Threat to Forest Commons: Mapping the Livelihoods of Mining Induced Communities
India’s rich mineral reserves lie in the same regions that hold its greenest forests and tribal people. Mining is not
only a direct, but also an underlying cause of forest loss and degradation. It also has a negative impact on
wildlife, river systems, tribal livelihoods, tourism and climate. This paper tries to map the existing livelihoods
pattern of the affected communities in the upcoming bauxite mining and alumina refinery areas of Andhra
Pradesh. The study covered 355 households in Visakhapatnam and Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh.
Using the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Framework, the study shows that all project-affected people do not have
a sustainable livelihood. Though they are rich in some capital, they are lagging behind in other forms of capital.
Land acquisition process has not completed in these areas. However, once it completes where will these people
go? They will lose their agricultural land and the forest will be destroyed. What will be their new source of
livelihoods? These are some of the unanswered questions, which the study has tried to answer.
Keywords: mining, forest, Andhra Pradesh, tribal
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Mishra, Sweta
Changing Conservation Paradigm with the Enactment of Forest Rights Act: Scope and Challenges
Orissa has the unique distinction of being one of the few Indian states where thousands of local communities are
actively protecting and managing their forests while also meeting their own livelihood requirements from them.
With 1/3
 of the state population critically dependent on forest resources, biodiversity conservation has always
been an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Historically, the relationship between forests and forest dwelling
communities has been characterized by coexistence and they have been integral to the survival and sustainability
of the forest ecosystems.
Apathetically, these groups have been struggling since long to assert their rights over the resources which were
customarily enjoyed and conserved by them since ages. Tracing the evolution of forest policy, we see the slow
but systematic alienation of local people from the forests. The customary rights of the people were neither
recognized nor recorded by the colonial government during consolidation of state forests. This historical injustice
was further accentuated by the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 and the Forest Conservation Act 1980, which
made environmental protection and recognition of the rights of tribal communities as mutually irreconcilable
objectives. Non recognition of rights has made them victims of tenurial insecurity, forcing to lead a life of poverty
and deprivation and ultimately the whole goal of conservation was threatened.
Enactment of ‘The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act’,
2006 was a historic event in the history of India as for the first time the state formally recognises the rights of the
forest dwelling communities. The new forest rights law also empowers right holding communities to “protect,
conserve, regenerate or manage” their community forest resources for sustainable use.
There is a positive shift in the forest governance scenario, but the institutional mechanisms for sustainable
livelihood and conservation has to be worked out.
Keywords: biodiversity conservation, forest governance, customary rights, Forest Rights Act, institutional
mechanism, sustainable livelihood and conservation
Mitsumata, Gaku
Building Sustainable Communities on a Foundation of Natural Resources: Examples from the Use
and Management of Geothermal Hot Springs
This paper shows how common-pool resources that have long been used and managed cooperatively can not
only support their users in a traditional economy but can also contribute to sustainable livelihoods in the present.
This study focuses on the arrangements used at two collectively used and managed hot springs — in the towns of
Nozawa and Bessho in Nagano prefecture in Japan. Residents in both locations have managed their hot springs
and other more familiar common-pool resources (like forests and irrigation) cooperatively for a long time, but
have also modernized their methods over time. In both locations, co-owners of the hot springs have monitored
not only the quantity but also the quality of their geothermal resources using scientific methods advised by
specialists. They have also developed their management plans on the basis of prescriptions suggested by these
specialists. Interestingly enough, in both locations a novel combination of open and closed rules is used: In
addition to hotels, inns, and senior centers that pay a user fee to the hot spring commons association for connecting
by pipe to the community geothermal resource, the hot spring commons association also runs several public
baths, to which access is available at no or little charge, not only to community members but also any visitors to
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the area, without apparent damage to geothermal supply or economic competition. Thus the hot springs commons
operates as a community enterprise with services available to any customer. At the same time, the hot springs
commons uses a “closed” rule concerning investment, and historically the association has not allowed the
introduction of any external investment capital. All development and investment in the resource are internally
generated, and this rule restricts ownership to members of the local community.
Keywords: natural resource management, Nozawa Onsen, Bessho Onsen, geothermal resources, hot springs,
community enterprise
Mnisi, Sindiso
Layers of Authority, Boundaries of Decision-Making: Controversies Around the Traditional Courts
This paper focuses on traditional courts and the impact of imposing fixed jurisdictional boundaries for them
within the context of deeper disagreement about the nature of traditional identity, boundaries and authority,
particularly as this relates to dispute resolution. It describes the Traditional Courts Bill of 2008 and controversies
over its key provisions.
The imposition of territorial boundaries by colonial and apartheid governments, and complementary legislation
of distorted and oppressive powers assigned to traditional leaders, had many negative consequences for rural
people. But this approach appears to be perpetuated by the present government. Policies and legislation that
entrench fixed boundaries and authoritarian notions of traditional leadership continue attempts to define social
identity, dictate jurisdictional limits and map a centralised system of dispute resolution onto the indigenous
systems in operation. By giving primacy to controversial territorial boundaries (especially macro-communal
ones) and refusing people the right to ‘opt out’, the Bill distorts the flexible, layered and nested social organisations
and dispute resolution processes prevalent in customary communities. It also undermines means by which
traditional institutions might be kept accountable. Put differently, contests over institutionally supported definitions
of boundaries signify similarly deep concerns about power relations, and the tensions around authority and
accountability – particularly in dispute resolution – brought about thereby.
Drawing from the body of commons literature on locally designed rule systems, layered jurisdictional boundaries
and the politics thereof, and the centrality of dispute resolution in the building of authority, this paper interrogates
these issues relative to the Bill and living customary law: Who can make the rules that govern the commons?
Who has power to decide disputes arising from non-compliance? Whose disputes are they empowered to decide?
Who else can participate in dispute resolution? What kinds of judgments and punishments are issued? And, of
what status are these judgments?
Keywords: institutions, governance, law, dispute resolution
Modi, Anisha
Drought Mitigation: Study of Factors in Adoption of Community Based Conservation of Commons
Community participation has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for conservation of commons. The
international Hyogo Framework for Action, disaster management act, 2005 and policy, all stresses towards a
community based approach for solving the complex vulnerabilities of the people. However , there are various
challenges in initiating, sustaining and taking up this bottom up approach to higher levels. This paper studies the
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factors which acts as challenges and opportunities in conserving the commons for undertaking drought management
at community level.
Availability of water for household, irrigation and industry is an acute problem in Rajasthan. This qualitative
study examine in detail what takes communities so long to adopt the watershed approach for drought proofing.
Keywords: community, participation, watershed, water, NGO
Moeliono, Moira
Limberg, Godwin
The Visible and Invisible Layers of Tenure and Rights in National Parks: Cases from Indonesia
In all 50 national parks in Indonesia, disputes over rights have erupted. Although long neglected, the parks are
still in better condition than areas outside the park with natural resources and land (mostly) still plentiful. Although
few parks are officially gazetted, most local stakeholders know and accept their existence. With reforms and
decentralization, the national governments authority over parks and the parks itself have come into question, in
particular their legal status where legal gazettement has been incomplete. Most parks are seen as open access
with many actors competing to stake claims: Mining and oil palm companies eager to expand, local governments
needing revenue for development, and indigenous and local people as well as land hungry migrants seeking
opportunities to make a better living. 
How can this tenurial mess be resolved? What claims are best awarded rights? Can a national park be managed
as a commons where local people have recognized claims and take on its attendant duties? Would local
governments be interested in conservation if the authority over protected areas is decentralized? Would it be
possible to develop a layered system of rights (and duties) acceptable to both government and people? 
This paper, based on 2 year in depth participatory action research in Kutai national park and comparative studies
in several other parks (Danau Sentarum, Halimun Salak and Tesso Nilo), will discuss these issues of tenure in
national parks in Indonesia, the opportunity for special use zones to resolve conflicts and a possible scenario for
property reform to be applied in such special use zones.
Keywords: tenure, property rights, conservation, National Parks
Mogi, Aiichiro
The Evolution of Reservoir Irrigation Systems as Commons in the Dry Climate Region of
Contemporary Japan
Although Japan is a “green archipelago” associated with a rainy season, some regions have a fairly dry climate
and are short of perennial rivers, and these have long adopted reservoir irrigation systems for rice cultivation
from ancient times. Particularly in the areas facing the Seto Inland Sea (between the main islands of Honshu and
Shikoku), in Kagawa, Hyougo, and Osaka prefectures, , there exist many such irrigation works. As is the case in
the Asian monsoon region, rice farming under reservoir irrigation has the attributes of CPRs, requiring some level
of joint management, and the social and institutional features of CPR-like practices among such systems are quite
frequent. However, because industrial base of agriculture has been declining as economic structure shifts in
Japan, quit drastically in the latter half of the 20th century, institutional arrangements in irrigation have also
changed, resulting in many alterations in the commons content. Notably, urbanisation and the transformation to
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an industrial and service economy are the main culprits. The paper begins by explaining with stylized facts (a
comprehensive summary) the institutional evolution of Japanese reservoir irrigation systems. This paper then
goes on to examine the recent transformation in institutiuons and practice, using cases in the areas of Japan with
centuries of history using reservoir irrigation. The cases include the historically important Mannô-Ike reservoir in
Kagawa and the dense small irrigatiaon ponds in the East-Harima area of Hyougo thata are subject to intense
urbanisation. The analy sis of this transformation focuses on the degree to which custom and practices have
changed, leading to outcomes that vary from demise, to adaptation, to survival in new roles and multiple uses for
the communities of concern. The successful survivals incorporate resilience to shock, including the Great HanshinAwaji (Kobe) earthquake of 1995. The paper concludes with thoughts about whether the commons can provide
a social basis even in urbanised and industrialised societies of the present.
Keywords: reservoir irrigation system, rice cultivation, Japan, urbanisation, traditional water custom and practices,
new roles for communities
Momi, Masud Ara
Socio-Economic Benefits for Resource User Groups Through the Co-Management in Alua Beel,
Fisheries co-management is a new tool for the sustainable management of inland fishery resources whereby
water bodies are operated and managed by local communities. This paper discusses the responsibilities, duties,
and benefits of wetland users involved in the co-management of Alua Beel (low lying depression) in Dhaka
Division of Bangladesh. The study was carried out through focus group discussions and semi-structure interviews.
The results indicate that most respondents perceived that co-management activities had increased fish production
(67%) and the availability of alternative income generating activities (57%), but very few respondents perceived
that co-management offered environmental protection benefits (8%). Project results also suggest that many comanagement action plans have been created and decisions made by members of the local elite. The only role
local fishers have played in co-management has been in implementing project activities. Thus, fishers are not
involved in co-management decision-making activities. The study identified approximately twenty different types
of benefits (both direct and indirect) derived from Alua Beel’s co-management. These benefits help improve the
livelihoods of poor fishers. Fishers desire for Alua Beel to continue to be co-managed with support (both technical
and financial) from the government.
Keywords: water, wetland, co-management, livelihood
Mongbo, Roch
Rural Land Regulation and Precarious Rangelands in West Africa: Lessons from Northern Benin
The back bone of the land bill enacted in October 2007 in Benin is the PFR (Plan Foncier Rural), meant to make
inventory and register all customary use and ownership rights over each piece of land (including bearing natural
resources), in view of securing holders’ rights. The process started early 1990s. The context was one of multiple
access and unsustainable usages of rural land. The rational for establishing this land regulatory mechanism was
that it would secure use and ownership rights, therefore induce sustainable management and livelihood at
community and regional levels.
The pilot soon revealed difficulties for marginal categories (migrants, pastoralists, women, etc.) to claim and get
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their access/use rights recorded in PFR documents. Generally, field agents in charge tend (and were brought) to
focus on exclusive ownership rights for individuals or families, instead of recording multiple access and use
rights. Hence, common pool resources as graze lands, lowlands, rangelands, even mountains edges etc. were
registered as private ownerships. With the support of MCC funding, some 300 villages are expected to complete
PFR process by end 2011.
This paper discusses the subsequent threats on the commons, particularly on rangelands in Northern Benin, in
an aggravating context of climate change, increasing commercial pressure on agricultural lands and weak political
and administrative decentralisation. The paper proceeds discussing the strengths and weaknesses of pastoralists’
individual and collective coping strategies, including the delimitations of grazing corridor. It explores promising
avenues for stakeholders (pastoralist associations, local governments, state services and NGOs) to develop rural
land management dispositions under the current legislation that preserve the commons and secure marginal
Keywords: pastoralist, rural land management
Montoya-Greenheck, Felipe
Marine Turtle Conservation and Community Well-being in a Globalized Coastal Town of Costa
Rica: Methodological Contributions
I have based this paper on three years (2006-2010) of intermittent field work in the “globalizad” community of
Junquillal on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica, where the World Wildlife Fund commissioned me to help integrate
endangered Leatherback marine turtle conservation efforts with community wellbeing as a strategy to help guarantee
the sustainability of wildlife conservation.  Based on concepts we borrowed from Amartia Sen and Manfred MaxNeef, especially, we defined community wellbeing as increasingly equitable access to community capitals, such
that the people could satisfy their fundamental human needs and make use of new opportunities.  Our research
in this community, whose history and cultural composition make it a globalizad rural community, where “amenity
migrants” from the the Industrializad World have come to live amongst the local coastal residents, revealed the
importante of identity as a motive force in the appropriate management of common property resources (CPR). 
Our principal contribution to advancing CPR management is in this increasingly common “glocal” setting, was
in the methods we employed to foster the identification and appropriation of common interests within this
diverse population.  Some of these methods included the participatory reconstruction of a common history, the
promotion of common spaces and motives for celebration, providing a common pool of pertinent information,
and startling them with common visions of possible futures.  These, we feel have contributed to improving their
CPR management and to their own wellbeing.
Keywords: marine turtle conservation, community well-being, identity
Mukherji, Aditi
Irrigation Reform in Asia: A Review of 108 Cases of Irrigation Management Transfer
Irrigation management transfer and participatory irrigation management (IMT/PIM) have remained buzz words in
the irrigation sector for around 30 years now. However, in spite of years of implementation and hundreds of
documented case studies, evidence of impact of IMT/PIM has at best remained sketchy due to lack of comprehensive
assessment that goes beyond mere descriptive case studies. The purpose of this paper is to fill in some of the gaps
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left in the previous reviews through a meta analysis of 108 case studies of IMT/PIM from 20 countries in Asia.
This makes it one of the most comprehensive reviews undertaken so far. Based on systematic review of these
case studies, it is argued that successful cooperative action in large scale public irrigation systems takes place
under a set of very context specific and process intensive conditions – conditions that are difficult and costly, if
not impossible to replicate elsewhere. To take it a step further, it is also argued that lack of replicability of
successful cases of IMT is not an issue of poor implementation or enabling conditions, as it is generally thought,
but is related to conceptual weakness of the IMT model itself and therefore there is a need for a paradigm shift in
the way publicly owned irrigation systems are managed.
Keywords:  water, irrigation, Asia, participatory irrigation management
Mukhopadhyay, Pranab
Ternstrom, Ingela; Ghate, Rucha
Well-Being or Destitution of Local Forest Commons? An Inquiry into the Sustainability of Forest
Commons Using Multi-Country Data
Local forest commons provide an important source of income, livelihood support and safety net for a large
number of people across the globe. Dependence on forest commons is especially high among poor people living
in developing countries but there is an increasing acknowledgement of the global benefits of local forests.
Meanwhile, there is an ongoing debate about the most efficient property rights arrangement for local natural
resources, where one side argues that forest commons should be transferred into private or government ownership.
Despite extensive research into the management of local commons, there is still a lack of convincing crosscountry analyses of the sustainability of local forest commons. To remedy this shortcoming, the proposed paper
sheds light on two aspects of forest commons; i) whether forest commons contribute to sustainable development
and ii) what factors contribute to the well-being of the users of forest commons. We depart from the literature on
social welfare, sustainable development and environmental economics to develop a model for statistically analyzing
the sustainability of forest commons. We let capital, measured in terms of agricultural land, livestock, education
and density of forest cover be the dependent variable with indicators of physical, socio-economic and institutional
factors as explanatory variables. The model is applied to a dataset collected by IFRI (International Forest Resources
and Institutions), containing very rich cross-country data on forest commons and their users. Initial results indicate
that managing forest as common property does contribute to sustainable development. We find a significant
correlation between forest capital and agricultural land (negative) and livestock (positive) but no significant
correlation between forest and human capital. These results are discussed and interpreted in terms of strong and
weak sustainability. We find a positive correlation between forest capital and strong local institutions, leadership
and distance from the settlement to the forest and from the forest to the market. We also find that the size of the
forest common, divided by number of users, has a positive but decreasing effect on the density of forest cover.
The results are discussed in terms of sustainability of forest commons and related to the discussion on privatization
of common property.
Keywords: forests
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Mukhtarov, Farhad
Interpretative Analysis and Adaptive Capacity: Local Communities in the Face of Conservation
The goals of biodiversity conservation and protection of livelihoods are often in conflict. Legitimate tradeoffs
between the two are necessary. In spite of the wide literature on such tradeoffs, interpretative dimension of
conservation policies has been hitherto under-researched. Local communities idiosyncratically perceive and
interpret their environment, threats to their livelihoods and availability of coping mechanisms; these perceptions
often dramatically differ from those at the regional and national levels. Interpretations may depend on cultural,
economic, discursive (or ideological) and organizational factors, as well as their interplay. The analysis of
interpretative differences is important in order to address the divides and promote consensus in conservation
policy design and implementation. Such analysis will also show the likelihood of local communities to engage in
strategic response seeking. The range of possible strategies of local communities will be studied. Theoretical
ideas of adaptive capacity and strategic responses to environmental change will be augmented with empirical
insights from the Ba Be and Na Hang Protected Areas in the Northern Vietnam. Research methods will include
semi-structured interviews at multiple governance levels, non-participant observations, and focus group discussions.
Keywords: adaptive capacity, policy translation, multi-level governance, response strategies, environmental
Murota, Takeshi
Fishery Commons in Japan: Their Legal Framework and Recent Crises
Coastal fisheries in Japan are very unique in the world in the sense that its major part has been managed by
fishery cooperative associations (FCAs) of local nature. Each FCA has its own rule of harvest times (seasons, days,
or hours of operation), mesh sizes of fishing nets, and others for sustainable yields. At the same time, each FCA
is entitled with fishery rights of various nature over specific sea (or freshwater) surfaces. Such fishery rights are
deemed to be real rights under the Fishery Act. Hence, each FCA can be considered as a common, which we call
a fishery common in this paper. The purpose of this paper is then three folds.
Firstly, the paper describes the history and present of such fishery commons in view of the old and current
Fishery Acts of Japan. Legal structure of multi-level fishery resources governance is analyzed.
Secondly, the paper points out the recent trend of weakening of FCAs by various reasons such as a nationwide
policy of merging small, local FCAs into a large, prefectural FCA, politico-economic pressure on small FCAs to
abandon fishery rights for industrial development (e.g., nuclear power plants construction) in coastal areas,
conflict between traditional fishing activities of FCA members and new marine leisure of urban populace, and
Thirdly, the paper proposes possible directions of re-strengthening local FCAs from the viewpoint of environmental
governance. An example of such direction has already been seen in the recently arisen rural-urban linkage in the
form of participation of urban consumers in tree planting activities of FCA members to propagate uo-tsukirin (fish breeding forest).
Keywords: Fishery Cooperative Association, fishery commons, Japan, fishery act, multi-level resources governance
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Murray, Grant
King, Leslie
First Nations Values in Processes and Outcomes of Protected Area Governance
Over the past few decades there has been increasing attention paid to ‘shared’ forms of governance and to the
creation of new protected areas that are designed to address ‘non biological’ goals and values.  This is has been
evidenced in a number of international fora (e.g. the Durban World Parks Congress) and in on-the-ground
initiatives around the world.  The rationale for these initiatives has, in part, been based on the belief that welldesigned systems of PA governance will help to deliver desired outcomes and meet linked socio-cultural, economic
and environmental objectives.  Yet this has been an under-researched area, and there is a relative lack of explanation
as to how governance systems can best be designed to reflect the values and goals of various actors, as well as
which specific governance structures and processes tend to result in particular desired outcomes.  Addressing
these questions has become increasingly important in British Columbia, where a number of First Nations are
asserting increasing control over existing protected areas, as well as to establish new protected areas (managed
exclusively by a First Nation) and design governance systems for them that demonstrably deliver outcomes
consonant with cultural beliefs, values and goals. 
This proposed research project will examine this perceived gap through an in-depth case study examination of
the Tla-o-qui-aht Tribal Parks and the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve.  Specifically, we will examine how
values are (or are not) reflected in the governance of these two PAs, whether desired outcomes are being achieved,
what role (if any) governance systems may have been played in those outcomes, and what sort of governance
obstacles might exist in terms of positive outcomes.  We will also build in comparative examples, including
Gwaii Hanaas and First Nations forestry enterprises in Northern BC (eg. Tl’azt’en Nation Teeslee Forest Products). 
Finally, we will seek to collaboratively elaborate recommendations for the design of new initiatives, including
the ongoing Tla-o-qui-aht Tribal Parks effort.
Keywords: governance, well-being, Protected Areas, indigenous
Musavi, Azra
Park–People Relationships and its Implications for Protected Area Management in Satpura
Conservation Area, India
I studied park- people relationships in Melghat Tiger Reserve (MTR, Maharashtra) and Bori Wildlife Sanctuary
(BWLS, MP) located in Satpura Conservation Area, having considerable tribal and non-tribal population dependent
on forest resources of both protected areas (PAs). Socio-economic data were collected through household interviews
in villages located within the PAs using open and closed-ended questionnaires. A total of 318   households
(>20%) were sampled. While >50% were tribal households, >70% households were landless, marginal or
small landholders. >80% families owned livestock. While >60% tribal households identified lack of employment
opportunities within the PA and crop damage by wild herbivores as major problems; >50% households considered
livestock predation a major conflict. More than 90% agro-pastoralist households in MTR were resentful of
restrictions on livestock grazing. Alternative agricultural land was a major requirement for >50% families in
BWLS as quite a few families were deprived of their landholdings due to submergence under the backwaters of
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Tawa reservoir which was built on the western side of the sanctuary. The creation of these two PAs in early
1970s has brought about significant changes in the dimension and equations of dependence. For local communities
it translated in loss of economic opportunities and benefits which they traditionally derived. This has resulted in
negative attitudes towards the forest department due to increased human-wildlife conflict bringing considerable
strain on park-people relationships. Major management issues that need to be addressed are- dependence of
local communities resulting in conflicts with the objectives of conservation and negative attitudes of the people
towards forest department; inadequate coordination between forest department and district administration and
other institutions/agencies working in the area; and lack of sensitization of forest staff in people related issues.
Keywords: Natural Resource Management, institutions, forests, economics
Mwangi, Esther
Komarudin, Heru; Luoga, Emmanuel; Toxede, Max; Gunarso, Petrus
The Struggle to Defend Resource Rights: Actors, Strategies and Outcomes in Biofuels Expansion
in Africa and Asia
The rising demand for biofuels has generated great interest in many developing countries in Africa and Asia. This
interest emerges from the assumption that developing countries have large expanses of unutilized land, and that
biofuels could contribute to income for smallholders as well as broader economic growth. The land-intensive
nature of biofuels is a major concern and may result in adverse consequences for the land and resource rights of
poor, rural people. Tanzania and Indonesia are two nodes of rapidly expanding biofuels sectors in their respective
continents. They provide important learning sites about the relationships between biofuels development and
local rights to forest resources. Because the security of local rights is increasingly called into question with the
expansion of biofuels, whether (and how) local resource users are able to defend their claims and to exert
influence over land allocation processes is critical. By comparing Tanzania and Indonesia, this paper explores
the mechanisms by which communities resist and/or counter biofuels allocation practices that they perceive to
threaten their continued access and control over resources. Specifically, it examines the types and effectiveness
of actions that resource users and their allies at different governance levels use in attempts to defend against and/
or mitigate emerging threats to their resource rights and livelihoods. Understanding community actions (and
challenges to these actions) to counter threats is necessary to enable policy planners to define mitigative and
remediative interventions in the biofuels chain
Keywords: struggle, resource rights, actors, strategies and outcomes,  biofuels expansion, Africa and Asia
Mwitwa, Jacob
Paumgarten, Fiona; German, Laura
Customary Rights and Societal Stakes Associated with Mining in the Copperbelt of Zambia and
This paper analyzes the implications of copper mining in Zambia on customary rights to land and forests, and the
societal stakes associated with foreign investment in the mining industry. Copper mining affects forests in a
number of direct and indirect ways, from deforestation during green site development and sourcing of high
quality timber to the significant but indirect pressures over forests through the population pull effect of mining
m m162 13
towns. The study was undertaken in Chingola District in Zambia, operation center for Konkola Copper Mines
(KCM). Methods included sstakeholder interviews with government officials and forest-based communities affected
by the direct and indirect influences of mining. Results suggest that while mining has a key role to play in the
national economy, local and societal stakes are high – suggesting that a series of governance reforms are needed
to leverage greater benefits for rural communities and society at large, and to reduce the negative social and
environmental externalities.
Keywords: investment, mining, Zambia, ecological impacts, customary rights
Mysore, Chandrakanth, Gangadhariah
Groundwater Conservation and Management in India: Application of IoS and Wade Frameworks
While addressing ‘asset specificity’ of groundwater in hard rock areas, institutional, neoclassical and technological
strategies are in order. ‘Supply side’ technological (drip irrigation for ex) and neoclassical (water markets) solutions
are slowly pervading. Institutional solutions are yet to enter hearts of farmers and planners. This study demonstrates
application of Institutions of Sustainability (Hagedorn 2002) and Robert Wade (1987) framework for sustainable
management. On the one hand, transactions and actors through institutional innovations and on the other,
institutions and governance structures through institutional performance influence sustainable management
(Hagedorn 2002).
Considering both frameworks, there is thus, dire need for State for effective and implementable groundwater
regulation including creating awareness on water budgeting and installing water meters, rather than concentrating
on electricity policy.
Keywords: groundwater, governance, institutions, hard rock areas, transactions
m m
Robert wade conditions for collective action High possibility Low possibility Impossible
I. Groundwater resource
1. Smaller, clearly denned boundaries ✓
II. Technology
1. Higher cost of exclusion for groundwater farmers ✓
III. Relationship between groundwater and farmers group
1. Proximity of groundwater resource to residence ✓
2. Higher demand for and more vital Groundwater is for survival ✓
3. Better knowledge of sustainable yield of groundwater ✓
IV. Groundwater farmers association
1 Relatively small number of farmers pumping groundwater ✓
2. Clearly defined boundaries for farmers overlaying aquifer ✓
3. Higher proportion of farmers benefiting from groundwater ✓
conservation groundwater compared to those exploiting for privatizing it
4. Greater opportunities for discussion of common problems ✓
5. Greater extent to which farmers are bound by mutual obligations
so that they abide by their promises ✓
6. Larger existence of joint rules (eg. punishments for rule breaking)
for purposes other than groundwater conservation ✓
V. Noticeability
1. Easier noticeability, detection of rule-breaking farmers      ✓
VI. Relationship between groundwater users and the state
1. Lesser State interference in collective action ✓13
m164 13
Nabangchang, Orapan
Jianjun, Jin; Thuy, Truong Dang; Indab, Anabeth; Harder, Dieldre
Mobilizing Resources for Marine Turtle Conservation in Asia-A Cross Country Perspective
This article reports the results of a comparative study conducted in China, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam
to assess households’ willingness to pay for marine turtle conservation and the potential to mobilize funds.
Results suggest that many people place a low priority on marine turtle conservation compared to other public
policy issues. The referendum to impose a mandatory surcharge on residential electricity bills would only pass
for the lowest surcharge of 0.02 USD/month. If the poor were to be exempted, this modest surcharge would only
generate a sum of 1.52 million USD per year which is under 8% of the total global expenses for marine
Nevertheless, there is some potential for voluntary contributions. Based on the percentages of respondents who
would voluntarily pay 1 USD/month, the potential revenue could reach 50 million USD/year. Mobilizing these
also presents problems. The voluntary payment explored, asking people to ‘check off’ for marine turtle conservation
program on monthly electricity bills might work once, but unlikely to be repeatable for other endangered species
and environmental causes. The traditional prescription of ‘raising awareness’ is unlikely to yield results as urban
Asians are already well informed about the existence and plight of marine turtles. Efforts to develop conservation
financing mechanisms should therefore be directed in a different and more difficult direction to improve the
trustworthiness of government tax collection and expenditure systems. Charities could explore potential for
voluntary contributions focusing on the relatively small segment willing to voluntarily contribute and developing
cost-effective ways of collecting payments. Finally, until Asia develops higher per capita incomes and trustworthy
payment vehicles, the international community will need to play an important role in financing conservation in
the region.
Keywords: willingness-to-pay, marine turtles conservation, contingent valuation, cross country perspective
Nagendra, Harini
Ostrom, Elinor
Assessing Forest Change in Human Impacted Forests
Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes
of forest condition over time. Yet, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently
rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared.
We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and
forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree
density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly
n n13
distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level are also related to
assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong, and only
weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to arrive at, as foresters
are not familiar with changes in a number of local areas, and can instead better provide valid single-time
comparisons a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. We conclude that in forests where local users
are present, and capable of accessing the entire forest without restrictions on movement, they can provide
reliable assessments of changes in tree density. Forest users are less able to accurately identify spatially variable
changes in density at the shrub/sapling layer, and assessments of human disturbance and regeneration at this
level may require supplementation by vegetation analysis.
Keywords: forest institutions, biodiversity, monitoring, IFRI
Naidu, Sirisha
The Local and the National: Analyzing the Economic Implications of the Forest Rights Act, 2006
The Forest Rights Act, 2006 (FRA) has been hailed by many as a historic legislation. On economic terms, its main
merit lies in its contribution to livelihood security – it provides secure land tenure, recognizes community rights
to forests in addition to individual land rights, and attempts at gender equity. Further, under the assumption of as
positive relation between tenure security and conservation, the legislation is expected to benefit local and sponsored
conservation programs. However, at the same time the FRA poses a significant threat to the extractive
“development” path that the country has embarked on. In this paper, I conduct an analysis of FRA implementation
across the country to comment on its prospects for forest livelihoods and forest conservation. Further I explore
the inherent contradictions between traditional forest livelihoods and a neoliberal economic regime.
Keywords: institutions, livelihoods, forests
Naidu, Sirisha
Time Use and Labor Contributions: For a Different Understanding of Collective Management
Successful participatory or collective resource management is premised on adequate labor (and/or monetary)
contributions; the attention devoted to uncovering the factors that impact these contributions has enriched our
understanding of the commons and its relationship with those whose livelihoods depend on them. This paper,
however, turns its attention to the nature of these labor contributions and comments on their potential implications
for the sustainability of participatory or collective resource management. In doing so, two issues are taken up for
consideration – a) time allocation of livelihood activities within the household and b) the articulation of agrarian
subsistence livelihoods within a capitalist economy. Despite advances made in assigning market value to nonmarket environmental goods and services, there is a relatively low degree of appreciation of the time required to
fulfill household productive and reproductive needs in agrarian subsistence livelihoods. Consequently, we do
not fully comprehend the ‘hidden’ cost of participating in collective resource management. An analysis of
intrahousehold processes and a deepening divide between capitalist production and social reproduction could
help explain time constraints faced by the poor (especially women). Understanding nature as a an ontological
reality as well as an outcome of historically specific social relationships of production, and newer and/or
recombinant forms of resource management, this paper situates its analysis within the Indian socio-historical
Keywords: time use, agriculture, forests, institutions
n n166 13
Nansereko, Susan Christine
Is Gender Relevant in Enhancing the Economic Competitiveness of Small-Scale Furniture
Enterprises? Exploring the Central Javanese Small-Scale Furniture Value Networks in Indonesia.
A gender dimension is often lacking when analyzing value chains of most forest commodities. Yet gender is
imperative at every node of the value chain. Accordingly, gender is crucial in the labor-intensive furniture industry.
The small-scale furniture industry in Jepara displays a long array of network activities: i.e. from forest to log
retailers through the mills and workshops; finishing firms, show rooms and furniture sellers until the final user.
Indisputably, all those interconnected activities are conducted within the prevailing gender environment.
This study provides insights on the importance of gender in enhancing the economic competitiveness of smallscale furniture enterprise in Jepara. The results generally show more dominance of men than women in the value
chain. However, more involvement and possibly higher incomes of females than males is observable in finishing
as compared to any other furniture value adding activities. Women are more concentrated in finishing firms
since finishing activities such as sanding; painting; polishing and packaging are regarded as women tasks. Women’s
work is less valued than men’s work. This has implications on women’s skill upgrade; incomes; social status as
well as innovativeness in other nodes of the furniture value chain. Women occupy a secondary position as
compared to men within power relations. Gender inequity is unavoidable in the furniture value chain in Jepara.
In a mean time, the women’s subordinate position in the gender hierarchy within and between firms in the
furniture value networks can be taken advantage of to facilitate the improvement of economic rents. This knowledge
compliments the development of comprehensive scenarios for further upgrading of the small-scale furniture
industry in Jepara particularly and rest of the world with similar issues.
Keywords: gender, value chain, small-scale furniture industry, Jepara, upgrading
Nareppa, Nagaraj
Fujita, Koichi
Water Crisis in India: Innovative Approaches and Policy Imperatives for Sustainable Management
of Groundwater Resource
Irrigation has a prime role in Indian agriculture offering food security as 40 percent of the cultivated area is
irrigated and 70 percent of the irrigated area is devoted to food crops to meet the needs of the ever-growing
population. While surface irrigation has been stagnating, groundwater irrigation has been increasing. In 1998,
the groundwater extraction was 38 percent which increased to 58 percent in 2009. Facilitating policies towards
electricity, credit, technological innovations in well exploration, extraction and use, demographic shifts, lucrative
product markets and week groundwater institutions are contributing to overextraction of groundwater. Since
four decades, the groundwater extraction exhibited a trajectory of initial utilization, agrarian boom, growing
scarcity and eventually bust with rapid fall in groundwater table in semi-arid regions in the hard-rock aquifers.
This has forced several marginal and small farmers to shift to dryland agriculture as they could not bear the brunt
of failure of wells increasing economic scarcity of the precious groundwater resource for irrigation.
The ineffective institutions efforts of the governance to contain groundwater overdraft have proved in vain. The
challenge is thus to frame effective institutions focusing on resource management rather than resource development.
As water is indispensable for agriculture and domestic purposes, innovative institutions, technologies of
microirrigation, rainwater harvesting, provision of irrigation management services, and market measures subsuming
n n13
property rights, water entitlements, abstraction limits are crucial. Thus far, supply side of groundwater is being
addressed by the State through schemes such as watershed development, tank rehabilitation, while the demand
side is inadequately dealt. Thus key actions are necessary for demand management on individual and community
basis. The community based approach to regulate groundwater incorporating IWRM is by promoting user groups
with technical support and training involving local government, private sector and the community. Major policy
changes on energy and technical aspects in accurate assessment of groundwater recharge and extraction,
maintenance of isolation distance, quality pumpsets, information dissemination, implementation of the best
practices and appropriate crop pattern are in order. While groundwater management approaches which are
effective in country may not be effective in another country due to variation in type of aquifers, number of users
involved, alternative sources of water and the larger political economy. Thus local solutions with strong R and D
linkages are crucial.
Keywords: groundwater over exploitation, groundwater institutions, property rights, water crisis, sustainability
Narloch, Ulf
Pascual, Unai; Drucker, Adam G.
Social preferences in conservation under external rewards and the role of group heterogeneity
and market orientation: Experimental evidence from the Andes
External reward mechanisms may provide resource users with an incentive to cooperate in common resource
dilemmas so as to conserve that what benefits wider society, such as public ecosystem services. Yet relatively
little is known so far about the extent to which these formal institutions interact with existing social preferences
subject to group heterogeneities and different market contexts. This paper seeks to contribute to filling this
research gap, by building on an impure public goods game incorporating unequal initial resource endowments,
as well as different payment modes, in the context of agrobiodiversity conservation. Field experiments were
conducted with farmers in market orientated communities from Bolivia and subsistence based ones from Peru.
Findings indicate that farmers from commercial orientated backgrounds tend to free-ride on one another, whereas
in subsistence-based communities inequality aversion plays an important role in determining conservation levels.
Further, it is found that in the latter context, where pro-social behaviour is strong, rewards from outside the
community might do more harm than good by spurring free-riding behaviour. Promisingly though, in communities
that have suffered from an erosion of pro-social norms, certain reward systems appear to reverse anti-social
dynamics and thus may contribute to solving conservation problems. These results highlight the importance of
existing social preferences in determining the effectiveness of external rewards and the social costs involved by
such interventions.
Key words: payments for environmental services, cooperation, collective action, public goods game, crop diversity,
Bolivia, Peru
Nastar, Maryam
Islar, Mine;
Decentralization: Resolve Or Hide The Problem? A Comparative Case Study of Water User
Associations in Turkey and India
Governance of common resources such as water calls for rethinking structure, legal frameworks and property
rights. In order to promote the decentralization of water governance, Water User Associations (WUAs) were
n n168 13
created in many countries, such as India and Turkey, to operate and maintain irrigation systems as well as take
over the responsibility of water distribution among water users. Despite progress in these activities, the efficacy
of WUAs in terms of securing water rights for all water users has received criticism in some studies.
By looking at the power dynamics in the process of WUAs’ formation, this paper assesses the performance of
WUAs in Urfa province in Turkey and Andhra Pradesh state in India. This includes a closer look at institutional
arrangements of WUAs in effectively managing the irrigation systems and protecting water user’s access rights.
The result of these case studies is used to explore the underlying problems associated with WUAs in promoting
sustainable water governance in terms of water access and allocation.
Employing a comparative approach, we argue that due to asymmetric power relations in these regions, securing
equal water access and allocation is unlikely to be achievable. In other words, in the absence of a fair process of
decision-making, WUAs will fail to achieve the intended benefits of decentralization policies. This raises the
need to critically assess the premise of structural reforms in the water sector and a careful consideration of the
water governance practices in managing water resources
Keywords: decentralization, water user association; water access, water allocation, powerdynamics
Navaratne, Champa Madhumathi
Unregulated River Sand Mining in Southern Sri Lanka: Actions to Overcome Adverse Impacts
Athukorala, Kusum; Piyadasa, Ranjana
Rapid urbanization, the major cause for sand demand is responsible for unsustainable extraction of sand from
rivers in Sri Lanka. As a result, river beds and banks degradation is happening in all major rivers in Sri Lanka
which cause for lowering the stream flow and for dropping the groundwater table leaving the drinking water
wells on the embankments of these rivers dry. It unkindly affects the water table-dependent vegetation in river
basin areas and increase dry periods. Saline water intrusion into the fresh water body is seen in locations close to
the sea.
As this situation has adversely affected on livelihood, agriculture and natural habitat, the objective of this paper
is to present the activities a women’s volunteer organization, Network of Women Water Professionals (NetWwater)
commenced to overcome the social and the environmental impacts of sand mining in the southern province
river catchments.
Nilwala river in southern Sri Lanka is the major source for domestic and irrigation water in the area.  In the recent
past, water users of Nilwala river experience hard taste of drinking water during dry periods due to sea water
intrusion along the river and a survey conducted by the university indicated that paddy fields near by the river
are becoming fallow.
NetWwater organized awareness programs  linking up with active civil society groups, religious institutions,
water management institutions, enforcement staff, universities and media and made a great effort to influence
decision makers to have a clear sand policy concerning environment, agriculture and livelihood. Research programs
are continued to assess water quality and land degradation in the river and river basin. Water quality improvements
and land reclamation programs will be commenced based on the results.
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Nayak, Prateep Kumar
Lagoon Systems as Platforms for Sharing Knowledge: Social-Ecological Responses to Reduced
Access to Commons, And Dynamic Environmental Changes
This paper takes a broad social-ecological-institutional analysis of lagoon commons using lagoon case studies
from across the globe. Lagoons provide extremely dynamic and changeable environmental arenas in which
people and ecosystems are continually adapting in a highly inter-dependent system. Affected by processes of
erosion and sedimentation, seasonality, and variations in resource abundance and distribution, lagoons are also
susceptible to shocks such as pollution or extreme weather events. As scholars race to understand the implications
of ecosystem change, including climate change, lagoons can provide learning platforms from which to understand
how people cope, or not, with environmental change at its extreme and how governance strategies might support
or erode such adaptation. We illustrate here that lagoon social-ecological systems, and the stresses they face,
have a degree of commonality, and comparability, across different regional contexts. For example, the rotation of
fishing grounds, evolved to achieve fair access amongst fishers, or community action to maintain a lagoon
opening to the sea are just two characteristics common in lagoons worldwide. The trajectories of change, and the
mechanisms that people adopt to live with those changes, are also comparable across different lagoons and are
analysed here in terms of processes of governance, and outcomes for social-ecological resilience. We conclude
by emphasising that what happens in one lagoon is a lesson for another, and yet this cross-fertilization is largely
untapped in current lagoon research.
Keywords: commons, social-ecological, governance, resilience, adaptation, change, lagoon
Neef, Andreas
Schad, Iven; Elstner, Peter
Flood Disasters, Local Commons, Collective Action and Individual Responses: Lessons from the
Thai and Vietnamese Hillsides
Drawing on comparative case studies in flood-affected upland areas of Thailand and Vietnam, this paper explores
the differences between collective and individual responses to disastrous flood events and subsequent mitigation
strategies. Fieldwork was conducted between 2007 and 2009 with a variety of qualitative methods, such as semistructured interviews in flood-affected households, focus group discussions and narrative essays written by local
people. Evidence suggests that farmers’ willingness to engage in flood mitigation is curbed by the common
perception that flooding is caused by a bundle of exogenous factors. In both countries, the majority of upland
farmers did not link the severity of the flood events to existing land use, instead attributing responsibility to
climatic factors and/or water management failures. In the case study from Vietnam, government intervention in
formerly community-based water management has substantially estranged farmers from water governance and
their sense of personal and collective responsibility within it. Their lack of engagement in any flood prevention
strategies could also be explained by the fact that their major cash crop grown on hillside slopes was not affected
by the flood event. In the case study from Thailand, where community-based water management remained
largely unaffected by government influence, villagers agreed in a collective decision-making process to widening
the riverbed after a severe flood, although this meant that some farmers had to give up parts of their paddy fields.
Yet, following a second flood these farmers opened up new upland rice fields in the forested upper watershed
areas to ensure their food security, thus increasing the likelihood of future flood disasters downstream. We
conclude that external actors involved in flood prevention strategies need to be aware of (1) local people’s own
causal explanations of flood events and (2) the potential trade-offs between collective action towards flood
mitigation and individual livelihood strategies.
Keywords: flood response, governance, complex commons, mitigation strategies, mountainous regions
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Nelson, Fred
Decentralization or Recentralization? Institutional Trends in Natural Resource Governance in
East and Southern Africa
Natural resource decentralization measures which aim to strengthen local common property regimes for governing
forests, wildlife, and rangelands have been widespread across eastern and southern Africa during the past two to
three decades. During the 1980s and 1990s, a range of natural resource governance reforms took place, particularly
in southern Africa, which had far-reaching influence on ideas about and practical experiments with communitybased natural resource management. During the past decade, however, the institutional trajectory across much
of the region has changed towards recentralizing authority and tenure over natural resources. These institutional
trends reflect a range of political-economic dynamics characteristic of contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, including:
growing commercial value of lands and resources through transnational trade in timber, wildlife, tourism, and
agriculture; the reconsolidation of centralized patronage networks and closing of democratic space in many
countries following the more reformist post-Cold War and post-apartheid (in southern Africa) periods during the
1990s; and weakened external support to natural resource decentralization or community-based reforms. Even
while contemporary market trends, including new emerging markets linked to climate change such as biofuels
and forest carbon, and regional political structures and incentives drive the reconsolidation of centralized resource
governance regimes, local communities are contesting recentralization through a range of strategies and actions
across the region. These contests over land and resource rights occurring at different scales are critical to the
emergence of local common property regimes and more adaptive governance systems across eastern and southern
Africa, as well as for the broader struggles over citizenship and representation of which they are an important
Keywords: Eastern and Southern Africa, natural resource governance, recentralization, political economy
Neuts, Bart
Determining the External Social Costs of Public Space Crowding: Life in a Tourist Ghetto
It can theoretically be stated that the property rights of a city’s public spaces lie with the local population, making
it a case of common property. The right holders can therefore decide upon proper use and potentially exclude
non-right holders. In reality, however, limiting use rights to public space in the form of exclusion is extremely
difficult to impose and consequently seldom occurs. This results in a situation where the common property runs
the risk of being over-consumed. Nevertheless, in contrast with environmental resources, this overconsumption
will generally not result in a tragedy of the commons where the resource ultimately gets destroyed. Herein lays
the major difference between public space and other sorts of common goods: public space is simultaneously
subtractable and reproducible. The consequences of crowding in public spaces are temporal and intangible, in
the form of utility loss to its users. This temporal aspect of crowding still induces significant societal costs, in the
form of annoyance, loss of life quality or avoidance of the public space altogether. Quantifying these external
costs, with special attention to the case of tourist crowding, will result in improved cost-benefit models and more
adequate development strategies.
Keywords: public space, crowding, externalities, tragedy of the commons, choice experiments, tourism
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Ngcukaitobi, Tembeka
Customary Law as an Incomplete Theory: The Impact of Land Tenure Reform Law
Customary law urgently needs fuller and better theorization. It is over-used, and yet under-theorized. ‘Law’ is
used to qualify ‘custom’. But the concept of law, and that of custom can be seen to conflict. The concept of law
embodies a set of rules by an elected assembly representative of the people, which guide future conduct. It is
dynamic and responsive to changing social practices. Custom on the other hand appears to be the very antithesis
of law. It captures certain human conduct at a particular point in history; it imprisons society in a given
socialframework andultimately fossilizes change.
But when we characterize custom as law, we seek to distinguish it from ‘custom’ traditions, beliefs or practices.
We seek to expose as false the claim often made by contemporaries that customary practices reflect a return to
the Dark Ages. We seek to articulate a fact of living; a fact of being; a reality of life for the more than 20 million
South Africans who observe traditional life in one form or another. Sometimes, the fact of the existence of
different traditional ways of life is presented as a conflict of laws problem. That law is in and of itself an embodiment
of difference is often ignored in this understanding. My thesis is that a polity may encompass different cultures,
beliefs and practices. Some of those practices could well mutate into law. But the character, morality and autonomy
of the law does not change. Nowhere is this better illustrated   than in the case of the South African Constitution.
Many South Africans of African descent follow traditional methods in their everyday business (whether it is use
of traditional medicines or use of communal dispute resolution structures). These traditional methods exist
within an overarching morden legal system of constitutionalism. This co-existence exposes the falsity of the
choice between tradition and modernity. Modernity and tradition are not mutually exclusive. They may exist as
opposites. But customary law provides the point of interpenetration between them. Customary law therefore is
not to be found in ossified codes. It is to be found in people’s practises. In the paper, I use the current disputes
between chiefs and communities over access to land and other resources to expose the false debate, which
obtains in South Africa in the context of the implementation of the Communal Land Rights Act, 2004. In the
debate, chiefs often use the language of custom, tradition and culture as vector to claims of power, privilege and
prestige. Because customary law is incompletely theorized, these claims have gained traction. In this paper, I
begin the search for a complete theory of customary law. If that endeavor cannot be fully accomplished, to begin
it is worthwhile.
Keywords: institutions, governance, land, grazing lands
Nghiem, Thi Hong Nhung
Optimal Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration: A Case Study of Household Forest Owners
and State Enterprises in Yen Bai Province, Vietnam
Carbon sequestration is crucial to cut down global emissions and carbon trading may provide several benefits for
developing countries. This paper seeks to analyse, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the optimal forest
management strategy when carbon has value for planted forests. The Faustmann model was extended to include
carbon sequestration, multiple forest stands and spatial arrangements among forest stands. A direct search algorithm
was used to look for the optimal sets of harvesting. To evaluate the model and get qualitative data, 291 household
forest owners and 4 state enterprises, growing Eucalyptus urophylla and Acacia mangium in Yen Bai province,
Vietnam were interviewed. The survey results show that the actual cutting age is 5 years. However, the model
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suggests that the optimal rotation age is greater than 9 years for both species. Both adding carbon value and
including the spatial arrangement make the rotation age shorter and the net present value higher. The rotation
age of enterprises is shorter but the net present value is much higher than that of households. It is the household
characteristics and silvicultural practices that make these differences. The study draws some policy implications
based on survey analysis and model results.
Keywords: forests, carbon sequestration
Nhantumbo, Isilda
Carbon Credits: A Renewed Opportunity for Securing Resources Rights in Africa
Africa still depends on low input and extensive agriculture. The continent also relies on forests for generating
foreign exchange and more importantly for meeting the energy needs of both the rural and urban populations.
Therefore, the conversation of forests into other land uses is one of the major causes of deforestation. Selective
harvesting of forests is also a common practice which leads to reduction of the commercial value of the forest
and their subsequent conversion. Combating deforestation and degradation of forest resources through
compensation for sustainable forest management ensuing carbon sequestration is a topical discussion on forests
and their role on mitigating climate change. Many countries in Africa have been promoting participatory natural
resources management, having adopted legal instruments to enable security of rights to forest resources by local
communities while only few have legal provisions for security of rights to both land and forests. The latter is the
case of Mozambique. Other countries such as Ghana have strong traditional authorities and customary rights are
not only entrenched in the constitution, but determine the allocation of land resources and revenue sharing. One
peculiarity of the reforms on resources rights in the continent is the focus on devolving resources for development
of enterprises and derivation of economic benefits from the products. The forest services such as conservation of
biodiversity, watershed protection, carbon sequestration are often not valued. This has resulted in an apparent
high opportunity cost of forest conservation by the communities. In view of these, the paper analyses the extent
to which the implementation of the REDD mechanism and carbon payments can reinvigorate participatory
resources management in the continent, add value to resources under community control, contribute to
improvement of the livelihoods and simultaneously enhance mitigation to climate change.
Keywords : rights, products, services, carbon payments
Nirmal, Padini
Understanding Global Knowledge-Dynamics: A Case-Study of NFSC’s Project, Digital Community
Archiving- Does It ‘Protect or Plunder’ the Indigenous Knowledge of the Nari Kurava Community?
The relationship between indigenous knowledge (IK) and intellectual property rights (IPR) is currently mired in
violence and abuse. Whether the marriage of two antithetical worldviews- the one of global capitalism and
therefore IPR, and that of the ‘commons’ and therefore the IK- is sustainable, given the monolithic power of the
former, is a critical question in many minds today. Looking into the particular case of the Digital Community
Archiving project that chronicles the IK of the Nari Kuravar, allows an understanding of the global knowledge
dynamic created when oral, local knowledge is made available publicly for the world on the internet. That this
material is freely available without copyright/patents etc., brings in the IPR dimension, and asks whether IPR is at
all relevant or necessary to protect this knowledge. In this paper, I try to understand the global power dynamics
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that accompany the commercialization of indigenous knowledge, the impact on the intellectual commons where
IK is produced, and further, whether such projects open up a new space for the exploitation of IK while assuming
a democratic, participatory stance.
Keywords: intellectual commons, indigenous knowledge, intellectual property rights, participatory development,
knowledge-power complex
Nkote, Isaac Nabeta
Rational Choice Model: A Collective Action to Managing CPR among the Conflicting Prune
Pastoralists - Farming Communities in Western Uganda
Literature indicates that the rational choice model of human behavior is used in the common pool resources
management. It is argued that social and behavior theories explain better the outcomes of collective action
efforts. For close to 40 year there has been a conflict in the use and management of the CPR between the farming
and pastoralist communities in western Uganda. This conflict is the outcome of the government policies to
reduce the CPR by creating a national park, privatizing the CPR while offering no permanent solution to the local
farming and pastoralist communities to share the remaining limited CPR. The study attempts to explain whether
collective action is possible in CPR management by eliciting information about behavioral aspects of the Basongora
and Bagungu communities. We examine the gap between the beliefs, attitudes and behavior of these two
communities to understanding some of the psychological factors that influence behavior contributes to designing
policies that are more likely to achieve the desired conduct. Is it possible to design community based CPR
management programs that would lead to successful resolution of this conflict? A cross sectional survey design
methodology will be used to examine the behavior questions in this paper and it is expected that the findings
will contribute to decentralized and localization of the management of the CPR to the benefit of the farming and
pastoralist communities.
Keywords: rational choice model, survey, self-management, CPR, conflicts, Uganda
Nortje, Karen
Claassen, Marius; Funke, Nikki; Steyn, Maronel
Understanding the Role of Public Belief Systems in Perceptions of Bio-Physical, Socio-Economic
and Cultural-Spiritual Vulnerabilities through the Use of An Emergent Analytical Framework
The social processes embedded within the ‘thinking’ and ‘doing’ of humans in relation to the use of common
property resources such as the natural environment has been proven to be essential for both a holistic understanding
as well as mutually agreeable solutions. In keeping with this trend, this paper explores how one may better
understand the role of public beliefs systems in perceptions of bio-physical, socio-economic and cultural-spiritual
vulnerabilities through the use of an emergent analytical framework. Conceptually public beliefs systems is a
complex issue as it deals with a variety of factors such as for example different ways of attributing value and
meaning, competing sources and producers of knowledge, and emergent questions regarding issues of truth in
relation to beliefs that are particularly entrenched (be it within a community or an individual). Taking this complexity
in to consideration and combining it with four different LiveDiverse* case study areas (South Africa, India,
Vietnam and Costa Rica), the task becomes almost insurmountable. What this paper proposes is that through the
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use of an emergent analytical framework one can come up with an approach to do this research in a way that not
only produces relevant results but also allows for the inclusion of different voices at multiple levels in order to
find the common ground required for a collective understanding of issues such as poverty alleviation, sustainable
livelihoods and the sustainable use of our natural resources.
*This paper is based on research conducted for the LiveDiverse (Sustainable Livelihoods and Biodiversity in
Developing countries) project funded by the European Union.
Keywords: belief systems, livelihoods and biodiversity, emergent analytical framework, vulnerability
Novo, Paula
Garrido, Alberto; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth
Challenges in Getting Off the Ground the New Nicaraguan Water Law: From Farmer Groups to
Formalized Irrigation Districts?
The Nicaraguan Water Law was passed in September 2007. However, despite all new Water Laws need time to
be implemented, the progress in Nicaragua is meager. It should be noted that Nicaragua’s water sector, especially
in rural areas, is highly informal and mostly based on self-supply and on local water institutions. Regarding
irrigation, the new Water Law considers the development of irrigation districts. In this sense, despite the lack of
formal water users organizations, there are evidences of farmer groups that share and manage common irrigation
systems. Therefore, the objective of this research is to assess the challenges in the formalization process of the
agricultural water sector in a developing country, such as Nicaragua. Since major water-related problems
have already been acknowledged, while the new Water Law still faces a number of barriers that may delay its
implementation, it is essential to identify the socioeconomic, institutional and environmental factors that structure
incentives for becoming involved in a formalization process. The theoretical framework is based on the literature
on collective action, institutional economics and public policy. The empirical focus is given by 4 focus groups
and informative interviews hold in the Upper Rio Viejo Sub-basin in North Nicaragua. The study focuses on (i)
the problems related to agricultural production that farmers face, (ii) how they are organized for irrigation, (iii)
how they perceive public organizations and (iv) the pros and cons of formalizing in irrigation districts. The study
attempts to contribute to the Water Law implementation by analyzing both the impact of the Water Law in
agricultural water managed areas and the cooperative behavior of the different farmer groups in the Upper Rio
Viejo Sub-basin.
Keywords: irrigation, water law, informal organizations, formalization process, Nicaragua
Novo, Paula
Garrido, Alberto
The New Nicaraguan Water Law in Context: Institutions and Challenges for Water Management
and Governance
The Nicaraguan Water Law, enacted in September 2007, is the first attempt to implement a new water law in the
country. This is not an isolated legislative process in Central America, as other countries initiated similar reforms
based on the Dublin principles. Despite all new Water Laws need time to be implemented, the progress in
Nicaragua has been meager. Thus, this paper provides a diagnosis about the Nicaraguan Water Law by identifying
the major factors that may impede or delay its future implementation and enforcement. Based on a multilevel,
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nested framework (Ostrom, 2009), this paper places Nicaraguan water sector reform in the context of institutional
decomposition, transaction cost and political economy literature. Its empirical underpinning is provided by 41
in-depth interviews held by the authors among a sample of representative policy actors and stakeholders. The
results show that the Law potential for solving water conflicts is yet to be seen in practice. Major barriers are
found in the transaction costs of inter-institutional coordination, information gathering, property rights protection
and enforcement and in strategic costs. For example, the institutional remapping grants new roles to old actors,
as well as old roles to new. In addition, sugar-cane mills, rice and coffee lobbies have presence in the parliament
and block the appointment of managers in the newly created institutions. At the root of the problems in Nicaragua
is the inconsistency between advanced water objectives and weak institutions. Based on this, a number of policy
recommendations are drawn with respect to prioritization, sequencing and timing.
Keywords: water institutions, institutional reforms, water law, governance, Nicaragua
Nunan, Fiona
Kirema-Mukasa, Caroline
Property Rights and Regimes: Implications of Managing Capacity through Co-management on
Lake Victoria, East Africa
With concern rising about the declining stock levels of one of the three commercial fisheries of Lake Victoria,
East Africa, in the 2000s, the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (LVFO) embarked on the process of developing
the world’s second Regional Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity. This plan commits the three
Partner States of LVFO, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, to keeping Nile perch fishing capacity to 2006 levels and
harmonizing licensing in relation to target species and capacity variables. The move to greater management of
fishing capacity has taken place within the context of the lake wide introduction of a co-management approach,
with community-based fisheries organizations playing a role in improving compliance with fisheries rules and
regulations and in efforts to manage capacity. Both the introduction of new approaches to the management of
fishing capacity and the co-management approach have potential implications for access to the fisheries and the
nature of the property regime and its governance. The paper identifies these implications and draws on property
regime theory to analyse the nature of the property regime and identify implications of changes in the regime for
livelihoods and sustainability.
Keywords: property rights, property regimes, fishing capacity, co-management, Lake Victoria  
Nusrat,  Rubina
Adaptation and Coexistence of Van Gujjars in the Forests: A Success Story  
The existence of Gujjar pastoral transhumance is one of the best examples of symbiotic relations of these pastoralists
with the forests and sedentary population spread over in the migratory routes. The Muslim Van Gujjars are a
pastoral group living in the foothills of the Uttarakhand Himalaya, are also known as buffalo grazers, follow
transhumance between high altitude alpine meadows and forest foot hills without much diversification of
subsistence strategy. The economy of Van Gujjars is completely based on milk production and supply of milk
products along with the providing genetically well bred progenies of indigenous buffaloes to the hill people of
Uttrakhand. The creation of new state of Uttrakhand, has led to a number of developmental initiatives taken up
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by the state government which includes creation of more roads, a number of dams for harnessing hydel power
and sprouting up of new urban centers. All these have disturbed and disrupted the migration pattern of Van
Gujjars. On the other hand, the initiatives taken up by the state forest department in restricting the entry of Van
Gujjars into their forests has further added to the problems of survival of these pastoralists. The Van Gujjars are
well known for having evolved a resource management practice by utilizing the alpine grazing resources in
summer and migrating to foot hill forests in winter. They also provide their buffalo manure to the small land
holding farmers for their agricultural fields. Besides breeding their own livestock, Van Gujjars also take care of
the animals of other communities, fulfilling the role of village cowherd. Henceforth, Van Gujjars have prooved
themselves very resilient, they have a intact social structures and mechanisms for mutual sharing of resources
with the sedentary population. They also provide ethno veterinary services to the local farmers, and their livestock
also represents an encashable asset. These exchanges are immensely welcomed by the sedentary population.
With increasing international emphasis on the conservation of biodiversity, policies need to be devised out for
the Van Gujjars so that they are able to benefit from recognition of their role in conserving livestock genetic
diversity, promoters of valuable indigenous breeds of buffalo and indigenous knowledge and also about coping
mechanisms from environmental stresses.
Key words: pasturelands, Van Gujjars, Gujarat
Nzunda, Emmanuel F.
Community-Based Forest Management in Tanzania: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and
In developing countries, the failure of the policing model of forest management whereby the central government
protected forest reserves by preventing local communities from using them led to the emergence of Participatory
Forest Management (PFM). In Tanzania PFM takes two main forms: Joint Forest Management (JFM) whereby the
forest is owned by the central government or district council and the local people are involved in conservation
of the forest and; Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) whereby the community is given the right to
own and use the forest that is on the general land. The village is the main basis of community organization in
CBFM. The paper discusses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of CBFM in Tanzania in the light
of the origin and characteristics of villages and governance in the country. A historical account of forest management
is given. Among the strengths are the government structures with strong villages for many years, willingness of
people to participate in CBFM initiatives and village-village collaboration. The fact that the approach is exogenous
both in conception and funding, its poor spiritual basis, inadequacy of technical knowledge at the village level,
inequality in cost and benefit sharing, poor infrastructure and lack of legal documentation of the villages are seen
as weaknesses of CBFM. Opportunities for CBFM include appropriate national policies and international
conventions and funding initiatives for sustainable forest management. Threats to CBFM include land grabbing
for bio-fuel production and other enterprises, conflict of interest with the district and higher-level government
and poor governance. The paper concludes by suggesting the way forward for tapping the strengths and
opportunities of CBFM and addressing its weaknesses and threats.
Keywords: decentralization, devolution, governance, participatory forest management, swot analysis13
Ohno, Tomohiko
New Institutions for Managing watersheds: a Comparative Analysis of Watershed Committees in
This paper uses quantitative empirical analysis to examine the new governance of watersheds in Japan as carried
out by recently created “watershed committees.” Recent literature on the commons emphasizes the importance
of external actors like government authorities, non-profit organizations, and academic experts on the management
of local commons, but we have little knowledge of the new effort to govern watersheds in Japan. Japan’s national
and prefectural governments have established these committees in many watersheds over the last ten years,
based on the River Law as amended in 1997. The goal of these committees is to allow academic experts and
local residents to discuss jointly their plans for river development. While some of these committees have yielded
beneficial output, such as new projects for environmental protection or the establishment of watershed partnership
organizations, in other cases the watershed committees have encountered great difficulty in solving conflicts
among stakeholders. However, these possibilities and limitation of watershed committee has not been carefully
examined. This paper uses a dataset on watershed committees that incorporates measures of socioeconomic
conditions, institutional design of the watershed committees, and the River Development Plan created by the
committees. This paper then classifies their diverse institutional features and analyzes the relationship between
institutions and the output of these committees.
Keywords: Japan, watershed management, new institutions, river development, scientific expertise
Ojha, Hemant R.
The Evolution of Institutions for Cross-scale Interactions in the Management of Commons: The
Case of Community Forest User Groups Federation in Nepal
This paper tells the story of how a nested/cross-scale institution emerged in the management of common pool
forest management in Nepal. The story is about the networking of local level community forest user groups
(CFUGs) into a nation-wide network, known as the Federation of Community Forestry User Groups, Nepal
(FECOFUN). Over the past 15 years of its existence, and with over 15 thousand member CFUGs, FECOFUN has
evolved as a critical bridge between local commons and multi-scalar processes of forest governance, articulating
local voices in different spheres of policy making. In doing so, FECOFUN has also ‘radicalised’ local commons
users beyond fatalistic mindsets, nurtured historically through hierarchical social institutions in Nepal. The evolution
and functioning of FECOFUN was made possible through various factors, such as active leadership, unfolding
democratic political system, and internal crisis into the anti-devolutionary forces, such as techno-bureaucratic
mindset of state forest agencies. The case of FECOFUN shows that, such networking involves tremendous amount
of transaction costs, which tend to be subsided by donors and other non-members, leading to weak internal
accountability of the network. Likewise, when FECOFUN emerged as a significant field of power and influence
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after 2000, it is facing increasingly tough challenges in maintaining fair rules and practices of power and benefit
sharing among the network leaders and activists. Moreover, there is also an increasing tendency of free riding
over the network’s symbolic and economic resources, as institutional rules evolve rather too slowly to regulate
such unethical practices. Notwithstanding these internal weaknesses, FECOFUN continues to have significant
political standing in Nepal’s forest governance. Finally, this paper draws key lessons from FECOFUN as regards
the prospect, challenges and effectiveness of must-scale networking of commons in forest and natural resources
Keywords: cross-scale interactions, commons, Nepal, federation of commons, nested institutions
Okwaro, George Mabaha
Ongugo, Paul Othim; Ngoda, Bernard J.
Institutions, Livelihoods and Forest Dynamics: The Case of Ramogi and Mau Forests in Kenya.
The study investigates the forest condition changes, the spatial patterns of forest dynamics, the causes of forest
condition changes and the influences of those changes on local livelihoods. Landsat satellite imagery of 1985,
1995, and 2005 was used to create single data classifications and a land cover change image depicting the
sequence of changes in forest cover between 1985-1995-2005. The spatial relationships between observed
changes in the forested areas and key economic and institutional factors are then determined.
The results show the rate of forest degradation in Mau forest (transition from close forest to open forest rose
dramatically from 9 % in 1985-1995 period to 28 % 1995-2005 period. Fragmentation and excisions were more
pronounced in the second period. It is observed that rampant forest change occurred in areas located close to
road, near the village, at lower elevations and on more gradual slopes. Ironically relatively low levels of degradation
was recorded in Ramogi forest, which is a semi government forest (legally government forest but with a de facto
control and claim of ownership by local community and / county council.)
The findings are further compared with results from an International   Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) -
Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources Management (SANREM) based study on the forest adjacent
households, association and effects on the forest condition. When compared the mentioned factors relate very
closely and are very much similar.
Keywords: Landsat, remote sensing, spatial and dynamism
Ongugo, Roxventa Anyango
Traditional Forest Use and Institutional Change: Case Study of Loita Community Forest, Narok
South District, Kenya
Traditional forest use and governance have been in practice among pastoralist communities for some decades
now. Traditional forest governance is practiced in forests which are owned by homogeneous communities such
as Masai in Kenya. The Masai community lives adjacent to Loita forest in Narok South district and Mukogodo
forest in Laikipia district of Kenya. This paper focuses on the Masai community living adjacent to the Loita forest. 
Since time in memorial, the Masai community living adjacent to Loita forest has relied on the forest for their
livelihoods. They use the forest for initiations, as shrines and grazing.  Historically, entry into the forest was
subject to permission from the Oloibon (a traditional community leader) but with time, this responsibility has
since been transferred to Village Elders.  The forest governance structure was therefore based on the traditional
leadership. The objective of the study was to analyze how the Loita Masai community used to control the use of
the forest resource and document how the community governance structure has changed over time and how the
change has affected the management of the Loita forest.
Household survey and participatory rural appraisal tools were used to collect data form households living within
five Kilometers from the edge of the forest. Analysis of the data was done using a SPSS program. Findings from
the study were presented using simple statistics.  Statistical tests (two tailed t-test and chi square) indicate that
traditional forest use and institutional change have a significant effect on the condition of the forest.  
Findings further show that despite the tough rules governing the utilization of the forest, institutional change
coupled with change in lifestyle from pastoralism to sedentary have negative effects on the condition of the
Keywords: Oloibon, traditional uses, pastoralism, morans and institutions.
Ongungo, Paul
Okwaro, George; Kimani, Samuel
Forests, Communities and Urban Markets: Can They Co-Exist in a Devolved Structure
Despite the forest being such an important resource base, Kenya has experienced a major decrease in forest
cover and forestland degradation, especially over the last three decades. Ultimately, Kenya’s forest cover has
been reduced to 1.7% of the total national land mass, having decreased from about 2.0% in the early 1990s. The
current coverage is very low as compared to the globally recommended 10%.
The pressure and degradation on the forests have mainly been attributed to many factors including illegal logging,
encroachment on forest land for farming and charcoal burning. It has been suggested that these activities are
largely being carried out by forest adjacent communities struggling to eke a living from the forests. This is a
contraction from what policy statements andnew legislativeframeworks have suggested.
In an attempt to understand the link between forest condition and the activities of the forest adjacent communities,
and how these are influenced by market opportunities; a study was carried out on four out of the eight forests
where activities of the Institutional and Livelihoods Change in East African Landscapes (IFLEA) project was
implemented. The four forests were selected based on their close proximity to urban areas of Nairobi (Aberdare),
Kisumu (Ramogi), Naivasha (Eburru); and Malindi (Arabuko-Sokoke) with large market opportunities. Communities
who live adjacent to these forests participate in forest management through Community Forest Associations
(CFAs). Studies were carried out using the International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) research protocol.
The forest, distance to closest major market, major products sold where used as independent variables while
being members of a forest association and activities carried out in the forest to improve the forest were the
dependent variables.
Results show that ready markets in urban and peri urban areas for firewood, poles and charcoal attract non
adjacent actors into the forests. There is therefore urgent need to look at the fundamental causes of the pressure
on forests, turn the threats by the adjacent forest dwellers into sustainable livelihood opportunities as well as
institutionalize the relationships and linkages of the various actors in the forestry sector under the emerging
policy and regulatory framework. This provides an entry point for adjacent communities, private sector and
other actors to engage more formally with the forestry sector.
Keywords: devolution, degradation, community, markets, forest
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Ortiz, Gabriela
Merino, Leticia
Commons Theory and Collective Forest Property in Mexico: When formal recognition of local
rights is important, but not enough
Collective action theory and “the commons approach” are particularly relevant for Mexico the first country in the
world where collective property was recognized by the national estate. Through an extended Agrarian Reform
implemented from the 1930 to the 1980, today s more than 60% of the country is owned by communities.
Collective tenure is particularly important in forest regions where it accounts for more than 70% of the lands, on
the other hand 90% of communal lands are forested.
During the last thirty years collective property and communities´ social capital have sustained the arousal of
numerous community forest enterprises producers of timber, resin, bottled water; providers of ecological and
recreational services. Where this process has taken place community members have incentives to invest in
sustainability, take part in collective action required by forest management and local governance, while local
institutions and social capital have also strengthened. Successful forest community enterprises in Mexico are
clear examples of the key impacts of the official recognition of property rights to local communities on the
sustainability of the commons.
Nevertheless these cases only account for less than 20% of the common forests in Mexico, the rest of them face
a wide range of problems such as land use change, forest fires, illegal logging, illegal cropping and intense out
migration. We propose that historically and today the incomplete “devolution” or recognition of property rights
has been a critical factor of this failure. More often than not communities receive formal rights, but the federal
government kept management and even use rights in forests under vans (once more nearly 50% of the forestland
of the country), or where logging concessions were granted to outsiders (the other half). Even today more than
20% of Mexico´ s forests are placed within the borders of protected areas where communities have lost means
for livelihoods and have little say in the governance of the territories.
The lack of nestedness among the central government actions and the local
Efforts have impeded the development of appropriate rules, and effective monitoring and sanctioning in most of
Mexico´ s forest areas. We argue that full recognition of local rights and strengthening of local productive and
institutional capacities should be considered central axes of policies that aim to contribute to the sustainability
and resilience of forest commons
Keywords: institutions, governance, forests, property rights, social capital
Osumba, Purity Adhiambo
Ongugo, Roxventa Anyango; Njagi, Esther Wanjue; Owich, Vienna
Pay Back Anticipation: A Driving Force in Communities Participation to Forest Management.
Participatory forest management is recognized as a more feasible approach to sustainable management of forests
as it has a hub for livelihood improvement and forest conservation through the participation of local communities.  
Community forest associations are used as entry points for individuals to undertake management activities within
a certain forest station or jurisdiction.
Data was collected in Mau and Kakamega forests using IFRI /SANREM (www.umich.edu/-ifri) methods to analyze
economic and ecological factors influencing community participation in management.  Results indicate that
Londiani Community Forest Association (LOCOFA) in Mau forest and Muileshi in Kakamega forest show high
dependence on forests by these groups. Results also show that payback/remuneration gained from the forests has
a significant correlation with community participation.  The findings further revealed that participation of
communities in forest management practices is limited to protection activities but with little elements of other
silvilcultural practices.   The community has therefore lost the sense of responsibility, ownership and in return it
has lowered the community’s anticipation of returns for their activities.
The paper concludes that value addition to forest products; marketing and incentives by the government could
strengthen the CFA’S and contribute towards their participation in forest management
Keywords: community participation, pay back, marketing
Otto-Banaszak, Ilona
Matczak ,Piotr; Wesseler, Justus; Wechsung, Frank
The Role of Shared Mental Models for Adaptation Policies: The Results of Expert Interviews
The objective of this article is to explore the differences in perception of the adaptation to climate change among
representatives of different stakeholder groups. We refer to the notion of mental models that are internal mental
constructions interpreting and structuring the environment. We explore similarities and dissimilarities in
prescriptions for how to adapt and how to govern adaptation across major groups of stakeholders involved in
development of adaptation policy. The paper analyzes qualitatively in-depth interviews recorded with 31 European
experts in the area of adaptation policy to extreme weather events such as floods, heat waves, and droughts. The
experts were selected to represent three groups: scientists, policy makers, and practitioners, in sectors such as
agriculture, urban planning, and tourism.
The results suggest that although promising adaptation measures exist, they are often not implemented due to
differences in stakeholders’ mental models and different perceptions of how to adapt. The administration
responsible for adaptation tends to stick to the traditionally used engineering approach and believes in structural
measures. Scientists tend to view the challenges of climate change in terms of overall adaptation of society or
different sectors. Policy makers and practitioners think and operate more in terms of costs, benefits, development,
and wealth. Our study also reports geographical differences in adaptation policies. For example, in Eastern
European societies, shared mental models that assume solidarity of taxpayers and responsibility of the state
hinder development of autonomous and private adaptation based for example on insurance instruments.
Keywords: mental models, adaptation, stakeholders, uncertainties
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Pacheco, Pablo
Land tenure, forest and political reforms: A look at their implications for common-property
forests in lowland Bolivia
Forest commons adopt diverse forms, embrace a disparity of populations (e.g., indigenous people and forest
dependent smallholders), and develop under disparate institutional arrangements. The emerging social and
political claims evolved around the formalization of tenure rights, and devolution of decision-making powers.
While these claims have been acknowledged in the legal and institutional frameworks, particularly after the
approval of a new national constitution, their expected outcomes for enhancing people’s livelihoods and forest
conservation will be difficult to achieve in practice since there is still a need to align the land and forest policy
with the incentive systems shaping forest resources use in the commons. Uneven social structures and market
powers tend to take the economic benefits away from local forest users, and weak local authority systems as well
as resistance from state to promote self-regulation make difficult to achieve local territorial governance. This
paper assesses two cases under which local communities are struggling to benefit from their forest resources
under differentiated contextual political and market conditions. I argue that greater attention has to be placed on
understanding the disparate outcomes resulting from policy responses in their attempts to address local social
needs, and suggest some policy options to align the land and forest policy reform with the economic incentives
in the context of multi-level autonomies.
Key words: Bolivia, forest reform, forest management, local autonomies
Palanisami, Kuppannan
Koppen, Barbara; Giordano, Mark
Enhancing Tank Multiple Uses for Improved Livelihood Opportunities in Rural India
Irrigation tanks in India are common property resources. In South India, tank irrigation has a millennial history,
and many currently used tanks were constructed centuries ago. Some 8.5 million small and marginal farmers
who own less than 0.4 hectare account for about 80 percent of the tank irrigated area and produce about 5
million tons of rice per year. Of the 3.2 million hectares of tank irrigated area in India, the three southern states
of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu account for about 60 percent. The performance of tank irrigation
has generally declined in recent decades and rehabilitation is often no longer economic when irrigation benefits
alone are considered.
However, tanks provide not only irrigation, but also other services including those related to trees, fishing,
domestic water supply, livestock, and silt for fields. This paper examines tank performance taking into account
these multiple uses based on an empirical study of 80 tanks in Tamil Nadu, South India. In order to see the
changes in the nature and magnitude of multiple uses from these tanks data from 1993 and 2008  are compared.
The results indicate that the inclusion of these additional multiple uses enhance the total monetary value of
output from tanks from 13 to 20 percent over irrigation value alone and increase the total revenue mobilized
from tanks by 200- 240 percent. Failure to recognize these values will result in underinvestment in modernization
by both community and government agencies. Policies relating to revenue collection from the multiple uses and
reinvesting them in the tanks need attention, along with ways of addressing the challenges of managing a multiuse commons, including involvement of multiple types of stakeholders (including irrigators, fishers, etc.)
Keywords: tanks, water, irrigation, common property resource, India
Palmer, Lynn C
Smith, Peggy Anne; Shahi, Chander
Towards New Institutional Arrangements for Managing Forest Commons in Northwestern Ontario:
First Nation and Municipal Partnerships
The forest industry has been the backbone of local economies in many remote locations in Canada. While this
industry, which has focused on commodity products such as pulp, paper and lumber, thrived until the early part
of this century, in recent years it has faced a major downturn that has resulted in extensive mill closures and
unprecedented job losses to forest industry workers. Although municipalities that once benefited from the forest
industry through employment and taxation are now experiencing negative social and economic impacts, Indigenous
(First Nation) communities have generally been marginalized and received little benefit from the forest industry
throughout its duration. This study examines the emergence of new institutional arrangements for the management
of forest commons in northwestern Ontario (NWO) as an approach to improve the resilience of the communities
that inhabit this vast boreal forest region. These arrangements involve new partnerships between forest-based
municipalities and Indigenous communities to manage public forest lands. Communities throughout the region
are promoting implementation of these new arrangements under a forest tenure system that is undergoing reform
by the province as an approach to address the faltering sector. The study utilizes both qualitative and quantitative
approaches based on semi-structured interviews with participants from 9 municipalities and 20 First Nation
communities throughout NWO. The study participants include community leaders (mayors, chiefs, council) and
key informants familiar with the forestry situation (former loggers and mill workers, lands and resources staff, and
economic development officers). The role of government in responding to community interest in implementing
new partnerships is also examined. The study results have been used to formulate policy recommendations to
develop a long-term economic vision to support sustainable local communities and the forest ecosystems that
they depend on.
Keywords: institutions, forests, community economic development, partnerships, forest-dependent communities
Parlee, Brenda
Angela, Angell
Deconstructing The ‘Wicked Nature’ Of Unmanaged Recreational Land Use In A Rapid Resource
Development Context: A Case-Study In Northeastern, Alberta, Canada
The oil sands region of northern Alberta Canada has fundamentally transformed both the natural resources of this
boreal region and access by local users. While much attention has been paid to the footprint of oil sands mining
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itself, this research focuses on those small areas of land in between development projects (structures and lease
areas) which are valued and used for unregulated traditional and recreational use. In addition to a large indigenous
population who have legal rights to these areas for ‘traditional use’, the region is increasingly characterized by a
growing population of residents who seek to use the high-paying resource sector jobs; significant environmental
degradation due to oilsands mining; a diverse mix of recreational land users (e.g., long-timers, newcomers; highimpact users, low-impact users); high uncertainty with respect to land user access; and, not surprisingly, recreational
land use conflict. Moreover, the type of recreational land use conflict within this setting matches the criteria of a
‘wicked problem’; that is, a problem which involves a high diversity of stakeholders, is ill-defined, value-driven,
and lacks consensus on solutions. Based on 25 qualitative interviews with recreational land users and state land
managers, this paper examines: 1) the ways in which different types of recreational land users perceive their
recreational activities in relation to the surrounding landscape; and 2) how these perceptions shape the nature of
recreational land use conflicts. To conclude, the authors discuss the important policy implications these findings
have for the state in addressing these ‘wicked problems’.
Keywords: qualitative interviews, Canada, mining, forests, all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use
Parr, Adrian
The Commercialization of Common-Pool Resources
Elinor Ostrom has made an important distinction between common-pool resources (CPR) and public goods,
arguing the former is a subtractable resource whilst the latter is not. How we consume common-pool resources,
such as fresh water, is becoming an increasingly contentious issue as the negative effects of climate change
impact the supply of freshwater resources. Ostrom argues that common resource management is an effective
way to limit the use and over-exploitation of such resources. The idea is becoming especially useful as water
distribution is increasingly politicized. However, the problem, that will be the focus of this paper, is whether or
not common resource management is being garnered in support of the privatization of common-pool resources?
The subsequent problem this raises is how the notion of ‘collective ownership’ might counter the commercialization
of common-pool resources? Studying the privatization of water, this paper will examine the connection between
privatization and the management of common-pool resources with a view to expanding the discourse over how
to fairly and equitably access common-pool resources.
Keywords: common-pool resources, public goods, water, privatization, equity
Parthasarathi, Vibodh
Advocacy on Knowledge Commons – Framing Information, Institutions, Infrastructure
Some new technologies enable the capture of hitherto free and open public goods . This drastically alters the
nature of the resource, as any technological capture of information/expression does; the resource gets transformed
from a non-rivalrous, non-exclusionary public good into a common-pool resource (that needs to be managed,
monitored, and protected, to ensure sustainability and preservation) or a private resource. But other kinds of new
technologies enable the dissemination/sharing of what were private or restricted goods. Distinct as this is, this
too fundamentally alters the nature of the resource; the proprietary nature of the resource gets transformed (not
eroded, always) into common property, which is conditionallynon-rivalrousand non-exclusionary.
We may reasonably hypothesise that KC advocacy in India has germinated from two concerns that stem from the
advent of these two kinds of technologies (often, it is the same technology!): that of enclosure and of inclusiveness,
respectively. The narrative of enclosure, tempered by the ability of new technologies to “capture”/embody resources
that were previously “unowned, unmanaged, and thus, unprotected” , is one of privatization and commodification
(i.e. justice in the regime of capture). On the other hand, the narrative of inclusiveness is constituted of Openness
(Access, Formats, Source), interoperability, open innovation, scholarly networks, voluntary associations, and
collective action (i.e. the right to benefit from disembodiment).
A critical survey of Advocacy trends on and around the idea of New Commons in India would be a fruitful
exercise. Who is initiating & invoking these debates? What are the varied ideas of Commons & NC that underlie
them? What are the kinds of stakeholdership reflected in these debates? What kind of relations do they have, and
advocate, between actors of NC and the state? Is advocacy framed in terms of reform, justice or rights? What is
identified as the ‘resource’ in NC advocacy-viz. information, institutional arrangements or infrastructure?
Keywords: new commons, open access
Parthasarathy, Devanathan
Hunters, Gatherers and Foragers in a Metropolis: Commonizing the Private and Public in Mumbai
Mumbai is the commercial and financial capital of India, and is the densest and most populated city. With a
culture of enterprise and abundant opportunities for upward mobility and livelihoods, the city also is home to a
large population of migrants with insecure livelihoods. This paper addresses the incongruity of the presence of a
large number of hunters, gatherers, and foragers in a metropolitan city on the way to becoming a ‘global city’
through large scale urban restructuring, infrastructure upgradation, and financialization of the economy.
Mumbai has a large number of groups eking out subsistence livelihoods through hunting, gathering, and foraging
in the city’s semi-wilderness areas owned largely by private or public entities. These livelihoods are permanent
or seasonal sources of income for a range of native and migrant households interlinked by relations of ethnicity,
class, and exchange. While fishing in many of the city’s municipal controlled lakes is the main livelihood for the
increasingly marginalized Koli fishers, people of other communities join in hunting for fresh water fish and crabs
during the monsoons in streams flowing into the lakes or the sea. Pig hunting in garbage dumps is practiced by
the Pardhi community, while gathering of fruits, edible leaves, and festival specific flowers and leaves is a
seasonal livelihood for many. Apart from foraging for fuelwood and grass, other kinds of foragers include ragpickers, and those who scavenge sites of building and slum demolitions for stones, tiles, wood, and other items
that can be recycled, refashioned, and resold. Most of these sites of hunting, gathering, and foraging belong to
private or government entities, and these activities are essentially ‘illegal’ involving paying bribes to diverse
‘gatekeepers’. The process of turning private and public lands into commons entails a complex web of interactions
and outcomes involving livelihoods, ethnicity, class, migration, seasonality, and exclusion - yielding an
understanding of a very different, sub-terranean aspect of Mumbai’s economy and social structure.
Keywords: urban commons, gathering, foraging, livelihoods
Pasquier, Ayari Genevieve
Out-Migration, Local Governance and Collective Action in Southern Mexico
Since the 1940s, communal property systems in rural areas in Mexico have become widespread due to an
extensive Agrarian Reform. Despite this, collective property rights have not been enough to bring communities
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the development they crave. For more than 20 years, Mexican rural regions have faced a profound economic
crisis, with many communities mired in poverty, low productivity and young families left landless.
Out-migration has been a response to this reality – a process that impacts the lives of individuals, families and
communities through changes to local governance and commons management. Yet it is a heterogeneous
phenomenon with different patterns and sets of impacts. Based on a study of 30 communities in the states of
Oaxaca and Guerrero in southern Mexico, my research analyses the diverse impact of temporary family outmigration to the agricultural fields of Northern Mexico and longer-term individual migration to the United States,
based on three interrelated aspects: (i) family livelihood and resilience; (ii) traditional spaces and practices of
local governance; and, (iii) communities´ capacity to face collective action dilemmas (the construction of new
rules, credibility of commitments acquired by community members and the monitoring of compliance). The
large sample size allows me to enrich analysis with a variety of contexts exhibiting diverse levels and types of
social and natural capital.
This work is the result of a collaborative research project carried out by a team from the National Autonomous
University of Mexico (UNAM), four inter-community associations and two NGOs. Our work relies on a mixed
methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative approaches.
Keywords: local governance, collective action, out-migration, poverty, rural communities, Mexico.
Pathak, Jharna Kalind
Poverty Alleviation through Fisheries Management: An Analysis of Fishing Cooperative Practice
in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh
Fish is the key asset on which the poor build their livelihoods. This is truer for tribal fishermen who have been
displaced due to construction of large scale irrigation projects and have been given the right to fish in the
reservoir. In the absence of appropriate institutional mechanism poverty and natural resource become interlinked
in a manner with one exacerbating the other. In this regards, appropriate property right regimes are considered
vital both for addressing the problem of resource degradation and alleviation of absolute poverty. Based on this
conceptual framework the fisheries Cooperative (FC) has been practiced in Ukai and Gandhisagar, large scale
irrigation project in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh respectively. This study aims to examine through quantitative
evidence how far the programme has been successful in reducing poverty incidence among participating FC
households. The study also aims to analyze the exogenous factors determining fish output using a household
production function under imperfect market condition. The study also aims to study positive changes in socioeconomic indicators among FC’s. The results of this study will provide policy makers with important insights on
management of degraded fish resource for poverty alleviation. If proved successful, this innovative experiment of
Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh can provide valuable lessons to countries facing similar resource degradation and
poverty problems.
Keywords: Fishing cooperatives, Ukai Irrigation Project, Gujarat, Gandhisagar Irrigation Project, Madhya Pradesh,
poverty, community based management
Pathak, Neema
Community Based Conservation of the Commons in India
India is witnessing a slow but definite revival of community based management and governance of the commons.
As is well known, considerable parts of the Indian landscape and seascape were historically managed by
communities (even when formally in the hands of rulers). However through the colonial phase and subsequent
to independence, communities were systematically deprived of their role in such governance, and most of
commons (other than in parts of north-east India) became state-governed, and increasingly now privately governed.
Over the last few decades, however, communities are regaining their control over forests, wetlands, coastal
areas, grasslands, and other commons, both through de facto means and more recently through de jure means.
Part of this is the phenomenon of Community Conserved Areas (CCAs), areas with natural or semi-natural
ecosystems that are being managed voluntarily by communities, through an incredible diversity of institutional
structures, rules and customs, and for a variety of reasons. There are also some early steps towards making
government managed protected areas (PAs) more participatory. Recent legislation relating to forests and wildlife
has also provided greater opportunity to provide legal backing to these initiatives. All this points to the possibility
of much greater community-based governance of the commons in the future.
Keywords: Conservation, Community Conserved Areas, livelihoods, Institutions, governance, sustainability,
Patil, Vikram Shivanagouda
Mysore, Chandrakanth Gangadhariah; N, Gangadharappa R.
Decentralized Natural Resource Management: Equity Impacts on Groundwater Recharge Through
JFPM in India
This study evaluates the economic impact of Joint Forest Planning and Management (JFPM), an institutional
innovation focusing on decentralization in planning process. This enabled to manage forests and water at local
level through collective action of Karnataka Forest Department for groundwater recharge in rainfed dry belt of
Karnataka, India. The impacts on productivity, wage income, income generating activities and equity in distribution
in Chitradurga and Davanagere districts, Karnataka, India are analyzed. Field data were collected for 2008 from
the population of all the participating farmers possessing irrigation wells in JFPM + Watershed village (Bandekatte,
Molakalmur taluk); JFPM village (Adavimallapur, Harapanhalli taluk); Watershed village (Hirehalli) and the Control
village - Eigalbasapur (without JFPM / Watershed).
The net return per acre, net return per acre inch of groundwater and net return per rupee of irrigation water were
respectively Rs.5709, Rs.413, Rs. 3.26 in JFPM + Watershed village, Rs.43978, Rs. 1716, Rs.8.42  in JFPM
village, Rs. 8060, Rs.675, Rs.3.05 in Watershed village and Rs. 3369, Rs.247, Rs.1.04 in Control village.
Conspicuously when open / dug wells are a failure all over the State, in this are, due to JFPM all such wells
became functional yielding net return per acre, net return per acre inch of groundwater and net return per rupee
of irrigation water of Rs.76740, Rs.1738 and Rs.11.30 respectively. Thus, collective action of the village community
through JFPM is cost effective, remunerative and equitable in improving the groundwater recharge in dug wells
which had/have become an archaic technology due to advent of deep borewells. The results tested significant
using ANOVA. There were also gender impacts as in JFPM + Watershed village, 46 women benefited from
employment realizing return of Rs.2400 per capita per year and in JFPM village, 16 women benefited
Keywords: JFPM, groundwater recharge, decentralization, watershed, rainfed area
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Patnaik, Sanjoy
Commons and Individuals: Is the Forest Rights Act Changing the Debate on Forest Commons?
Common property discourse in India since the 1960s primarily focused around individualization and
encroachment. While individualization of commons is widely perceived as an investment and a settled issue,
encroachment by nature has mostly been tentative, temporary and runs the risk of attracting enforcement of
relevant laws. Though perceived to be essentially the same, there is a subtle difference between the two. While
all individualizations can be seen as essentially encroachments, all encroachments are not individualizations.
Encroachment would be more commonly linked to survival whereas individualization could be perceived as
accumulation. Therefore, this fine distinction by default brings in the debate of rich and poor who are responsible
for its constant and consistent erosion, besides, the players responsible – both state and non-state, institutional
governance, governing laws and designs. 
Post Forest Rights Act 2006, the ‘individualization of commons’ debate, however, has opened up new windows.
While ‘community forest resource’- a common resource to protect where communities had traditional access
and community forest rights’ – a statutory right to various commons which have been preexisting are much
neglected subjects in the implementation of FRA for very obvious reasons of further loss of control over forests,
the new menace of recognizing less forestland than what claimants have applied under individual rights is
bringing in a different angle to the earlier ‘commons’ debate. Since in the remaining claimed forestland (earlier
under individual use) legally forest land use would continue, smart thinking has been to design community
based farm forestry programmes to pull out and establish a ‘common’ out of an erstwhile individual land to
continue ‘negotiated’ control. This newly formed artificial ‘common’ will serve as a buffer between individual
rights and the traditional commons, where the implications could be; traditional commons will continue to be
restrictive with continued institutional uncertainty for communities, possible shift of control and livelihoods
debates to the newly formed commons, etc. 
The FGLG India, a group of multi-sectoral professionals including, foresters, forestry management professionals,
lawyers, social scientist, community forestry specialists and activists among others who are also a larger part of
the FGLG International proposes to have a panel discussion on this very pertinent theme that is also manifesting
itself in various shades around the country with different tenure systems in the various parts of the country. FGLG
India has been engaged in the Community Forest Rights and Community Forest Resource debate and have been
advocating for recognition of such rights as well as resource for tribal and other forest dependent communities
since the enactment of the law. In fact some members of FGLG India have been part of the Drafting Committee
of the FRA as well as the Rules.
Keywords: Community Forest Resource, Forest Rights Act
Patrick, Eric
Hay-Edie, Terence
Resource Rights, Landscape Designations and Empowerment: Transformations in the Relationship
Between Communities and Conservation
We present a discussion and critical review of a suite of diverse conservation designations which conceptualize
the roles, rights and responsibilities of local peoples. This paper examines arguments for and evidence related to
various categories of designation in terms of both their strict environmental objectives and broader development
outcomes. We examine in particular the value of the IUCN protected area matrix, which considers both governance
and management criteria, as a framework for exploring the diverse interactions between communitiesand
conservation initiatives.
The extensive documentation of government conservation areas has given formal protected areas great visibility.
In contrast, the relatively poor recorded accounts of community and private reserves, both ancient and
contemporary, has limited their recognition.
Parallel to IUCN’s quest to reconceptualize protected areas, diverse institutions have proposed new designations
in response to a growing awareness of the need to balance human livelihoods with conservation efforts and to
embrace the complexities of socio-ecological systems. Emergent labels including the FAO Globally Important
Agricultural Heritage Systems, “Satoyama-like” socio-ecological landscapes, and forest areas safeguarded under
efforts towards Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) have joined established
landscape desifgnation categories such as UNESCO-recognised Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage Cultural
Indigenous and local communities, typically in collaboration with non-government organizations, have also
begun to designate their own protected areas as Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas (ICCAs), Indigenous
Biocultural Territories (IBTs), Tribal Parks and other sui generis categories.
Keywords: Institutions, indigenous knowledge, conservation, resource rights
Pattnaik, Sudhir
Mishra, Banikanta; Debendra, Sahoo
Sukinda Pata: A Case-Study on Changing Perspectives of Commons and Commons Management
due to Industrialization in Odisha
Sukinda Pata is a village located in the south-eastern part of Kalinga Nagar, the proposed steel-hub of Odisha that
witnessed the death of twelve tribals and one policeman on 2 January 2006 in the wake of protest by local
people against commencement of construction work by Tata Steel and generally against reckless industrialization
in the area that was attempting to throw them out of their land. Jindal Stainless Steel, which has a plant in Kalinga
Nagar, was planning to set up an ash pond in Sukinda Pata for its 500 megawatt power-plant around that hub.
The proposed ash-pond was expected to displace of livelihood 40,000 farmers as well as 5,000 traditional
fishermen dependent on nearby rivers. Sukinda Pata has not only 6,500 acres of fertile land where multi-cropping
is done, it is also rich in bio-diversity and a glorious example of sustainable living. This paper would analyze the
pre-industrialization and post-industrialization economics of the locality, possibly using some statistical tools. It
would also analyze, with the help of a survey, whether and how the attitude of the local people towards livelihood
and environment has changed due to the proposed industrialization. We would extend these findings to come
up with some general hypotheses regarding commons and especially management of commons by local
communities as well as outside governmental and non-governmental entities (like private firms). This would, we
hope, throw some light on the effect of activities in “invisible commons” (like, say, mines) on “visible commons”
(like forests and rivers).
Keywords: Sukinda Pata, biodiversity, ash pond, agriculture, industrilization
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Paudel, Naya
From Fuelwood Production to Carbon Sink: Changing Notions of Commons in Nepal’s Community
This paper describes and analyses the complexities of governing the forest commons in the face of emerging
forest-climate debates. In particular, it analyses changing perceptions of tenure security and identifies legal and
institutional challenges in defining and securing community rights over forest carbon. Within the discourse of
climate change in Nepal, forests are being narrowly understood as ‘carbon sinks’ and are becoming global
commons. Consequently, actors beyond local communities are putting forward their concerns over forest
management policies and practices. For their part, local communities now have increasing responsibilities to
meet global standards for sustainable forest management.
The paper builds on the study of forest tenure dynamics in community forestry in Nepal in light of the emerging
debate around forest carbon ownership. Current regulatory and institutional frameworks are designed to recognise
community rights over forest products. Emerging discourses of climate change have contributed to increasing
public awareness of the role of forests in mitigating climate threats. Currently the government is preparing to
implement ‘Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation’ (REDD) with support from the World Bank’s
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). As a result the prospect of carbon trade has increased and debates over
forest carbon ownership have intensified, particularly regarding community carbon rights.
The emerging debate on forest carbon has huge implications for the legal, regulatory and institutional arrangements
for managing Nepal’s forest commons. Are the existing laws and institutions adequate? Are they appropriate for
addressing this additional complexity of forest commons and still continuing to provide a legitimate framework
for securing community rights? What are the implications for theories of commons that focus more on local,
place-based management units and less on the interface with external actors and forces? Based on Nepal’s long
experience in community forestry, the paper examines these questions and identifies areas of further enquiry.
Keywords: community forestry, forest-carbon, tenure, climate change, Nepal
Paul, Anita
Paul, Kalyan
Forests and Water: Securing a Balance in Mountain Ecosystems
The prevalent perspective, for over a century, of viewing forests as an economic resource of the state has been
the single most important reason for creating the ‘tragedy of the commons’. Economic growth at the cost of
ecological security has led to the impoverishment of marginal mountain farmers who have been dependent
upon forests as support areas for sustainable livelihoods.
The loss or lack of title to environmental assets is an additional component of poverty, leading to the conclusion
that environmental conservation is actually a necessary fundamental to poverty alleviation. Concepts like
sustainable mountain development are more like a mirage in the desert unless forest ecosystems are restored for
adequate hydrological and nutrient recycling functions.
This case study is anchored in a typical languishing river basin in the central Himalaya of India and discusses the
urgency of viewing Water as an essential ecosystem service of Forests. It attempts to bring together the field
experiences of community-driven strategies for renewal of the hydrological cycle in the river basin and their
quest for restoring a fresh balance in their lives, in times of climate change.
While doing so, the paper highlights:
• the interface between man and nature as a necessary condition for survival of mountain farming systems
• reduction of forest cover and its impact upon food security and quality of life of millions of mountainpeople
and, finally, discusses the need for galvanization of marginalized communities to form appropriate institutional
structures at the grassroots, based on the experience of self help groups of women at the hamlets, creation of
a dynamic basin-level federation and a multi stakeholderplatform.
It is envisaged that this case study - action on the ground - would lead to an effective debate regarding the need
to forge a coalition at the global level, with the aim of highlighting the role of Commons in Sustainable
Keywords: tragedy of the Commons, ecological security, community-driven strategies, sustainable development,
climate change
Paumgarten, Fiona
The Role of NTFPs in Coping with Crop Shortfalls and Loss in Two Villages in South Africa
Rural households in the developing world are subjected to a range of risks, shocks and trends that impact on the
bio-physical, social and economic environments in which they exist and that together constitute their vulnerability
context. For many households living in South Africa’s rural areas, extreme livelihood insecurity and vulnerability
persists to which household may employ a range of coping strategies.  
This study forms a part of a broader one, which considered the range of risks to which rural households in two
South Africa villages are vulnerable. The study considered the manner in which households respond to such
risks. The results presented here focus specifically on land-based crises namely seasonal crop shortfalls and loss
of/damage to crops. Household wealth and gender of the de jure household head were selected as characteristics
for comparison. Although a range of coping strategies is considered, the particular focus is on the rural safety-net
function of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as there is limited empirical evidence of this. The research included
participatory rural appraisal as well as semi-structure interviews. The research considered a two year period. 
Forty-five percent of households reported seasonal crop shortfalls while 43% reported crop loss/damage.
Households turned to NTFPs in response to both however this was not the most prevalent strategy. During
discussions respondents noted a range of advantages and disadvantages to the rural safety-net function of NTFPs
which manifested predominantly in the sale and use of fuelwood and wild edible herbs. The more anticipated
nature of seasonal crop shortfalls as opposed to incidences that resulted in complete crop loss, allows for more
adaptive strategies.
In light of evidence that NTFPs contribute to livelihood security, access to and maintenance of this resource base
must not be undermined unless alternatives are provided. The findings provide lessons for climate change
adaptation discussions.
Keywords: coping strategies, NTFPs, crop shortfalls, South Africa
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Pellissery, Sony
Davy, Benjamin
Social Construction of Commons: How Could ‘Mixed’ Property Relations Become Subject Matter
of Social Policy Arenas?
While conceptualizing commons, competing views have been that from an economic theory perspective (often
taking a point view of surgical precision) and social theory perspective (muddling through). Economic theory
sometimes assumes that goods fall into the category of private or public goods because of their inherent qualities,
for example, the debate on lighthouses. However, whether or not a lighthouse will be offered as public or private
good does not as much depend on its inherent qualities, but on the social construction of lighthouses, shipping
industry, fishermen’s solidarity, coastal property rights, liability rules etc. Social theory, on the other hand, seems
to assume that it is not important to think about commons in a precise fashion. Many publications on social
capital and common pool resources are quite hazy on the quality and definitions of commons. Why would a
joint effort to manage a natural resource like fish stocks or a forest accumulate social capital, but breathing (i.e.
using air as CPR) not? Or consider what urban sociology has to say about public space. Although much of this
debate is very stimulating and enlightening, it’s also infuriatingly unprecise.
What remains concealed is that neither private nor public goods, neither the commons nor private property,
exist independently from each other. Many property relations are based on notions of privacy and universal
exclusion, and thus as a result of ‘social construction’. And this entanglement of private and common property is
quite ordinary. However, unpacking this social construction and repacking for policy intervention is very important
since poorest people rely primarily on commons for their survival. In this paper, through few case studies we
intend to show how such social construction have been used as key social policy instruments while dealing with
Keywords: social construction, mixed property, poverty
Perera, Nethmini
Senaratne, Athula
Financing the Management of the Commons: A case of the forestry sector in Sri Lanka
The sustainable management of the commons is now being highly discussed with the recognition of the role
played by the commons for social welfare and realizing the necessity of maintaining the stock of common
resources for well being of the future generations. However, just like for other environmental resources, for
commons, financing has posed a major challenge.  This has opened the way for various financing mechanisms
to be adopted for sustainable management of common resources. Among them are ‘market based instruments
(MBIs)’ (environmental levies, user fees, tradable permits/quotas, deposit refund systems etc.), budgetary allocations
and donor funding. Despite these achievements, however, it is not clear to what extent public and private
financial management systems are transformed to cater to broad goals of sustainable management of the commons.
One cannot overemphasize the necessity of innovative mechanisms for financing sustainable management of
common resources amidst the vast commercial values involved with alternative uses of those resources. This
study focused on the common resource of natural forests in Sri Lanka to examine the current situation of financial
mechanisms existing to mobilize resources for implementation of sustainable management measures. Data gathered
through secondary sources (policy documents, annual reports, budget statements etc.) as well as primary
information gathered from key informants was used for this analysis.   
It was found that significant funds are being generated by the relevant institutions which are directed to the
treasury through the Consolidated Fund mechanism and only a part of it comes back to these organizations by
way of budgetary allocations. Unless supported by donor funded projects, these budgetary allocations are sufficient
only for the management of these institutions rather than for mandated activities. This implies that conventional
system of state financial management has not been geared to cater to the needs of sustainable management. It
further indicates the necessity of working out appropriate fiscal allocation systems so as to enable respective
institutions to mobilize necessary investment funds through self-generated income sources, within the laws of
the country.
Keywords: forestry, environmental financing, sustainability, Sri Lanka
Persha, Lauren
Agarwal, Arun; Chhatre, Ashwini
Vegetation Diversity and Forest-Based Livelihoods Relationships in Forest Commons in East Africa
and South East Asia
This study uses a social-ecological dataset drawn from 103 forests and associated villages, from 6 countries
across East Africa and South East Asia, to examine patterns of relationships between forest  species diversity and
contributions of forests to household livelihoods for both subsistence and commercial uses. The joint maintenance
or improvement of these two sets of forest benefits has emerged as a major policy goal of governments in the lowincome tropics over the past 20 years, and has formed the basis for significant forest sector policy reforms in
many countries. Yet, pathways to achieve this policy goal remain unclear and little empirical analysis has been
undertaken to understand more explicitly the nature of relationships between forest biodiversity conservation
and sustained forest-based livelihoods, or to identify policy-relevant factors which may contribute to positive
outcomes across both sets of conservation and livelihoods-oriented forest benefits. Our analysis demonstrates
clear variation in the nature of joint biodiversity and livelihoods outcomes, and investigates the extent to which
key governance, biophysical, socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with more positive outcomes
across both species diversity and livelihoods dimensions. Paired reference forests in each combination of forest
type and study region are used to standardize
species diversity measures, to compare species composition, and to examine the extent of composition change
along a gradient of forest-based livelihoods dependency. Data were collected by the International Forestry
Resources and Institutions (IFRI) research program.
Keywords: forest conservation, species diversity, decentralization, tradeoff relationships.
Phillips, Mai
Environmental and Sustainability Online Courses—A New Common
Since the advent of the Internet, online learning has become valuable to the traditional face-to-face method of
teaching for educators.  The myriad of ways in which online courses have been incorporated into higher education
curriculums had resulted in positive and increasing popular method of learning for students.  Online courses
have now been incorporated in the environmental science programs at the University of Wisconsin.  From
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online seminars, study abroad and field courses, to the strictly online and hybrid degree programs, students are
embracing this mode of learning.  The convenience of learning in one’s own time and the ability to enroll in
courses offered anywhere in the world provided one has a computer and Internet capability, are attractive to
students.  The ability to include the most current topics sometimes in real-time; use the multitude of online
resources available; and the ever-improving visual effects to enhance delivery of information are amongst the
advantages to educators.  There are challenges and limitations as well.  This paper will examine some of the
approaches developed by practicing online educators to overcome some of these challenges.
Keywords: online courses, environmental, sustainability, new common, future
Phillips, Victor
Payments for Ecosystem Services in the Commons
The various commons of the Earth hold the life support systems that sustain us and all other life forms—free of
charge.  At present, payments for ecosystem services represent an economic mechanism for valuing and conserving
commons and their essential life support functions.  As a transition to a new worldview that embraces intrinsic
value of natural and managed commons transcending economics, payments for ecosystem services may serve as
a temporary bridge towards building a sustainable mindset and future.  This paper presents examples of payments
for hydrological services and carbon credits and explores appropriate contexts, opportunities, and limitations for
application in the commons of the world.
Keywords: payments for ecosystem services, commons, sustainability, life support systems; future
Pinkerton, Evelyn
Wiber, Melanie; Parlee, Courtenay
Stinting the Intertidal Zone: the many dimensions of privatizing a commons
This paper examines struggles around the governance of an intertidal commons on the both the east and west
coasts of Canada.  It relies on Foucault and on subsequent governance literature to address questions of rules of
access, legal and institutional complexity, social and political power, and identity. Case material includes efforts
by government to privatize access and other rights to shellfish beaches and by local communities to resist such
efforts. The paper employs concepts of ‘rendering technical’, of ‘switch points’ and of ‘technologies of power’ to
explore a variety of competing sources of rule-making and socio-political authority. Here, rapid social or economic
change has put existing rules of access under pressure – opening up access to other actors and encouraging new
approaches to governing natural resource use. These case studies highlight the complexity of how commons
institutions are nested within larger mechanisms of natural resource governance.
Keywords: Canada, marine commons, commons resources equity
Por, George
Framework for Augmenting the Collective Intelligence of the Ecosystem of Commons-Based
Commons are sustained by “communities working together in self-governing ways in order to protect resources
from enclosure or to build new openly-shared resources.”[1] Self-governance needs shared knowledge. The
scalability of commons-based production and distribution depend on the capacity of the communities to augment
their collective intelligence. 
My motivation is 4-fold:
• Present a framework for making visible and augmenting the collective intelligence of commons-based
initiatives and social systems.
• Provide for increasing connectivity in and among commons, by identifying and strengthening generative
principles and practices in their knowledge ecosystem.
• Increase the appreciation of how important is to evolve collective sensing and meaning-making organs to
the growth and evolution of the commons themselves.
• Illuminate the need for a new research agenda on the Commons and Collective Intelligence; seed
conversations for convening a research community focusing on it; and identify key questions to guide future
The paper will outline a typology of collective intelligence as a conceptual scaffold to pursue those aims, as
presented below.
The price of not supporting the emerging forms of collective action with a framework that can serve as shared
reference would be an enclosure on the commons’ invisible collective intelligence, by depriving its users from
its full benefits.
Biosphere and its livingecosystems (carbon-based)
Sociosphere and its social ecosystem (relationship-based)
Noosphere andits knowledge ecosystems (mind-based)
Technosphere and its computing and communication ecosystems (silicon-based)
Contributing to the study of relationships among the 4 spheres, I intend to explore what it takes to grow collective
capabilities to:
Design and sustain healthy community knowledge gardens (noosphere) that can boost collective intelligence,
social creativity and well-being (sociopshere), strengthen the natural commons and learn from living systems
(biosphere), supported by cross-media platforms for collaboration and coordination (technosphere).
[1] Mapping the New Commons, by Charlotte Hess
Keywords: commons, knowledge commons, Noosphere
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Porter-Bolland, Luciana
Ruiz-Mallen, Isabe; Ortiz, Tamara; Camacho-Benavides, C; De la Pena,
Antonio; Fernansez, K; Mendez, M. E.; Chabkle, E.M.; Medinaceli, A.;
Sanchez Gonzalez, M.C.; Conservecom Team
Bottom-Up Biodiversity Conservation: Indigenous and Community Management Practices in
Following international guidelines, official biodiversity conservation strategies in Mexico have mainly focused
on biological and ecological criteria and have often resulted in the official exclusion of local populations from
protected areas. Nevertheless, many local initiatives for conservation, mostly without official recognition, are
present in different contexts and presenting a variety of typologies. This is not surprising given that Mexico is a
pluriethnic society, known for being one of the countries in the world where most of its forested territory is under
different forms of communal property. Currently, efforts are being carried out to typify the variety of local
participation practices in conservation in order to integrate them in an alternative strategy for the protection and
sustainable use of biodiversity. Also, official co-managed programs such as those of payments for environmental
services are aimed at strengthening these efforts, although with different levels of success. As a research group
named Conservcom, we undertook a research project aimed at comparing conservation areas with differing
levels of participation of local inhabitants in decision-making. For this, we studied six different rural communities
belonging to four states located in southeastern Mexico. We related participation in decision-making regarding
conservation to a landscape assessment of land use change in order to consider its effectiveness in reducing
deforestation. Among our results we consider that efficient biocultural conservation strategies should be based
on local participation, integrating and strengthening bottom up efforts. However, conservation will only be
successful if regional development strategies are envisioned, considering that rural communities in Mexico are
currently living in unfavorable economic contexts given a public policy that favors international trade and private
Keywords: biodiversity conservation; community conservation; participatory research; Land Use Land Cover
Change Analyses; Southeast Mexico
Potapohn, Manoj
Southichack, Mana
Socioeconomic Consequences of Large Land Concessions in Southern and Northern Villages of
A recent study suggests that an estimated 2-3 million hectares, approximately 13 percent of the land surface of
the country is under land concessions. Plantations of industrial crops such as rubber, tapioca, maize and other
food crops are due to replace land under forest or shifting cultivation in an investment drive that began in 2002,
bringing about adverse ecological and social consequences, partially offsetting potential of the big push to lift the
living standard of Laotian citizen. The societal gain can be weaken further if concession-induced forest clearing
is accompanied by forest clearing from domestic investors and local farmers who lost their livelihoods from large
land concessions. However, the magnitude is uncertain as, according to another report, not all land investment
can be carried out by foreign concessionaires.
If the rule instituted in the south (e.g. Bolaven Plateau) is effective, any large plantation that affects villagers are
required to pay compensations that may allow farmers to acquire a new plot of land through purchase, find
employment or resorting to new forest clearing. With successful adjustment, local resentment to the land
concessionaires can be substantially reduced. With a history of autonomy among local government in the Lao
PDR, the officials in the South (the Bolaven Plateau) can be different from those in the North (Luang Namtha,
Bokeo, etc.), in their response to the demand (or voice) of villagers and civil society. In addition, the feedback
mechanisms, from the local government and foreign investors, in the North and the South can be varied and
worth comparing. The same can be said to the “investor-authority collusion”, in the North and the South.
The paper will report a preliminary finding to answer questions above, with a field study combining rural rapid
appraisal, surveys of local villagers, and interviews with government officials, investors and experts.
Keywords: Lao PDR, land use change, large land concessions, socioeconomic impacts, rapid rural appraisals
Poteete, Amy R.
Ribot, Jesse C.
Repertoires of Domination: Decentralization as Process in Botswana and Senegal
Decentralization ostensibly changes the distribution of authority between center and locality by empowering a
variety of local actors and organizations, such as traditional authorities, multipurpose local governments, or user
groups. While decentralization presents opportunities for the empowerment of some actors, it threatens others.
We describe the set of acts actors can perform as they make claims to defend – or entrench and expand – their
interests as ‘repertoires of domination’. We develop the concept of repertoires of domination and illustrate their
influence in Botswana and Senegal, where government officials, local elites, and commercial interests have
performed multiple acts of domination to limit the extent of local-level democratization achieved through the
decentralization of natural resource management. The concept of repertoire brings attention to the substitutability
and fungibility of acts, and the limited effectiveness of countering acts of domination one by one. It also highlights
how acts draw on bundles of powers in multiple forms—material, discursive, coercive, etc.—that must all be
attended to in an analysis of domination. Countering repertoires of domination requires the development of
repertoires of resistance to carve out spaces of local discretion.
Keywords: decentralization, forestry, wildlife, Botswana, Senegal
Powell, John Reed
Maximising Policy Opportunities to Enhance Community-Based Marine Resource Management.
The inshore fisheries around the UK coastline are under threat from highly centralised policies that manage and
control fishing, marine conservation, seabed mineral extraction, and energy generation. Numbers of fishermen
are declining with negative impacts on both upstream and downstream industries, and on social well being of
communities. Quota regulations that reduce fishing effort and financial security also create increased pressure
on unregulated stocks and antagonism between different resources users (offshore and inshore fishermen,
conservationists and energy generators). The UK government, however, is open to policy initiatives that will
increase capacity for local community management of inshore marine resources. The paper examines the potential
for change in six coastal communities around England. Inshore fisheries play a valuable role in small coastal
communities through providing employment, local sources of high quality food, supporting service and tourism
activities, and creating social capital and strong local identities. Alternative community based resource management
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approaches are explored with a focus on perceptions of inshore fishermen and other community and regional
level actors. The situation is complicated by actors who lack understanding of policy, regulatory frameworks,
and the complexities of the marine environment. Lessons are drawn regarding the capacity to influence policy
change that enables more effective local management of a commons resource.
Keywords: governance, institutions, policy, marine resources, community, fishing
Prakash, Anjal
Urbanization and the Rural Commons: Peri-urban Water Resources under Transition in South
Urbanization is likely to be a defining process and characteristic of South Asia in the years to come. This process
is being sustained mainly through acquisition of rural commons such as land and water resources from the
peripheral areas. As a consequence, this process is leading to acquisition of diverse water sources and iniquitous
water uses by different users. This process of changing peri-urban landscape and its impact on commons in
South Asia needs to be addressed by academicians, policy makers as well as civil society groups. The paper will
deliberate on the issue based on the recently completed scoping study on the subject in four peri-urban research
sites in three countries of south Asia. The four research sites are Khulna in Bangladesh, Hyderabad and Gurgaon
in India and Kathmandu in Nepal.  All these study sites have been selected because of the environmental stress
that haunts their existence, further aggravated by climate change impacts. There are peculiarities in the nature of
their environmental problems from which emanates the need to study them. For example, the peri urban areas of
Bangladesh and Nepal are largely characterized by traditional livelihoods and the population is likely to be hardhit due to the rapid urbanization process, whereby lands are required for increasing demands for homes. Being
nearer to the sea, the climate change impact is very specific for Bangladesh while in Nepal, the fragile mountain
ecosystem is not only disturbed due to urbanization process but also the impact of melting glaciers due to global
warming generates much concern for the future. The case studies in India for Gurgaon and Hyderabad exhibit
the problem in a different light. For these cities, the post liberalization period has seen a different form of
development, where the process of change has been induced by growth of the Information Technology (IT)
sector. The peri urban areas of these cities have been witnessing this change since long, but the possible impact
of climate change has been realized much later when development has reached its peak and there is no scope to
revert the situation. Moreover, being located on a different topography, the impact of climate change in these
two cities would be felt due to rising temperatures, rather than from sea level rise or melting glaciers. The
consolidated paper will present an overview of a trend that is leading to immense water insecurities in four
locations in three countries in South Asia due to a combination of issues. Altogether, they are pointing towards
a serious problem of engulfing urban water commons leading to having impact on the lives of the poor and
marginalised whose are dependent on these commons for their basic survivals.
Keywords: South Asia, peri-urban, water insecurities, urbanization
Prakash, Ram
Mohapatra, Khetra Mohan
Contribution of Common Property Resources to Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study of
Uttar Pradesh
Common Property Resources (CPRs) play a significant role in the rural development and benefit rural population
in a number of ways. The fuel wood and shrubs available from CPRs are used for cooking, heating and selling;
grass, leaves and shrubs are used as animal fodder; bamboo, small timber, palm leaves and clay for house
making/repairing and a variety of fruits, vegetables and fish, for sustenance, particularly during lean seasons.
CPRs also contribute significantly to Private Property Resources (PPRs) like agriculture, cottage/household
enterprises and livestock economy. These provide irrigation water, manure etc. for cultivation, raw materials,
minerals etc. for cottage industry and grazing and fallow lands, fodder from forest etc. for livestock.
Uttar Pradesh, the biggest State in terms of population, consist of 70 districts, fall into 3-agro-climatic zones (AC Zones) out of 15-agro-climatic zones in the country as delineated by planning commission. These are Middle
Gangetic Plains (27 districts), Trans-Gangetic Plains (38 districts) and Central Plateau and Hills (5 districts) . The
percentage of Common Property Land Areas (CPLAs) to the total reporting land areas is 9.53 which is less than
national average (15%) as estimated by NSSO in 1998. Here, as per data available CPLAs include- area under
forests, permanent fallows, grazing lands/pastures and orchards-trees and shrubs. When we break up the whole
CPLAs into these three A-C Zones, Middle Gangetic Plains constitute 13.74%, Trans-Gangetic Plains constitute
8.72% and Central Plateau and Hills constitute 12.90% to the total land reporting areas.
The main objectives of the proposed study are to: (i) examine extent of nexus of agriculture and CPRs; (ii)
investigate how CPRs play significant role in the process of sustainable development of rural cottage/household
industries and handicrafts; (iii) examine empirically the degree of dependence of livestock on CPRs and the
CPRs’ contribution to the growth of livestock economy; (iv) investigate how the rural poor household’s livelihood
associated with CPRs base; (v) search out some feasible solutions to the problem of degradation and shrinkage of
The proposed study is mainly based on primary data collected through purposive random sampling.
Keywords: Common property resources; Private property resources; Economy of the rural Poor; Agricultural
development; Livestock economy; Small and cottage/household enterprises
Prasad, Shambu
Agriculture and the New Commons: Insights from SRI in India
Current discussions on new commons has unfortunately been restricted to technology-driven, human-made
common pool resources largely focused on the internet and open source movements in software and more
recently in drug discovery. This paper suggests first that the transformative socio-technical movement of new
commons is less understood and appreciated. Second that new commons are emerging even in spaces otherwise
considered traditional such as agriculture where emphasis and public policy in recent times has been away from
knowledge commons and more in terms of intellectual property rights. With increasing evidence of the
unfavourable ecological footprint of the industrial-agricultural paradigm, ominous climate changes, and
embarrassing social and economic crises in India manifested in farmer suicides over the last decade, the paper
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suggests that India’s agricultural research system needs to explore Knowledge Swaraj more pro-actively. Using
insights from the way knowledge has been created in SRI or the System of Rice Intensification the paper shows
how a less hierarchical and less linear architecture of innovation has enabled a new ‘knowledge commons’ to
emerge in Indian agriculture, contributing substantially to household-level food security, also enabling farmers
to cope with vulnerabilities. Open innovation in SRI has enabled the creation of this new commons in an era
when privatization of agricultural knowledge has gained sway. Rainfed areas that have been marginal to the
Green Revolution are becoming more central to the establishment of sustainability regimes. This innovation has
been enabled by the extensive use of the internet, based on new kinds of networking within civil society playing
an important role ensuring collaboration among diverse actors from the farm to the national level. The paper
highlights the importance of facilitating knowledge dialogues, learning alliances and innovation networks to
enhance innovation capacities and creating new knowledge commons.
Keywords: SRI, knowledge commons in Indian agriculture
Pratap, Dinesh
Does the Repeatedly Modified Community Forest Management Rules in Uttarakhand Himalaya
Have Really Empowered Community? A Critical Analysis
The community-managed forests in Uttarakhand Himalaya formally came into existence in 1920s to satisfy the
local communities that strongly protested against the British Government’s policy of increasing control of the
resources so far being used as CPRs. The forest councils (Van Panchyats) were created to manage specified forest
areas near villages with the purpose of involving local community. The management rules were framed in 1931
outlining the respective responsibilities of community and state administration in management the Van Panchayat
forest. The rules modified and elaborated in 1972 and 1976 were opposed by the community on the grounds of
restricting autonomy of Van Panchayats. As a follow up of new National Forest Policy 1988, nationally adopted
Joint Forest Management strategy was implemented in Uttarakhand and community forest management rules
were reframed in 1997. These rules were further modified in 2001 and 2005 with the objective of ensuring
larger community participation. However the rules and regulations have not had desired results and there is only
limited involvement of community in management of community forests. Though presently more than 15 % of
the forest area of Uttarakhand is being managed by Van Panchayats, there are large gaps that are to be bridged for
effective community forest management. This paper based on secondary information highlights the policy and
management issues affecting the real participation of community in community forests being managed as CPRs.
Keywords: Community Forests, Uttarakhand, Himalaya, community participation, forest management
Purnomo, Herry
Suyamto, Desi; Akiefnawati, Ratna; Abdullah, Lutfy
Harnessing the Climate Commons: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach to Reduce Carbon Emission
from Deforestation and Degradation
Men created a worldwide tragedy of free access to their global common atmosphere. Forest and land use change
contribute 18% of GHG emissions, which cause global warming. Conference of Parties 15 in Copenhagen
increased political commitment to reduce emission from deforestation and degradation and to enhace carbon
stock (REDD+). However, government sectors, political actors, business groups, civil societies, tree growers and
various interest groups at different levels may support or reject REDD+. This paper describes REDD+ dynamics
through the following methods i.e. identify key actors that influence REDD+ policy, categorize their objectives and
interests, types of rationality and policy preferences, point out the strategies they used to fulfill their goals and
simulate their actions and behaviors with agent based modelling approach. 
Through actors-arena-institution approach, various possible REDD+ options are prospected. The model simulates:
(1) how the providers would likely decrease or increase carbon stocks on their landscapes for their livelihoods
under ‘business as usual’ institutions; (2) how they would likely negotiate with potential buyers to implement
REDD+, with regards to the involvement of brokers (governments or NGOs); and (3) how they would likely implement
REDD+ after the agreement. The model is developed as spatially explicit model to consider the complexity of
REDD+ target landscapes. The simulation results are examined by 3E+ criteria i.e. effectiveness in carbon emission
reduction, cost efficiency, equity among involved stakeholders and co-benefit of other activities. This study took
Jambi landscape, Indonesia as a case study and compared with similar cases in Vietnam, Cameroon and Peru. The
result explains why REDD+ work and doesn’t work, who win and lose, and develop scenarios of REDD+ institutional
arrangement which would help to harness the global commons of climate change.
Keywords: Climate change, deforestation, agent-based modeling, Indonesia, institutional arrangement
Purushothaman, Seema
Lele, Sharadchandra
Implications of Trends in Access, Benefits and Status of CPLRs
In this study from Karnataka state, India, we define CPLRs as all common land resources to which some part of
public has de facto access to, irrespective of the rights of use, management and control. We then look at the drivers
of change in CPLR area and condition, as well as the ecological and distributional impacts of these changes, using
a clear normative framework. Though historical endowment of CPLRs varies geographically and temporally, they
generate significant use and non-use values at local and global scales (Jodha 1990, Nadkarni 1990, Pasha 1992,
Kumar et al 2007). The wider academic literature contains debates about the usefulness of CPLRs, with advocates
pointing to CPLRs as social safety nets, and critics favouring privatisation and land grant as being more efficient. The
latter argument is also strengthened by evidence of declines in dependence and rural social cohesiveness, failure of
state institutions to prevent elite capture of CPLRs, and declining interest in small farming in India. Added to this,
policy and institutional fuzziness and market pressures might make CPLR history, in the not-so-distant future. When
we examine these debates in the context of Karnataka’s CPLRs, we find an undiminished need to have well-managed
rural CPLRs. The paper then looks at the governance reforms that may be necessary to manage and prevent conversion
of CPLRs as well as to revive stakeholder interest.
Keywords: governance, access, grazing lands202 13
Qi, Gubo
Li, Fengyang; Long, Zhipu; Xu, Xiuli; Tang Lixia
Beyond Environmental Policy Impacts: Joint-Efforts on Improving the Effectiveness of Pasture
Management in Northwest China
Environmental degradation showed its most serious situation in the Agri-pasture area in Northwest China, which
had both significant negative impacts on local people’s livelihood and inevitable damage on living conditions of
habitants in other areas. Corresponding to the environmental problems, the government implemented
environmental protection policies, including the extreme policy of grazing ban. At the same time, farmers living
in this area coped with the hash environment and the enforced policies simultaneously. What are mutual interests
between macro environmental policy makers and local people? What are the impacts of those policies on the
pasture management effectiveness? How did policy maker, the farmer, other policy implementer, and other
stakeholders develop an adaptive mechanism of pasture management during their interaction on Grazing Ban
policy implementation? This article explored to answer those questions through a tracing study among 2001-
2009, when grazing ban policy and relevant policies were implemented in Yanchi County, Ningxia Hui
Autonomous Region in China, which is located in the middle part of the Agri-pasture area in Northwest China.
This article found that the interaction among stakeholders in policy implementation and the farmers’ coping
strategy on external institutions formatted the art of pasture management, which could not be discussed only
through policy impacts assessment. With the analysis of farmers’ correspondences and adjustment of their
livelihood strategy while implementing policies, it was found that furtive grazing was used effectively by the
farmers and their community in balancing environmental protection and livelihood development, when the
policy makers tried to internalize the external costs and benefits of using grassland through policy of grazing ban.
Furthermore, for a more sustained application of pastureland, the facilitated interactions and induced jointefforts of the government departments, relevant NGOs and community people could make more effective pasture
Keywords: pasture management, grazing ban policy, coping strategy
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Ragavan, Hari Ramalu
Community-Based Mangrove Ecosystem Regeneration: A Case Study in Malaysia
Natural Resources in Malaysia are exclusively managed by the State. Following the December 2004 tsunami
tragedy, the Government of Malaysia has adopted mangrove regeneration as a priority environmental policy.
Most of the regeneration efforts are undertaken by the government on a large scale, through the Forestry
Department, almost exclusively in the west coast of peninsular Malaysia where the livelihood of the communities
has been affected. Community-managed commons in Malaysia is rare or almost non-existent. The paper highlights
a case study in Malaysia where a partnership between a State Government and UNDP has developed and
implemented a community-based mangrove regeneration project. This initiative is the first of its kind where by
the mangrove ecosystems in the project site area – a common – is managed by a local community in Malaysia.
Situated in a logon in east coast of Malaysia, the Setiu Wetlands The project outputs are: a) Training and capacity
building of local communities on fostering and sustaining the growth of mangrove forests; b) Capacity building
of local authorities to support mangrove forest protection; c) Support for mangrove forest replanting and sustainable
livelihood activities; and d) Developing a conservation management plan for replanted areas and the surrounding
mangrove ecosystem. The State Government is also using the project area as a potential tourist attraction where
all activities are implemented with the involvement of the local community. As one of the poorer states in
Malaysia, this fits well with the poverty reduction policy pursued by the State Government of Terengganu. The
benefits to the community include the enhancement of their livelihood activities including fishing, mangrove
forest product extraction, and eco-tourism.
Keywords: Malaysia, mangroves
Rahman, Aminur
Climate Change, Global Commons and Corruption in the Context of Sundarban Mangrove Forest
in Bangladesh
Global commons are the most threatened objects in climate change scenario. The nature of these commons itself
is vulnerable in the world of unclear property rights, externalities and different forms of claims. Sunderban, the
world’s largest mangrove forest is in peril due to corrupt practice and its consequences are alarming especially in
the realm of climate change. The aim of this paper is pose the concern that Sunderban as a global commons and
its deterioration due to malpractice in using resource is a global loss.
In exposing the loss the paper aims to highlight the corruption issue and its true loss in terms of total economic
values. The importance of Sundarban is immense in terms of carbon sink as well as “bio-sheild” against cyclone
and high tidal surges. Moreover, destruction of the forest will bring havoc to ecology and unexplored and
unutilized marine resources of the surrounding water system. The total valuation shows that the damaged
monetized in normal accounting process is much less than the actual damaged enumerated using total valuation
approach. Policy conclusion is drawn strengthening the norms of reducing corrupt practices and better management
Keywords: climate, forest, corruption, management
Rahman, Mokhelsur
Anisul, Islam
Can Greening the Micro Credit Contribute to Nature Conservation and Adaptation to Climate
Change Impacts? A case from Bangladesh
Invented in Bangladesh, microcredit is now practiced over a dozen of countries and supporting millions of poor
people who are otherwise excluded from the formal lending sector and hardly have any alternative means of
accessing financial services. In Bangladesh, currently, over US $ 2 billion is being rendered among 30 million
poor people to take up small scale income generating schemes towards achieving improved livelihoods. While
micro-credit has got wide recognition as a viable tool for supporting the poor to become self-employed, collective
implications of millions of such small-scale income generating schemes on the natural resources seldom got
attention especially in densely populated developing countries like Bangladesh where majority of its population
still subsist on natural resources for their livelihoods. It is also not strived to use the microcredit program as
potential conduits for building grassroots community awareness including women, who are the major users,
towards conservation and enhancement of nature & natural resources. This paper describes the processes being
undertaken through a CIDA funded project where academicians, environmentalists, NGO professionals and
poor communities are working together in piloting microcredit as a channel for building grassroots capacity in
environmental conservation and wise use of natural resources. Key efforts of the project are to greening the
micro-credit as a part of the wider environmental governance framework as well as promoting healthy food items
through practising organic agriculture. Among others, the credit borrowing communities preferred organic
agriculture, plant nursery, fish nursery, indigenous fish culture, mat making by cultivating mat fibre plants as
priority green schemes. This paper also highlights the possible linkages of green micro-credit with climate change
adaptation which Bangladesh is urgently needed as one of the worst climate change affected countries of the
Keywords: Bangladesh, climate change adaptation, environmental governance, green micro-credit, livelihoods,
natural resource conservation
Raj, Venkat
System Dynamics Modeling in Andhra Pradesh: NGO perspective
This paper is primarily about reflecting on my participation in system dynamics modeling with a rural community
in Andhra Pradesh. It is not only novel to do dynamic modeling of forest commons, but to introduce this type of
modeling to villagers and engaging them in generating the data for model building. We built a system dynamic
model of the interactions between the community and a nearby forest commons using an array of research
techniques including Participatory Rural Appraisal, focus groups, key informant interviews, household surveys,
and Group model building. One of the commitments during this project was the participation of people interacting
within the systems: both the community members and local experts. The community was very involved from the
beginning where they played a central role in defining the problem pertinent to their livelihoods and the forest
commons. We used spatial and temporal PRA techniques and household surveys to build reference modes
which defined the problem in terms of changing fuelwood availability in the forest commons over time. One of
the major achievements at this point was the use of different research techniques to develop behavior over time
graphs (reference modes), which are very important for model building. One of the highlights of this approach
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was the rapidity of information exchange between different stakeholders. A significant innovation is to introduce
system dynamics modeling to community members and local experts during the initial phases of “problem
definition” and “building reference modes.” This paper identifies what worked, what didn’t, and how to improve
future efforts from the NGO perspective.
Keywords: Andhra Pradesh, system dynamics, communities
Ramdas, Sagari Radhika
Rajamma, S.; Rao, Sanyasi; Gopalan, Radha; Adinarayana, M.
Working for a Common Good: The Shepherds and other Livestock Rearers of the Rishi Valley
Special Development Area.
Traditional pastoralist and other peasant communities who rear livestock- mainly cattle, sheep and goats, located
in Thettu Panchayat, Kurbalakota Mandal, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, have historically depended upon
the commons – (forests, revenue lands, agriculture fallows, watering holes/ tanks) for grazing, feeding, watering
and managing their animals, which is their primary source of livelihood. The region has recently been notified
by the Government of Andhra Pradesh as the Rishi Valley Special Development Area, with the specific objective
of sustainable ecological conservation of the region for the overall benefit of the environment and the livelihoods
of the local community. Since June 2009, Anthra in association with the Rishi Valley Special Development Area
have been working closely with local pastoralist and peasant communities to develop a comprehensive plan for
common property resource (CPR) management in the area so that the livelihood needs of the community are
effectively and sustainably met. The multi-dimensional strategy has included:
• Detailed mapping of age-old customary grazing and watering practices of ultilising the landscape, which
has deepened the collective understanding of traditional land-use, as also generated vital supportive documents
for the communities and the Gram Panchayat to confirm community grazing rights utilizing the Forest Rights
•  Experiences of confirming rights of grazing in forests, using the FRA, 2006
•  Negotiations with other actors in the “commons” towards developing a shared and evolving strategy for the
overall development of the commons.
Keywords: pastures, Forest Rights Act, shepherding communities, biodiversity
Ramprasad, Vanaja
Genetic Diversity in Seeds as Global Commons-Alternatives to Protect the Genetic Diversity
from IPRs than by IPRs
Traditionally farmers have maintained high levels of crop genetic diversity as insurance for their subsistence
farming. The heterogeneity in the crop genetic makeup allowed for yield security and also provided the necessary
buffer against environmental variation (nutrition, health, climate, soil conditions and pests).
Over the years with the development of modern breeding and the creation of new improved crop varieties
farmers have switched to commercial agriculture, replacing their diverse land races. As a result areas previously
rich in agricultural bio diversity have been replaced with genetically homogenous fields. Along with this came
the heightened awareness that while incentives existed for farmers to develop new varieties, there were no
perceptible rewards for genetic resource conservation. The disparity between rewards to genetic resource that
form the basis of development of new crop varieties and rewards accruing to new varieties that are products of
research has been pointed out.
The issue of farmer’s right was first raised as a global concern in 1986, after which the FAO adopted the International
Undertaking on Plant genetic resources(IU) .Several years later FAO officially recognized the concept of farmer’s
rights but the resolution as not legally binding. In 2001 after years of debate a legally binding international
agreement on farmer’s rights was reached with the adoption of the FAO International treaty on PGRFA.
The treaty’s objectives are the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources and the equitable sharing of
benefits arising from their use. A multilateral system for access and benefit sharing established under the treaty,
governs the exchange of germ plasm from 35 food crops and 29 forage plants.
A set of measures is called for to address the compatibility of seed laws and plant variety protection to take into
account communities’ needs. Literature abounds on the topic to recommend reinforcing the traditional sharing
system with a system of peer production and distribution of germ plasm as an alternative way to develop crop
varieties and dynamically sustain genetic diversity.
Measures are also needed to strengthen farmers, practices of seed saving and sharing and to further non commercial,
non profit and co-operative exchange. Relaxing seed regulations and granting farmer immunity from patents and
plant breeders infringement could support this. Considering the collective nature of plant genetic resource
management, trusteeship by farmers is suggested in such a way that it accepts personal contribution to a common
good and a form of ownership derived from that contribution. In the countries of south Asia where agricultural
modernization is being justified to ensure food security which is vying with traditional form of seed saving. It has
to be emphasized that the controls brought in the seed system, controls the entire food system.
The objective of this paper would be to explore and give shape to the alternatives that emphasize the fact that the
farmers varieties need to be protected from IPRs and not by IPRs.
Keywords: plant genetic diversity, farmers’ rights, IPR
Rana, Pushpendra
Changing Mandates but Fixed Mindsets: Forest Bureaucracy in Western Himalayas
Forest bureaucracy working under the national and state laws is the sole custodian of forest resources in India. Its
performance in forest governance depends greatly on its internal working as well as organizational ethics. Presently,
the internal working of the forest department has little space for planning, research and analysis. Forest department
is facing an identity crisis as its prime working strategies of scientific harvesting of forests have been totally
curtailed. Its performance is further crippled due to an overpowering hierarchical set-up, personal vested interests
and absence of visionary policies. The forest officers lack motivation and skills required to change the existing
system to make it useful to millions of forest users. The foresters are suffering with a negative image since
inception of the forest department due to their failure in generating a confidence about their policies among
general public. Some people think that foresters are mainly focused on managing their postings by appeasing
public representatives and are least concerned to the success or failures of the government policies and programs.
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They are primarily held responsible for degrading the livelihood base of millions of forest users, yet there are
other external factors that impede the performance of the forest department to a significant extent. This paper
explains the entire matter of organizational working and performance of foresters in the execution of participatory
projects in Western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The paper also suggests desired improvements
in the overall working of the forest department in order to achieve successful and pro-people governance of the
forest resources.
Keywords: forest bureaucracy, forest governance, organizational working, participatory projects, Western
Rantala, Salla
Vihemäki, Heini
Human impacts of displacement from protected areas: lessons from the establishment of the
Derema Corridor, north-eastern Tanzania
The establishment of a conservation corridor between forest reserves in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania,
involved the displacement of hundreds of small-holder farmers who held customary land rights to the area and
paying monetary compensation for their livelihood losses. Through a combination of qualitative and quantitative
social research methods, the social impacts of the intervention and the livelihood responses of affected people
were investigated. The results suggest that a failure to unambiguously identify rights-holders to resources in the
area, inadequate commitment and follow up by the involved conservation agencies, and limited agency of local
actors in the arenas of decision-making contributed to the unpredictability of the process and its outcomes,
which were mostly experienced as negative. Many of the affected rights-holders, especially women, were not
compensated for their lost assets. The poorest people were among the most affected whereas few wealthy people
received the largest compensation and were able to invest in improved livelihoods. Clear definitions of local
rights to resources coupled with fair and timely compensation, inclusive mechanisms for participation, and a
sustained presence and commitment of the conservation agencies, are seen as pre-requisites for forest conservation
interventions involving compensated human displacement that are to avoid negative social consequences to the
affected people.
Keywords: forests, displacement, compensation, rights, Tanzania
Rao, Neena Suyodh
Globalization, Commercialization and the Commons: Nagaland (India) - A Case Study
Today, the concerns regarding climate change and depletion of natural resources are compelling us to look at
use of natural resources for development with a renewed perspective. It has become imperative that development
needs to be sustainable, inclusive, balanced, promoting equity and welfare of all. 
However, what we are witnessing in practice in India is still the manifestation of skewed perception of development.
In case of the north east region, which is rich it’s natural resources where rights over natural resources are still
mostly vested with tribes and communities, the process of modernization and development is playing out into
unwanted impacts like the “ Tragedy of the Commons”, further giving rise to hoards of problems like environmental
degradation, deterioration in the standard of living, inter tribal conflict, etc.
Local conflicts and quarrels over water is a rising phenomenon across the State. Natural hydrological cycle has
been altered due to destruction of catchment areas and headwaters. Rapid deforestation and land degradation
are yet another source of concern.
For the past three years, the author has been working with the rural women in three Districts of Nagaland, to
facilitate improvement in their livelihoods with a participatory methodology. Under this project women are
organized into Self Helf Groups and trained to add value to their resources by organic farming and processing
organically grown produce and link them to the markets. 
Based on the data gathered during this work, this paper will probe into and analyse the reasons for continuing
degradation of natural and common property resources in this region. 
It will identify the basic assumptions underlying the organized participatory development and will attempt to
present a path/recommendations that will enhance people’s involvement and promote effective management of
community resource management.
Keywords: land, agriculture, governance
Rathnaweera, Erwin Crishantha
Gunasekara, Jayantha
Loss of Access Rights Leads to Collapse of Traditional Fisheries Governance and Rise of Conflicts:
A Case from Malala and Ebillakela Lagoons in Sri Lanka
A traditional fisheries governance system was in place in Malala-Ebillakela lagoons, which involved all relevant
parties including fishers, non-fishers and government organizations to manage the lagoon ecosystem. The specialty
about this system was the involvement of all parties, from different layers of decision-making, in the different
forum across levels and the pressure which came from both fisher and non-fisher communities who were totally
depended on the resources of the lagoons. However, with declaration of the lagoons as a bird Sanctuary and
National Park respectively under the Wild life Act of Sri Lanka in 1990s, this common property was turned into
a state property. Consequently, it came under the direct supervision of the Wild Life Authority. As a result, wild
life authority started to control the access rights of the traditional fishers and non fishers, leading to conflicts
between fishers, fishers and non-fishers, fishers and Wild Life Authority and so on. In the meantime, the ecosystem
started to deteriorate in the face of uncoordinated infrastructure development interventions. This paper attempts
to discuss the consequences of these developments and the collapse of the traditional fisheries governance
system, and the impacts of introducing State lead management under the Wild Life Act.
Keywords: Self governance, legal frameworks, conflicts, Malala and Ebillakela lagoons, Hambantota
Rathore, Brij Mohan Singh
Seeing Beyond Boundaries: Landscape Approach to Conservation and Livelihood Enhancement
There is a candid acknowledgement in the natural resource sector, thrown up by experience over the last decade
and a half of the need to have an inclusive and decentralized approach to resource management, informed by
progressively secured tenure and larger role for communities and their institutions. The progress towards this has
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however remained rather limited. At the same time, loss of forest habitats and decline in population of charismatic
species like tiger, has led to the ‘hands off’ approach towards conservation. As a result, one is again witness to the
same acrimonious and polarized debate between the warring constituencies of the conservationist and the
communities, that used to take place some two decades back.
Unfortunately this debate suffers from a poor understanding of the adverse impacts inherited by the 21st Century
from the previous one. Besides, what one misses in such debate is the new context that early 21st century
presents. A context, that is marked by growing market economy, mega capital, commodification of nature, the
urge to get the “price” right and increasingly, consumerist life style, all attended by a scant regard for nature.
Little wonder that the pristine biodiversity areas and fertile agricultural lands are under severe strain from mining,
hydropower, transport infrastructure. Forest regeneration under participatory forestry has made impressive gains
for resurrection of degraded forests in a number of cases in India. However in many areas it has also led to a
“pressure shift”, leading to degradation of adjoining forests.
The role of forests in challenging the poverty paradox needs to be seen in the wider context of ecosystem services
and goods they provide to all productivity sectors including all forest produce, agriculture and livestock. Though
contribution of forests can be substantially enhanced by appropriate management and improved marketing, it is
the natural resources in totality and NR dependent secondary/tertiary sectors that, when included within a landscape
unit for management-development, could go a long way in challenging the poverty paradox. This paper, argues
that adopting a landscape approach makes sense on economic/livelihood, ecological and socio-cultural
considerations and can far more effectively challenge the paradoxical situation of poverty amidst plenty. The
paper discusses the key elements to the approach and how it is different from the     currentapproaches to forest
management. The paper recommends some key steps and challenges in integrating landscape approach in cross
sectoral programs
Keywords: forests, conservation, landscape approach
Ratner, Blake D
Meinzen-Dick, Ruth; Haglund, Eric
Conflict, Collective Action and Resilience in Natural Resource Management: Lessons for
Development Policy and Governance
Recent research has probed the causal links between competition over high-value extractive resources and
violent conflict. Far less attention has focused on conflict over renewable resources that underpin rural livelihoods
in agricultural landscapes, and in particular the positive ways collective action to resolve problems of allocation
and access to natural resources can reduce the risks of broader social conflict. Using an adapted version of the
institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework, we assess how the characteristics of the resources, the
users, and governance shape the incentives for collective action to cooperatively manage contested commonpool resources. We undertake a comparative analysis of original case studies from 11 countries, in Southeast
Asia (Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Myanmar, and the Philippines), South Asia (Bangladesh and Nepal), and
Sub-Saharan Africa (Rwanda, Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia). These cases represent a spectrum of conflict-sensitivity,
from intense resource competition and low-level conflict to post-conflict reconstruction in the wake of civil war,
and a diversity of resource systems involving forests, land, water, and fisheries. All cases involved new field
research, with a range of methodologies including participatory action research, key informant and small group
interviews, and household surveys. Triangulating the comparative analysis with findings from complementary
studies in Asia and Africa, we derive a series of lessons for development policy and institutional and governance
reform in conflict-sensitive environments. These address strategies for: leveraging shared stakeholder interests in
resource management to build community bonds across divisions of ethnicity, religion, gender or economic
status that constitute conflict risks; establishing or rebuilding the legitimacy of resource management institutions
in the wake of violence; supporting bridging organizations that span multiple ecosystem scales; and investing in
human rights safeguards and multiple mechanisms of social accountability to protect the space for positive
collective action and reduce incentives for violence.
Keywords: environmental resource conflict, comparative analysis, collective action, governance, social-ecological
Ravena, Nirvia
Common Pool Resources Management in the Amazon: A Fuzzy Approach of Public Bureaucracy
In Brazil, particularly in Amazon some common pool resources management has not included in the federal
environment regulatory framework. Specific areas as lakes, for example, have to deal with fragmented institutional
arrangements in regulation on access and use of lake resources. Fishery and agriculture in wetlands or in the
subjacent lands of water body have no regulation in Brazil federative arrangement. Local, regional and federal
bureaucracies increase the cost of policy process to include common management strategies to resource of the
Tucuruí Lake into the environment federal regulatory framework. This paper discusses a specific lake in Amazon.
Twenty years after the Tucuruí dam has been built, the lake created by the dam, became a important fish resource
to people who live along the shores of the lake. Thus, this artificial lake is a scenario of an intense conflict about
access and use of Tucurui’s natural resources. The bureaucracy in several federative levels plays a key role in
these conflicts. This paper presents results of two fields researches occurred in years 2006 and 2009 at Tucuruí
Lake. Results are presented with the use of fuzzy logic to modeling institutional capacity of districts bureaucracies
associating this analysis with ways of natural resources access and use of people who live along the shores of the
lake. The model intend to identify how district and federal bureaucracy influence common pool management in
the lake.
Keywords: Common Pool Resources, Amazon, bureaucracy, dam, artificial Lake
Ravi, Srinivas Krishna
Traditional Knowledge as/and Commons: Where Do We (Want To) Go from Here
Proposals for considering traditional knowledge as commons or developing traditional knowledge commons
have been put forth, particularly in the context of combing them with protocols for access and benefit sharing.
This paper examines that idea and explores its merits and demerits. It argues that such initiatives should be
understood in the context of broader debates on commons, access and sharing and using open source principles/
approaches to prevent misappropriation and to develop a protected commons. This protected commons is not
(in) public domain and the development of various protected commons in areas as diverse as human genome
mapping, plant genetic resources, microbial resources, scientific data indicates that there are options that negate
both enclosure through intellectual property rights and allowing free and unhindered access as if it is public
domain. We compare some of these commons with TK commons and point out that there are some unique
features in TK that makes development of TK Commons all the more challenging- both in terms of theory and
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praxis. We point out that while this idea and the use of protocols and combining both will be relevant for
communities and researchers clarity is needed on many aspects, ranging from what are the objectives and
whether such a combination is compatible with existing Access and Benefit Sharing Regimes. We argue that this
idea deserved to be nurtured and tested before embarking on combining this with ABS regimes or making it as an
option for non-commercial research in ABS regimes. Our hypothesis is that this model should be tried although
there can be unintended consequences and there is reason to be cautiously optimistic about it.
Keywords: Traditional Knowledge, Access and Benefit Sharing, Convention on Biodiversity, open source,
protocols, protected commons
Reddy, Chandrashekar G.
Integration of Climate Change Adaptation Strategy with the Watershed Based Sustainable Rural
Livelihood Approach
Climate change is a fundamental challenge to the way we live on this planet. The poor and the rural communities
surviving on the climate sensitive activities and resources are first to suffer and are more vulnerable.  Watershed
management as a means to manage common property resource and to ensure sustainable livelihoods for rural
communities is a challenge. Integrating adaptation and mitigation strategies within in the watershed management
model shall ensure livelihoods for the rural communities and prepare them for the impact of climate change. Per
unit geographical area emissions in a country could be another way of taking responsibility by global citizens in
addition to the per capita and unit GDP production emissions. This ensures climate-friendly development pathway
for future and involves every stakeholder contribution for climate improvement on planet.
Key words: climate change, watershed, rural communities, sustainable livelihoods, adaptation and mitigation,
per unit geographical area emissions.
Resosudarmo, Ida Aju Pradnja
Huynh, Thu Ba; Astri, Pangestuti; Atmadja, Stibniati; Desita, Andini;
Indriatmoko, Yayan Intarini, Dian; Sunderlin, William
Learning from REDD Sites: Perceptions and Realities of Tenurial Systems in Indonesia and Vietnam
Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) initiative is now recognized as key to climate
change mitigation. It is a new concept that has recently begun to be implemented in forested developing countries.
These countries often face challenging and complex natural resource and governance issues that will have
implications on the ways in which REDD is implemented. As part of a much larger global comparative study, this
paper offers preliminary insights on the implementation of REDD projects in Indonesia and Vietnam. Critical
issues in forestry, including the extent of participation of local communities and tenure, are also key in REDD.
The paper analyzes these issues by comparing and contrasting the situation in the two countries.
Keywords: REDD, governance, participation, tenure, Indonesia, Vietnam
Ricoveri Giovanna
Commons vs. Commodities
At the beginning of the 21st century the commons have come back to the public debate, becoming the mantra of
world movements, which are looking for a way out from the crisis of capitalism.The commons are not an
experience of the past, nor only a reality for the “poor” in the less developed countries of the global South. They
are a reality of the present, also in industrial countries North and South. To this end, commons ought to be
redefined in terms of the present day situation. Today’s movements dealing with local natural resources can be
looked at as “new” commons.
This paper – based on a book on the subject, to be published in Italy by Jaca Book in 2010 – first tries to identify
these new commons in different national contexts, North and South. Then it traces the historical and philosophical
changes that Europe underwent in the transition from Medieval times to Modernity. Ever since, commons have
been systematically privatised (enclosed).
The analysis of the European historical experience is relevant because it laid the roots which shaped the new
ecological and social world order: from colonialism, slavery and the ecological debt to the industrial mode of
production and consumption, with its consequences in terms of natural and social destruction.
Drawing from the author’s 15 year experience as editor of the international journal of political ecology “Capitalismo
Natura Socialismo”, the paper ends with the political proposal that commons become the foundation for new
models of participatory democracy. This would enable ecologically sustainable globalization and socially
determined democracy to overcome State-Market dialectics. Provided that, however, politics become “political
ecology”, meaning that public policy choices are tied to natural resources limits.
Keywords: governance, New Commons, political ecology, colonialism, participatory democracy
Rist, Lucy
Shackleton, Charlie; Shaanker, R Uma
Dichotomies in Forest Management: the Contrasting Perspectives of Communities, Managers
and Scientists
It is clear that integrating resource users and local communities into natural resource management is desirable in
striving for biologically and socially sustainable conservation yet the management implemented in many protected
areas is often at odds with livelihood objectives. In many locations, both social and environmental outcomes
remain less than optimal, and in some instances tensions between management institutions and local communities
remain high despite efforts towards implementing collaborative management systems or integrating local
knowledge. There is frequently a dichotomy between the interests and perspectives, as well as bodies of knowledge
and cultural backgrounds, of one or more of the different groups involved: managers, communities and research
scientists. While well recognised informally, the formal articulation in theoretical constructs of the full triangulation,
community, scientists and managers is novel, yet is required to advance understanding of the factors limiting
improved outcomes. A key challenge in many protected forest areas is to overcome specifically these obstacles
moving towards a convergence of interests and goals rather than remaining within current states that are typically
characterized by compromise. We draw on long--term experience from several protected forests across Asia,
Latin America and Africa where community, management and in some cases scientific perspectives, are at variance
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with each other, on the nature and urgency of management problems as well as their causes and solutions.
A synthesis of experiences in these locations identifies common underlying factors and potential institutional
and policy changes required for moving towards more integrative and less unilateral management outcomes in
protected forests.
Keywords: Collaborative management, conservation, forest, integration, livelihood
Robards, Martin D
Reeves, Randall R
Governance of Marine Mammal Harvests for Human Consumption
Humans around the world have consumed marine mammals for millennia.  In recent decades, this consumption
has become central to tense global struggles among cultural groups over marine mammal conservation,
international obligations, indigenous rights, and social values.  In addition, marine mammals are dispersed,
highly mobile, common pool resources, with complicated linkages to other harvested marine and terrestrial
resources (e.g., fisheries and bush meats).  Designing multi-level governance institutions that can address these
issues, while coping with the considerable uncertainty about the status of stocks and harvest rates is a major
challenge.   Reliance on enforcement and/or market mechanisms has frequently been inadequate for accomplishing
global wildlife conservation goals.  Consequently, active involvement by local communities in management, socalled co-management, has become a widely touted option, in fact seeming imperative in many cases.  However,
the conditions that facilitate effective co-management at a local scale in support of larger geo-spatial marine
mammal conservation objectives have received relatively little attention.  We reviewed more than 600 sources
of information on the recent and present-day acquisition and consumption of marine mammals by people around
the world.  Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development framework provides a tool for our meta-analysis of
the institutional and environmental variables associated with effective or ineffective community involvement in
harvest management, research, and conservation.   Through this framework, we explore the intended and
unintended consequences of different forms of community engagement – to marine mammals, their ecosystems,
and the humans who rely on them for nutritional, economic, and other socio-cultural needs.   Our findings
strongly support the need for meaningful community engagement, pluralistic goals and rules for management,
and that singular reliance on higher-order rule making should be avoided. This will never be easy given the
persistent conflicts over what is an appropriate relationship between humans and marine mammals.
Keywords: Natural Resource Management, conservation biology, political science
Robinson, Lance W.
Contingent Devolution and Community-Based Conservation: When Values Align or Conflict
Ghana and Tanzania have both developed frameworks to support community-based conservation (CBC) in
which communities may be granted the right to manage wildlife resources. In these countries, formal legitimization
by the state of particular CBC initiatives is contingent upon local stakeholders meeting a number of requirements
to the satisfaction of various government entities. Research was conducted in communities that have launched
CBC initiatives under the respective frameworks in each country. In the study communities, one key variable
helping to explain why some communities have gone further than others in taking up the CBC opportunity, and
indeed why some communities have shown no interest at all, is the degree to which there is a co-alignment of
values with the devolution-granting government entities. In other words, where governance frameworks do not
seriously empower local stakeholders but rather create a system in which community-based conservation is
contingent, the success or failure of particular CBC initiatives depends in part on a co-alignment of values
between the community and government agencies. Because such co-alignment cannot be expected a priori in all
situations, there is a need for governance arrangements that create opportunities for meaningful cross-level
deliberation around differing values. There is a need, furthermore, for governance frameworks that do not put so
much onus on local stakeholders to satisfy district- and national-level gatekeepers—governance frameworks, in
other words, in which the right of local stakeholders to manage resources is recognized rather than granted.
Keywords: institutions, governance, community-based conservation, Ghana, Tanzania, devolution, values
Robson, Jim
Nayak, Prateep
Transforming Ways of Life: How Out-Migration Affects Change in Resource Dependent Societies
The world over, the nature of rural livelihoods has changed profoundly. While some scholars suggest that local
production systems are ‘disappearing’ under the influence of structural adjustment policies and market
liberalisation, others argue that rural economies have merely diversified to become less tied to territorial-based
resources. From a commons perspective, it is not clear whether customary ways of life are persisting while
diversifying or undergoing fundamental transformations as people respond to new pressures and opportunities.
With elevated out-migration threatening to extend into a fourth decade in the highlands of northern Oaxaca and
a second decade in Orissa’s Chilika Lagoon, demographic impacts have intensified, while the cultural gap
between rural and urban societies has narrowed. This paper uses community-level data from both regions to
discuss how out-migration is speeding up changes associated more widely with ‘development’, ‘modernity’ and
‘globalization’. As new generations of community members share values, desires and beliefs different to those of
their parents or grandparents, we look at the possible future scenarios facing these long-standing commons
Keywords: out-migration, rural livelihoods, Oaxaca, Orissa, resource-dependent communities
Rocheleau, Dianne
Entangled Roots in Multiple Forest Commons and Communities
The forest commons , beyond formal common property regimes, is complex, multiple, and often entangled with
public, private and common property units as commonly defined. In the Lacondon Rainforest and the Highlands
of Chiapas, private and public development interests, as well as a variety of indigenous and campesino communities
have distinct and often incommensurate views of the forest commons, both within and between groups. Beliefs
about the status of human beings in the larger world condition the very possibility for the commons as property
of any type. Likewise, beliefs about states and nations, and sovereignty and autonomy, condition the terms of
relationships between actors (humans, other species, their physical surroundings, technologies, and artifacts) in
forest ecologies. The invocation of “the common good” at different scales, and with reference to different sets of
values and actors in varying types of relationships, are sometimes diametrically opposed or mutually unintelligible.
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The case of Plan Puebla Panama , a mega-development project now re-structured and re-named Project
Mesoamerica, and the widespread resistance to it in some regions , demonstrates multiple claims to the same
areas of forest land, in the name of several different notions of common good for distinct communities. The paper
explores the potential for polycentric networks of actors from different constituencies to cohabit multiple, complex,
and entangled forest commons, in contrast to state and corporate reliance on Cartesian models of fixed territories
in mutually exclusive spaces. In the name of the “common good” at national and international scale, Plan
Mesoamerica threatens to replace the forest commons with several forest commodities, from “Cancun” and
“Disneyland” private tourist development in the rainforest and its ancient Mayan centers, to hydroelectric dam
sites, clear water springs for bottled water and soft drinks, waterfalls for recreation and aesthetic value, maize
varieties old and “new”, medicinal plants from forests and farms, wind power sites, “biofuel” production sites,
oil and gas resources, commercial ranches and farms, and timber, among others. The difference in a top down
and a rhizomatic map of forest commons illustrates the contrasting visions and potential ecological and social
outcomes of competing claims to forests by different communities across scales. Any resolution to the situation
rests on value judgments about which types of claims and whose claims are (more) legitimate, and on the scope
for simultaneous function of various combinations of commons.
Keywords: forest commons
Rodriguez, Claudia
Land Use Change and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change
As climate change evolves communities whose livelihoods depend upon agriculture activities in forested areas
will face the need to adapt to minimize the negative effects or to take advantage of the opportunities brought by
climate change. Adaptation can turn counterproductive if people adapt in ways that deteriorate forest conditions,
which may reduce their capacity to adapt and increase their vulnerability to subsequent effects of climate change.
Through a comparative analysis of 44 Spanish speaking protected areas in Latin America this paper seeks to
advance our understanding of the potential effects of adaptation to climate variability and change on land use
change. Since adaptation does not occur in a vacuum, the analysis assesses the relative influence of adaptation,
socioeconomic, institutional and governance factors on land use change. The results indicate that land use
change is significantly correlated to the existence of partnerships among key actors, community land tenure,
communities’ democracy, income distribution, and adaptation choices. However, socioeconomic factors, such
as population size, and access to infrastructure and technology were not significantly correlated to land use
change. These results arouse controversy given the large literature suggesting these socioeconomic factors are
key to explain forests conditions. This paper argues that once adaptation, governance and institutional factors are
accounted it becomes clear socioeconomic variables are not the leading force behind land use change. Among
the factors likely influencing land use change, adaptation choices, such as pooling and economic diversification,
hybrid governance through partnerships, and income distribution are the most influential. To unveil these
relationships is theoretically and policy relevant. The scarce resources allocated for the protection of forests and
livelihoods associated to them in the context of social adaptation can be more effectively used if we know what
factors and relatively how much they influence land use change. For this purpose it is critical to develop comparative
studies that systematically analyze multiple variables for a large and diverse group of forests.
Keywords: land use change, adaptation to climate change, governance, institutions, Protected Areas
Romero, Lourdes Magdalena
Rojas, María Teresa
The Collective Rights of Land and Water in Mexico, Public Policy and Social Resistance
In Mexico the collective rights to the land and the water have been recognized from 1917 by the Political
Constitution. Exactly to derive from a vindictive movement like which it took place in 1910, it is that the resetting
of the structure of possession of the land by means of ejidal grant and the land restitution, which altogether they
conform the “social property”, was a central measurement of the new political pact that meant the constitutional
The course followed by this modality of possession of the land has been since then complex, on the one hand,
it has constituted an alternative of organization for the production whose operation depends to a great extent on
the solidity of the cooperation platforms which the community, that face policies that prioritize the competition
and the market, that act in an inverse sense, feeding back the problems of “low productive efficiency”, abandonment
of earth, aging of the holders of rights, etc., that they prevent to observe the qualities that it has in terms of social
solidarity, environmental viability and alternative economy.
The problem is of urgent attention mainly because the social property continues regulating 54.1% of the system
of land possession in the country, equivalent to 105.9 million hectares, grouping to 5.7 million posesionarios or
coproprietors, of which a million 165 thousands correspond to women.
From the analysis of the main modifications to the agrarian legislation of 1992 and the behavior of the social
property measured by the ejidales censuses of 1991, 2001 and 2009, this paper has the intention to show that
although the certification of title rights, by means of which, the farmers could decide on the total dominion of
their earth, persists a majority proportion of earth in collective dominion, that the transaction processes presents
associate regional differences to their particular historical-economic contexts. These characteristics must be taken
in account for the future public decision making.
Keywords: Ejido, Institutions, governance, water, land
Rommel, Kai
Kimmich, Christian; Sagebiel, Julian
De-Central Power Generation as Suitable Supplement to Urban Power Distribution Systems?
Results from a Consumer Behaviour Analysis in Hyderabad
The power sector in the south Indian State of Andhra Pradesh faces a significant supply deficit as well as restrictions
in the national availability of fossil resources and grid capacity. Moreover, electricity supply is of low quality in
terms of scheduled and unscheduled power cuts and peak deficit is continuously growing. Planned installments
of new generation power plants – mainly coal fired – will be carbon intensive but insufficient to cover power
demand with growth rates of 8     to 10% per year.
These developments highlight the importance of energy efficiency improvements to moderate growth in power
demand. In the case of Hyderabad, characterized by rapid growth of power demand in the sectors of domestic
and industrial customers, renewable energies for power generation have become more important during the last
years. Consideration of demand for service quality improvements and stable security of supply requires precise
knowledge of individual preferences in terms of marginal values of willingness to pay and the determinants of
these values. Until now research on energy efficiency measures rarely consider consumers’ preferences. In order
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to increase limited understanding of the willingness to pay (WTP) for improved electricity quality we use a
choice experiment to estimate how consumer surplus changes with the introduction of energy efficiency measures
and in how far consumers are willing to bear additional costs due to these initiatives.
With a survey of 800 private household customers we estimated the marginal WTP for improvements of power
supply quality in terms of reduced scheduled and unscheduled power cuts, for renewable energy and preferences
of institutional settings. With the results of this study we discuss how preferences for local applications of efficiency
technologies can be realized and what are the pre-conditions on the policy level.
Keywords: energy efficiency, market behavior, Choice Experiment, willingness-to-pay
Rosewine, Joy
Nationalisation, Property Rights and the Dilemmas of Coastal Commons Management in Kerala
Across world resource management is experiencing an approach towards top to down; ie incorporating more
communitarian arrangements in policy and decision making. How ever; in India and Kerala since 1980, has
experimented a series of aquarian reforms and policies for marine resource management which is bottom to top
approach. The new inland fisheries policy of 2010 is the last nail to the coffin. These reforms tend to disregard
the institutional needs of natural resource management in general and common property resource management
in particular. Nationalisation of water bodies and the creation of modern forms of private property for fishing
combined with exposure of local markets to global requirements led to over riding of resource. This have caused
continuous decline in resources and undermined possibilities for collective action in the region. Traditional
fishermen here have no legal say even though the gear/access rights were with them all overriding rights rest with
the governments. This has lead to degeneration of property rights; insecure livelihoods and resource degradation.
This article reviews the incentives and constrain faced by traditional fisherman in the wake of the policy reforms
for common property resources management. How the communities bargain and adapt to institutional reforms
for livelihood security. As well we envisage alternative directions for policy intervention for resource sustainability.
Keywords: resource management, nationalization, livelihoods
Roth, Dik
Bavinck, Maarten
Political Contestation of Common Pool Resources Under Conditions of Rapid Change: A Legal
Pluralist Enquiry
Renewable CPRs still constitute an important source of livelihood in most rural societies. Such resources are
embedded in social and geographical space, and their use is vigorously contested by actors operating at different
scale levels. Under conditions of rapid contextual change, elites are observed to engage in ‘resource capture’
while local populations often suffer ecological and other forms of marginalization. Resource contestations often
take the shape of conflicts about rights, in which parties involved refer to a variety of legitimizing institutions.
Thus, law - of various kinds, levels and origins - plays an important role in such events, as an instrument to
manipulate and steer events, a refuge against oppression, a means of protest, or an avenue of escape. In this
paper we investigate such resource struggles as legal and governance conflicts involving issues of equity,
(environmental) justice, identity and other values that may be at stake. We investigate situations of rapid change
and harsh political contestation of renewable CPRs from the perspective of legal pluralism.
Keywords: resource contestations, renewable CPRs
Rutten, Marcel
Selling Wealth to Buy Poverty: 20 Years of Titling Experiences in Semi-Arid Kenya
Since the mid 1980s longitudinal research has been conducted among Maasai pastoralists concerning the effects
of land tenure changes in the Kajiado District of southern Kenya. Supporters of group ranch subdivision, held in
private by a group of families, argued that individual titles would raise living standards, increase the chances of
procuring loans using the freehold title deed as collateral, minimize the exploitation of the poor by rich households,
promote Maasai engagement in agricultural and industrial enterprises, and facilitate better maintenance of existing
infrastructure. In general, those opposing subdivision claimed that ultimately the result would be the loss of land
to non-Maasai, severe erosion in areas where cultivation started, a loss of Maasai culture, and restrictions on the
movement of wildlife and livestock to the detriment of the district’s meat production and tourism. These arguments
have been researched using four repeat surveys since 1989 and concluded in 2010. The surveys addressed the
pros and cons of the process of individual land titling within the context of De Soto’s claims that formal property
rights would increase household and individual incentives to invest and would provide them with better access
to credit. Experiences among the Maasai group ranches, however, challenge this bold claim. The formalization
of individual land rights has not triggered a widespread run on financial institutions by local farm owners, nor
has it benefited the majority economically. Moreover, it has triggered unforeseen developments notably towards
the availability of water for the local inhabitants. The Maasai and other small scale immigrant farmers now
witness powerful neighbours lowering water tables. Finally, attention will be directed towards the effects for
wildlife conservation. Results from a recent survey among the local members of two wildlife sanctuaries show a
growing desire to stop these wildlife based eco-tourism conservation efforts.
Keywords: Kenya, Masaai pastoralist.
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Sabharwal, Alka
Contested High Himalayas: State Conservation, Tourism, Pastoralism and Borders
The narrative to define the borderland of Trans Himalayas in which, Changthang becomes a vast ‘empty’ space
to many, contradictorily to ‘full’ of mysticism bestowed upon it by the local pastoralist tradition, to others. The
presence of Budhist holy grounds, alive with spiritual energy remains a local way to know the Changthang
landscape. Trekkers and backpackers who reach this landscape on an exotic Budhist trip also do not escape from
this mystic cultural experience. Definition of Changthang takes a new shape with state agencies, metropolitan
and international conservationists, and the tourism industry come together in an alliance to perceive implacable
threats to the ‘unique’ and ‘fragile’ high altitude ecosystem of Changthang. as the landscape comes under a fold
of a Wildlife Sanctuary- a haven for Tibetan Gazelle, Black Necked Crane and many more.
Anthropologists, on the other hand, have cautioned that the debated notions about a landscape can also be
interpreted as a matter of the multi-vocality of differently positioned actors giving voice to contested representations.
According to them, these contestations also constitutes a “globalised political space” in which new forms of
political agency are being invented and contested in the context of both established and newly reconfigured
structures of domination (Brosius 1999:277). This new discursive regime, which is also visualized to be a rich
site of cultural production, is considered to be shaping the relationships between and among nature, nations,
movements, individuals, and institutions (Brosius 1999:277)
The present field based research based in Trans Himalayan region of India proposes to spell out the discursive
regimes of the changing relations among states, markets, social groups and their bio-physical environment in a
microscopic view of Changthang. By side stepping from the binaries of the state and community the proposed
cultural political analysis is an attempt to take stock of the complex practices in which the ‘everyday’ contestations
and competing claims around Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary take place, as well as of how they are negotiated,
deflected or pre-empted, as multiple groups lay claim over the natural resources.    
Keywords: pastures, governance
Sahu, Geetanjoy
Dahanu Environmental Justice Movement in Maharashtra, India
Dahanuis one of the last green belts along the country\’s rapidly industrialising western coast. Even though
Dahanu was legally declared ecologically fragile, political and industrial interests continued to bring forward
development projects in Dahanu Taluka. This led to a consistent environmental movement against the development
activities proposed by the state and private actors. The Dahanu environmental movement’s target includes all
development projects in the area and particularly protest against the Dahanu Thermal Power Plant. The movement,
locally considered at the outset as a struggle by the local community against the nature of development policy of
the state, eventually evolved into a middle class environmental movement demanding a polluted free and healthy
environment. The judicial system, which had long ignored the environmental concerns in Dahanu, took strong
interest in protecting the environment as it became more environmentally sensitive over the years. Intellectuals,
environmentalists, social activists, legal groups, and students from outside Dahanu, mostly from Mumbai supported
the environmental movement in Dahanu, which soon developed into a larger battle to save the eco-fragile area
of Dahanu. How do we explain this course of environmental movement in Dahanu in the last two decades? Is it
an isolated struggle or does it reflect some general historical processes that emerged since 1970s in India? Why
and how has Dahanu movement come to be reframed as middle class environmental movement in contrast to
conventional environmental movement in India? Should such movement be understood as a new form of
environmental movement emphasizing quality of life as its priority than livelihood, or should it be considered
environmental movement of the educated urban middle class? Why is the goal of achieving quality of life and
having a healthy environment, a significant issue for middle class people in Dahanu, insufficient to mobilize the
support of other sections of the society?
Keywords: privatization, Participatory Socialism, social movements, Communal Councils, New State Forms
Saigal, Sushil
Greening the ‘Wastelands’: Evolving Discourse on Wastelands and its Impact on Community
Rights in India
This paper explores the impact of dominant discourses on governance of the commons. A large proportion of
common lands in India are classified as ‘wastelands’. Starting with the results of a community-based wasteland
development project (the Tree Growers’ Cooperatives Project, TGCP) for community rights, the paper explores
how these and other outcomes of the project have been shaped by the evolving discourse on wastelands. The
concept of wastelands originated in India during the colonial period. All lands that were not under cultivation
(revenue-yielding lands) were classified as wastelands, over which the state asserted its proprietary rights. Some
of these were later reclassified as forests or allotted for cultivation or plantation. Thus, the idea of wastelands
originated from the perspective of revenue rather than ecology.
After independence, the discourse changed. The national government was less interested in land revenue but
was keen on expanding agriculture to make the country food self-sufficient. During this period, wastelands came
to be viewed as empty lands available for expanding agriculture and settling agricultural labourers. With the
country achieving food self-sufficiency in the 1970s, the discourse surrounding wastelands changed again. Now
degradation of forests and shortages of fuelwood and fodder were seen as the main challenges, leading to a
massive afforestation programme in the 1980s to bring 33% of the country under tree cover. Subsequently, the
emphasis shifted towards the watershed role of wastelands and a watershed development programme was launched
for soil and moisture conservation. More recently, the discourse has moved towards climate change with the
emphasis on the carbon sequestration potential of wastelands. This changing national discourse has profoundly
impacted tenures and tenure-reform policies related to wastelands. The community rights outcomes of projects
such as the TGCP can be properly understood only by examining the larger national discourses within which
these projects are embedded.
Keywords: wastelands, afforestation, Tree Growers’ Cooperatives, India, discourse
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Saito, Haruo
Administrative Centralization Threatens Commons-Owning Municipal Sub-Units: Property Wards
(Zaisanku) in Toyota City, Japan
In Japan, when the Meiji government encountered great resistance to its drive to convert traditional commons
into national forest and to extinguish village commons by amalgamating villages into larger municipal units, the
government consented to allow communities to continue to own their commons, particularly forests and reservoirs,
as new legal entities called “property wards” or Zaisanku. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of this
system and discuss its current problems and its potential for resource management, using Toyota City in Aichi
prefecture as a case study.
In Japan, local communities and village sections (such as Buraku or Ôaza) below the level of municipalities
cannot in principle own land. When local authority borders are altered through processes such as amalgamation
of municipalities (Gappei), existing community units in the municipality can be granted corporate status as
property wards, which are recognized as juridical persons that are then allowed to own their commons. The
property ward system is regulated under the Local Autonomy Law and falls under the control of the government
bureaucracy. Even though the earlier management structure is respected, its operation can be rejected or negated
by the bureaucracy.
Before 2004, the Inabu ward of Toyota city, Aichi prefecture was an independent town with 13 property wards.
Under the Inabu town authorities, the customs of each ward were respected and each ward was managed
autonomously. However, after Inabu merged with Toyota City in 2005, the city authorities placed broad restrictions
on the use of revenues, threatening the continuity of autonomous management of the commons by the property
wards. This example suggests that city bureaucrats have not recognized the productive possibilities of continued
management of resources held by property wards as commons.
Keywords: Zaisanku (Property ward), Local Autonomy Law of Japan, municipality, bureaucracy, legal merger,
amalgamation, Toyota City
Samad, Madar
Palanisami, Kuppannan; Jinapala, Kiribanda
Fragmentation of Property Rights and Externalities: A comparative Study of Small Tank Systems
of Sri Lanka and Tamilnadu, India
Of the various types of irrigation system in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka and South India small tank systems are the
least well-endowed in terms of the quantity and reliability of water. Yet, these systems have existed for centuries
and continue to support a sizeable proportion of the population. The Tank systems generally provide or regulate
water for multiple uses: irrigation, domestic needs, livestock, inland fishery and sub-surface moisture for upland
crops The multiple use of resources was facilitated by moderating the strategic behavior of agents in a semicommons setting where the tank and water conveyance structures were held as common property and a system
of private property rights exercised over scattered parcels of land in the command area. The resilience the system
was further strengthened strengthened by operating the system within the framework of a moral economy.
In recent decades the economic significance of minor tanks is on the wane. Important performance indicators
such as area irrigated, cropping intensities, productivity levels, efficiency in water use are below potential..
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Farmers are increasingly compelled to rely on off farm employment and rainfed cultivation for their subsistence
Underlying many of the problems is a set of circumstances creating a vicious cycle which starts with pollution
pressure, sub-division of land, fragmentation of in property rights regimes from semi-commons to private property,
degradation of the catchment area, deterioration of the water conveyance systems and the proliferation of
groundwater development resulting in differential access to water and consequently significant socio-economic
differentiation in a traditionally egalitarian society and weakening the moral economy. 
This paper is an attempt to grasp the complex dynamics that characterize the transitional nature of agrarian
systems and the fragmentation of property rights in tanks systems in Sri Lanka and Tamilnadu due to changes in
social, economic, political, cultural processes and technological innovations, This paper identifies potential
vulnerable areas in the management of commons property resources in the villages especially in the context of
less reliance l on local resources; change in the individual preferences; enhanced economic, social, and
geographical mobility of people; the high transaction costs of social arrangements to manage local resources;
gradual loss of common interests and group identity, and greater integration to the market, The paper attempts to
examine the shape and the role of the institutions managing the small tank systems under such changing
circumstance and propose institutional arrangements for the effective governance of the tank systems.
Keywords: Small tanks, property rights, semi-commons, water, land fragmentation, institutions, governance
Sandagsuren, Undarga
Changing Resource Access and its Impact on Pastureland Management in Mongolia
This is a study of natural resource management and mobile pastoralism in Mongolia. Since 1990, Mongolia has
shifted from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. This policy transition has led to dramatic
modifications in environmental management and practices in mobile pastoralism. These changes have resulted
in the decline of pastoral institutions and traditional land use practices, leading to livestock overgrazing,
environmental degradation, and increasing conflict over natural resources among herders. To date, there has
been limited research on how these reforms have altered strategies used by herder groups to access key resources.
This PhD research proposes to examine how and why changes in resource access mechanisms affects pastoral
land management. In particular, this case study will concentrate on the Kherlen Bayan-Ulaan area, and seek to
identify conditions and factors that influence the formulation of user strategies as well as to understand the
diversification of strategies by different categories of users. Understanding resource access and its impacts on
resource management is a necessary step if pastoral policy development is to be improved and pastoral institutions
strengthened. Furthermore, this study will contribute to pastoral land management policy in Mongolia and to the
theory of access and common pool resource management literature in general.
Keywords: grazing land, mobile pastoralism, resource access mechanisms
Sandberg, Audun
Harnessing Complexity - European Approaches To Governing Coastal Commons
This macro-oriented paper analyses the troubled policy issue of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in
Europe. Despite substantial efforts from the European Union and from individual European countries, workable
institutions for sustainable governance of coastal common pool resources are not in place. From a feeble start
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with the EU Commission Demonstration Programme in 1996, a series of attempts have through 15 years been
made at formulating coherent coastal policies and designing appropriate institutional arrangements: The Water
Framework directive, the EU Integrated Maritime Policy, The Maritime Spatial Planning Strategy, the new Common
Fisheries Policy etc. None of these have really managed to harness the complexity of the coastal systems and
despite strong political desires no forceful and binding coastal zone directive has so far been enacted. During
this period, the coastal resources have acquired an increasingly more “common pool” character, not only in the
form of coastal leisure areas and spawning areas for keystone species, but also in the form of healthy coastal
ecosystems fit for aquaculture production. The paper takes as its point of departure the causes of the continued
degradation and mismanagement of European coasts identified already in the 1996 Demonstration Programme:
insufficient knowledge about ecological, social and economic interactions, insufficient sectoral integration and
insufficient involvement of relevant stakeholders. These are analysed as persistent collective choice dilemmas
that have been addressed in a number of large research projects like ENCORA, LOICZ, SPICOSA, etc. The
transformation of this complex scientific knowledge to comprehensive policies and workable institutions now
seems to remain a major obstacle to sustainable governance of European coastal areas. The paper analyses the
underlying causes for this and explores possible avenues to remedy this science-policy gap by utilizing recent
advances in institutional analysis for multi-complex action situations.
Keywords: institutions, governance, commons, coasts
Sanogo, Diaminatou
Butare, Innocent; Kabatou, Celestin; Gomis, Patrick
The Challenge of Ownership in the Communal Management of Natural Resources by the Local
Political Decision Makers and that of Taking Gender Into Account: The Case of Protected Areas in
To cope with ecological, socio- economic and demographical changes, the rural populations in Senegal have
tried to circumvent the degradation of their environment by promoting some local adaptation strategies. Indeed,
in several areas, the populations have taken the initiative of closing some Inter-village Forestry and Pastoral Land
Ranges to exploitation, so as to protect, conserve and use them to cater to their various needs. These local
management measures are not, in most cases taken into account by the rural council, which is the local institution
mandated for the management of the natural resources by virtue of Decree No. 96-1134 as of December 27th
1996 about the implementation of the act of law relative to the transfer of competences to the provinces, communes
and rural communities as concerns the environment and natural resource management. Most of the local
representatives are more concerned with the other competences than with natural resource management. Yet,
the populations they represent mainly earn their livelihood using these natural resources. This work emphasizes
the populations’ difficulties to succeed the management and to profit properly from the favorable socio-economic
consequences of these protected land ranges in the absence of any external support. On account of the socioeconomic, organizational, and institutional evaluation as well as the gender-based studies with or without any
external support, we recommend sustainable local mechanisms, of support to the populations with communal
local initiatives, of empowerment of the local political decision makers in charge of the environment committee,
of dialogue between local stakeholders and of creativity in mobilizing the required financial resources.
Keywords: communal management, local political decision makers, gender, Protected Area, Senegal.
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Santagata, Walter
Cultural Commons and Cultural Communities
“Cultural Commons” refer to cultures located in time and space – either physical or virtual  - and shared and
expressed by a socially cohesive community. A Cultural Common is a system of intellectual resources available
on a given geographical or virtual area and could be thought as the evolution of the more traditional concept of
cultural district or cultural cluster.
Ideas , creativity and styles of a community, traditional knowledge, credence, rites and customs, shared and
participated productive techniques define a Cultural Commons. Some examples are: the image of a city, a local
language, the brand of Barolo wine, an artistic movement, user generated contents on the web, traditional
knowledge held by indigenous communities, and the creativity expressed by designers’ and artist’s communities. 
In the first part the paper will propose a definition of what Cultural Commons are. In the second part  Cultural
Commons different evolutionary paths will be discussed highlighting the different effects that these different
paths may have on the “performance”/”success” of the individuals agents who are part of the community. Finally
two examples of Cultural Commons will be presented - the Milano design community and the artistic movement
of the Futurism – comparing and discussing their evolution and their “performance”.
Keywords: culture, communities, artists
Sarkhel, Prasenjit
Behind New Barrier Walls: Private Contribution for Embankment Conservation in Indian
The Indian Sundarbans, lying south of Dampier-Hodges line, a habitat of 4.1 million people is prone to natural
hazards like cyclones and flood. In recent times the incidence of cyclone Aila has inflicted enormous damage in
this area in terms of loss of lives and assets. Till date flood protection in Sundarbans against tidal surges had been
ensured by 3500 km long mud embankments erected since the colonial period. In the aftermath of Aila policy
dialogues are centered on structural measures to strengthen the embankments but institutional reforms to ensure
proper maintenance of the embankments has not received much attention. Private contribution in embankment
maintenance would largely depend on the magnitude of avoided expected loss vis-à-vis the effort cost of such
expenditures. In Sundarbans, the incentive for such contributions are largely shaped by the type of land use in
the riparian areas as well as the institutional structure through which such risk premium is ensured. However,
large variation in contribution towards embankment maintenance is observable in stretches of Sundarbans resulting
in differential damage potential from flood events. By analyzing the existing community institutions engaged in
dyke maintenance in Sundarbans, this paper attempts to explain the possibility of collective maintenance in
coastal public goods like river embankments. This study identifies the factors that determine private expenditures
towards embankment maintenance in Sundarbans and the institutional arrangements that ensures it by conducting
a household survey in selected villages of two blocks of Indian Sundarbans, Sandeshkhali II and Basanti that has
been affected in the recent catastrophe.
Keywords: fishery, coastal, mangroves, natural disasters, institutions, governance, endangered species, marine
turtles, conservation fund, willingness to pay, contingent valuation
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Sarma, Sushanta Kumar
Agrawal, Ishan
Commons for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs): Excluded from Policy
Almost half of the displaced persons in India are tribals, most of whom are located in the natural resource-rich
dryland and rain-fed areas of central Indian tribal belt and in North-Eastern region. Apart from loosing private
properties, IDPs also lose access to common property resources. Commons are prime providers of food, especially
for fodder and fuel wood in these areas (Jodha, 1986; NSSO, 1999). Small and marginal farmers and agricultural
laborers are more dependent upon commons for their redistributive role (Beck, 2001). Common also add to
social stickiness of communities leading to stronger social ties among them. 
Security of livelihoods is an important guiding principle for rehabilitation policies. The assessment of impact of
displacement as stated in the rehabilitation bill (2007) includes assessment of Commons from livelihood
perspective. However, the provisions for resettlement, in the bill, do not accommodate Commons as a part of
compensation. In absence of any specific policy, the case for conflict-induced IDPs is even worse. Moreover, as
the institutions around commons are locally embedded, they cannot be created in absence of an enabling policy
framework for communities. Similarly, the access to commons of indigenous population as against IDPs is also
an ambiguous area. National policies on most of the natural resources deal with the state and private control
only, augmenting to the neglect of significance of Commons in all other development policies, including one for
The IFAD framework for sustainable livelihood examines the livelihood of poor by linking different elements like
assets, vulnerabilities, policies etc., within a context. It examines the linkages between ‘service delivery agencies’
like institutional arrangement for commons and ‘enabling agencies’ like policy-making bodies, on livelihoods.
IFAD framework can bring out the criticality of commons for IDPs. Such an analysis of current situations and
legal-policy frameworks for resettlement in select states will help to bring out the lacunae in given agro-ecological
and social contexts. This study will explore the possibility of developing enabling policy guidelines that can
facilitate the access to commons for IDPs.
Keywords: Exclusions, livelihood, IDPs, tribals, policy
Saruchera, Munyaradzi
Matose, Frank
Land Rights, Land Reform and Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM): Insights
from Southern Africa
This paper focuses on the intersection of resource and land rights in lieu of recent land reform and distribution
processes impacts on CBNRM in the southern Africa region. The study was based on the collation and review of
relevant published and unpublished secondary literature on land rights, CBNRM and land reform. The study
largely focused on South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe given their comparable experiences of land
dispossession and reform but drawing from different historical trajectories of Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia.
The main body of the paper situates each of the seven countries under review, what the relationship between
land reform and resources rights is, and the associated implications for CBNRM.
The main insights summarised in the paper are highlighted. First, the role of land and other resource rights is
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central to the development of many communities and unequal distribution of resource rights has often precipitated
conflicts as shown in Zimbabwe (over land, wildlife and forest resources), South Africa (over land, fisheries,
medicinal and cosmetic plants, and minerals) and Botswana. Among other factors, equitable resource rights
therefore play a role in building social cohesion, stability and peaceful co-existence amongst communities and
with the State and other stakeholders. Secondly, in order to secure and maintain the security of community
resource rights, there is need for comprehensive and inclusive tenure reforms, to include customary land rights
distorted by colonial and post-colonial State interventions. Thirdly, the evolution of CBNRM policy has been
issue-based, largely premised on wildlife, and proved effective in the short-term. The issue-based approach has
its limitations in that it neglects the interaction between different resource rights and how they are particularly
affected by complex land tenure arrangements and their distortion over time. Therefore an integrated CBNRM
approach that takes cognizance of the vexed issue of land tenure is called for.
Keywords: land rights, South Africa
Sastri, M.V.
The Gadfly as a Harbinger: Exploring Gandhi’s Hind Swaraj and Oceanic Circles
The Hind Swaraj by Gandhi, written at the turn of the 20th century, evoked strong reactions from India and
elsewhere — for as well as against. The tract’s simplicity made it difficult for some to take it seriously, while for
others its virtue was in its successfully breaking up contentious issues into basics. Like timber, Hind Swaraj grew
in value with time, revealing, through the eventual Gandhian concept of Oceanic Circles, the transformation of
a gadfly (as per some) into a harbinger.
Whereas Gandhi’s views in Hind Swaraj were making rounds over the years, his concept of Oceanic Circles
remains inadequately explored. It is a worldview for the future and can be equally seen as a fair construct of the
past, also. While autarky as state policy is frowned by modern international trade theorists, the concept of
Oceanic Circles is based on the bedrock of decisions of populace, made out of volition. These volitions ought to
be of strong civil societies in some sense, that are unwilling to be pushed into more and more international trade,
without consideration either to the appropriate weight that needs to be accorded to the risks of international
trade, or to the potential human rights violations in distant lands as also possible environmental degradation
there - these are to be attributed to trade at a first or second remove.
The paper focuses on how the Oceanic Circles vision can contain knowledge derived from Science and Technology
to tilt in favour of common good, through commitment to the commons and through countering forces that push
nations into more trade on the questionable view that that is the way for maximizing welfare.
Keywords: Hind Swaraj, oceanic circles
Sathyapalan, Jyothis
Interactions between the Implantation of Forest Rights Act 2006 and the Participatory Forest
Management Programmes: A Study from the Western Ghats of India
The government of India realising the importance of recognising the tribal communities and other forest dwellers’
individual rights over the land they occupy and their community rights over non-timber forest products, enacted
the Forest Rights Acts in 2006, aimed at restoring the traditional rights of forest dwellers and maintaining ecological
balance. The present study found the implementation process of the Act to be slow due to lack of co-ordination
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between government departments, because, each department tries to take a “standing” that is based on its
original mandate and objectives and ‘set of rules’ in a given ‘action arena’. Community rights and conservation
duty provisions seem to be completely ignored in the process of Forest Rights Act implementation. No serious
attempts were found in solving implementation issues related to critical wildlife habitats. Using survey data from
311 households of 21 tribal hamlets of the Western Ghats regions of Kerala State in India, the paper examines the
determinants of ‘co-ordination failure’ at different levels of the implementation of Forest Rights Acts 2006 and its
interactions with the participatory forest management programmes. In this context, the study also highlights the
need and reasons for integrating the implementation of community rights and conservations duty provisions of
the Act with the ongoing participatory forest management programmes to secure the livelihood of tribal
communities and other forest dwellers.
Keywords: Forest Rights, action arena, coordination failure, Western Ghats, India
Satish, Joseph
Indigenous Arts and Creative Commons
Since time immemorial, humans have given vent to their creativity in the arts and these have stood the test of
time. Be it music or dance,  the birthmark of a race has been in its arts. Unfortunately, the opening up of global
corridors has done more harm by erasing the native arts, leading to the slow death of scores of arts around the
world. The death of the last surviving speaker of the Bo language of India’s Andaman Islands is testimony to this
fact, since this language did not have a written record.
The birth of open source forums like Creative Commons, however, offers hope. By using the licenses offered by
such forums, several disciplines of study like anthropology, linguistics, history, psychology, music and the arts,
stand to gain.
This paper tends to study at two different perspectives – one, how different forms of traditional art forms were
used in the pursuit of freedom and liberation as a collective form of expression around the world; two, how open
source forums can be used to record these in the pursuit of higher principles of education. More specifically, this
paper will explore how these indigenous artistic forms stand the risk of being lost thanks to the entry of mainstream
pop culture. This paper also seeks to address how open source forums can provide due recognition to these
people and help in restoring dignity to their art forms and sustain the travails of the future.
Keywords: traditional art forms, indigenous peoples, liberation, Creative Commons, dignity
Saxena, Rahul
Facilitating Community Control and Governance of Forest Resources in Himachal Pradesh
The forests of Himachal Pradesh which form 67% of the total geographical area, have been long facing neglect
and degradation due to the historical struggle for the control of resources by the state government and those who
use it everyday- the local people. The only hope for these forests, on which depend the lives of most of the rural
poor of the state, is to bridge the gap between the two stakeholders and create systems that would generate the
necessary trust. The Paper shall deal with the experiences and challenges faced by Lok Vigyan Kendra in it
ongoing initiative on facilitating participatory governance of forest resources in the Himalayan state of Himachal
Pradesh. The objectives of the 4 year old initiatives are:
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To create precedence of community control and democratic management of forest resources within 12 villages
of Himachal Pradesh through:
a) Formation of legally recognized village level institutions for management of forest resources under the
provisions  of HP Participatory Forest Management Rules, 2001
b) Capacity building of community members and Forest Department staff on best practices on participatory
forest management
c) Facilitating the formulation of management microplans and functional mechanisms for village level
d) Capacity building for effective implementation of the microplans and evaluation of performance of village
level institutions
e) Ensuring mainstreaming and replication of the project interventions through advocacy with the decision
makers within thestate forest department
f) Exploring best mechanisms for management of common resources through combination of enabling
provisions of state laws as well as those of Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers
(Recognition of) Forest Rights Act, 2006
Keywords: forest resources, institutions, governance, mountains, advocacy
Schlueter, Achim
Madrigal, Roger; Lopez, María-Claudia
Climate Change and Adaptation of Local Institutions in Coastal Areas of Costa Rica
The turtle population of Costa Rica is important mostly from a biodiversity perspective (indicator of the health of
the sea) and from its economic importance due to regulated turtle egg harvesting and tourism. Costa Rica has
innovated and partially succeeded with different institutional arrangements, including community based
management, to protect turtles. However, external shocks such as climate change (sea level and sand temperature
rise) and a growing tourism industry are threats to the sustainability of these local institutions. This paper analyses
the capacity of local coastal communities to cope with new challenges that might affect their livelihoods associated
with turtles. We emphasized on the role of local institutions to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on
local communities.
Two of the principal turtle nesting sites in Costa Rica and Central America are studied in depth in this paper. Both
differ in terms of turtle species, turtle use (consumptive vs non-consumptive), climate scenarios (Pacific vs Atlantic)
and institutional arrangements, among others. Using a qualitative approach and a framework for analyzing social
ecological systems, this paper studies how different configurations of the natural resource base, the socioeconomic
attributes of local actors as well as the governance system generate incentives that affect the patterns of interactions
and outcomes in these two settings.
The main findings suggest that differences of the capacity of local communities to adapt their local institutions to
new threats depend on the predictability of turtle reproduction and mobilization dynamics, the enforceability of
locally devised rules, the homogeneity of local actors in terms of economic interests and future expectations, and
the definition of property rights. The results also demonstrate the need to improve the coordination across scales
of governance in order to minimize the potential negative impacts of climate change on vulnerable groups of
Keywords: Socio Ecological Systems Framework, local governance, turtles, marine resource
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Schmerbeck, Joachim
Kohli, Aline; Seeland, Klaus
The Social and Political Context of Forest Fires: A Case Study in Andhra Pradesh, South India
The dependence of Indian village households on ecosystem services (ES) they derive from forest with the help of
forest fires is the focus of this paper.
We studied 557 households in 14 villages and conducted a more intensive survey with focus group discussions
and key person interviews in three villages in the northern part of the Sadhukonda Reserve Forest, Andhra
Pradesh. Local perceptions on the importance of fire dependent ES derived from the forest, their importance for
people’s livelihoods, marketing strategies, and the occurrence of forest fires, have been surveyed.
We found that out of 14 villages 10 where highly dependent on fire driven ES with their domestic use and three
where equally dependent on these ES for their income. The local markets for forest products are accessible for all
sellers and buyers without any restriction. The prices for these products are regulated by supply and demand and
are not set from outside.
Amongst the fire driven ES, grasses and fuel wood where the most often named. The main causes to set fire to the
forest are according to respondents’ opinion, hunting, herdsmen, and carelessness.
Despite the high dependency of people’s livelihoods on forest fires there is no proper fire management plan in
place nor is fire integrated in the actual forest management plans.
It is concluded that a fire off scenario would have a significant impact on local livelihoods and that fire policies
and management plans have to be carefully revised taking this in consideration.
Keywords: forest fires, ecosystem services, livelihoods, local perception, Andhra Pradesh
Schmidt, Oscar
Theesfeld, Insa
Elite Capture in Post-socialist Local Commons – the Case of Albania
Local self-governance based on institutions for collective action can help overcome social dilemmas in the
management of complex Common Pool Resources, such as fish. A common path towards local self-governance
is decentralization, and within this context, a transfer of property rights from central government to local resource
users. Yet, despite the well-documented successes of many decentralization policies in support of local common
property regimes, the phenomenon of elite capture remains a risk. This paper investigates elite capture in Albania’s
Lake Ohrid fishing region. Our empirical findings draw onto an in-depth case study on local consequences of
2002’s decentralization efforts by the Albanian fishery administration. We show how ‘blueprint’ approaches,
top-down implementation, and weak institutions led to further empowerment of privileged locals. Our findings
further indicate how those privileged locals realize significant personal gains at the expense of distributional
inequity within the community. Specifically original insights are derived from our analysis of implications from
the post-socialist context, which we show to facilitate capture because of a common susceptibility for destructive
leadership and a lack of confidence in collective action. We believe that to understand those contextual peculiarities
- and to act upon this understanding- represents a pivotal prerequisite to the functional and equitable governance
of common property regimes in any transitional society.
Keywords: local self-governance, decentralization, elite capture, fishery, Case-study research, Albania
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Schoneveld, George Christoffel
Customary Rights and Societal Stakes of Jatropha Expansion in Ghana
This paper explores customary rights and societal stakes associated with the expansion of large-scale investments
in Jatropha curcas as a biofuel feedstock in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. Drawing on the literature, national
legislation and primary data collected around a large-scale jatropha plantation, the paper analyzes how jatropha
expansion has shaped customary rights to land and forest resources as well as the distribution of costs and
benefits among diverse groups of affected stakeholders. Drawing on information from investment promotion
authorities, the literature, satellite images and household surveys with employees, we analyze the societal stakes
associated with large-scale land allocation to biofuel investors – including the “public good” dimensions of
customary land (revenue and job creation, ecosystem goods and services).
Keywords: biofuels, forests, agriculture
Schreckenberg, Kate
Peskett, Leo; Brown, Jessica
Help or Hindrance? Impacts of Carbon Funding on Participation by the Poor in Forest Development
Carbon offsets are a market mechanism designed primarily to reduce or compensate for greenhouse gas emissions.
However, within the forest sector, carbon offset projects are gaining in popularity because they are also considered
to offer opportunities for contributing to poverty reduction. Drawing on a literature review we outline the types
of projects that are associated with greater opportunities for the rural poor and examine the growing trend in
forest-based carbon projects within both the regulated (Clean Development Mechanism) market and the
unregulated voluntary markets. Based on three case studies in Uganda, including one agroforestry project and
two cases of collaborative forest management, we then examine whether carbon funding has promoted or hindered
participation in tree-planting and management activities, and how the institutional design of the projects has
influenced poverty alleviation outcomes. We discuss possible impacts on poverty alleviation in terms of an
expansion of opportunities, reduced vulnerability and increased empowerment. The case studies suggest that
risks to the wider community, particularly for large-scale forestry projects, may outweigh the relatively small
benefits to the participants. The research highlights four ways in which carbon funding can affect the povertyalleviating outcomes of forest-based projects: (i) through the carbon income itself (including issues of price
setting, scheduling pf payments, targeting of individuals versus groups); (ii) additionality, leakage and permanence
requirements (which can affect site selection, participation criteria and the need to protect tree stocks against
risk); (iii) monitoring and assessment processes (associated with high transaction costs but potentially better
extension services); and (iv) local and national policy environment (particularly the extent to which carbonrelated polices are coordinated with land and natural resource management policies). We conclude with some
lesson learning for wider debates relating to carbon offset projects in the forest commons.
Keywords: Carbon offsets, institutions, governance, collaborative forest management, agroforestry
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Seeland, Klaus
Poverty and Food Security in Indian Forests – How to Tackle both with what the Commons
Common property resources are very much used by almost all of India’s tribal forest dwelling communities
nowadays. In a research survey of local knowledge of forest and the use of natural resources among some of the
Orissan tribes throughout the 1990s it was found that commons play a crucial role in the supply of their daily life
Food security was found to be best achieved among three selected tribes of Orissa, the Dongaria Kondh, the
Kuttia Kondh and the Juang by applying their traditional indigenous knowledge. Among forest dwellers, indigenous
knowledge of forests represents societal resources as a culturally inherent form of collective action in its natural
surroundings. Social life is characterised by securing the survival of the group or community through social
activities maintaining the livelihood patterns of one’s culture, by religious beliefs and personal experiences of
the environment, as well as collective knowledge that is passed down over generations. Social life in a forested
area depends on the potential to use resources in order to maintain local identity.
Methods used in the research survey were structured observation, group interviews, focus interviews, narrative
interviews and structured questionnaires used in face-to-face interviews. The results of this research venture
show that common property resources are basic means to sustain the subsistence economy of the considered
tribes that – although being apparently poor for outsiders - can be taken as a basic form of sustainability in a
transitional phase of being integrated into a national mainstream policy of resource use.
Keywords: forest dwelling tribes, societal resources, indigenous knowledge, Orissa
Seixas, Cristiana Simão
Gomes de Araujo, Luciana
The Road of Commons Research in Brazil: Advances, Gaps and Barriers
Commons-related studies in Brazil have been carried out at least since the late 1980s. In the past 10 years or so,
the number of scholars active in this area has increased considerably. As of March 2010, we identified 49 PhD
level scholars working with or publishing on the commons, according to the site of Plataforma Lattes (http://
This is the Ministry of Science and Technology´s official database of all scholars, their publications and research
areas. This paper addresses the advances, gaps and barriers to commons research in Brazil, based on a short
questionnaire sent to all scholars identified in Plataforma Lattes. Of the 49 academics we initially indentified,
about 30% received their PhD degrees abroad, mainly from the USA. About 60% of these 49 scholars supervise
Master students and 30% supervise PhD students, but not necessarily in commons or commons-related areas.
The most important resource foci were fisheries (41%), watershed management (31%), protected areas (26%),
and forestry (12%). We map the opportunities for training of new scholars in commons research.
Keywords: Brazil, commons, research, scholarship
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Sengupta, Nirmal
Diversion of Land for Mining Activities
Minerals are archetypical non-renewable resource. These resources are generally out of purview of CPR studies
except for a couple of studies of oil field extraction. Probably because of this lack of interest CPR studies have not
made much foray into one of the important commons problem created by mining activities, that of diversion of
land. There are stray case studies, but not a holistic discussion. Mining includes a wide range of variations:
underground, open cast, and open access land mining, small and large scale activities. Then there are land
degradation in vicinity, slow regeneration, and the indigenous peoples’ issues who account for a large section of
the affected people. This paper will summarize the issues for varieties of mining and associated activities from
the perspective of land diversion from primary uses and environmental degradation. Thereafter it will study how
CPR approach can be used or are being used to overcome some of these problems. Finally, it will study whether
the sustainable use of non-renewable resource using CPR paradigm takes care of some of these problems.
The information base for the study is Indian situation. However, the paper would refer to some other cases from
the rest of the world for explanations and exemplary purposes.
Keywords: land, mining, governance
Shaban, Kato Stonewall
Bud, Mutonyi Rose
The Challenges of Managing Landslides Vulnerability in Mount Elgon ecosystem, Uganda: A Case
of Collapsing Human Interactions with its Environment.
Mount Elgon ecosystem has experienced a dramatic increase in landslides incidences in the last decade with
often catastrophic consequences on settlers who dwell on its steep slopes. Many scientists argue that the problem
has been brought by severe environmental degradation of it commons, coupled with the changing rainfall pattern
in the region. The problem has reached human-environmental crisis level with over 350 people buried alive in
just one incident in March, 2010. The issue that affects over a million people, is of big concern to Uganda
government, which is now planning to relocate thousands of people to safer places. The guiding question of the
paper is to what extend has landslides affected the co- existence of the people and their environment on Mount
Elgon. The overriding objective is to determine the possible causes, effects and measures put in place to deal
with the problem. We analyze the environmental, socio-economic, livelihood and management indicators to
determine the above-mentioned variables. We take a snap-shot at enabling legislations being used to guide the
process of managing the problem and also examine and compare similar situations happening elsewhere in the
world with the view utilizing lessons learnt.
Keywords: commons, co-existence, degradation, landslides and vulnerability.
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Shapiro, Elizabeth N.
Is Decentralization Enough? Lessons from Mexico’s National Payments for Ecosystem Services
Program for the Targeting of REDD+ Initiatives
International policy makers have begun to promote Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
(REDD) initiatives for their potential to accomplish the triple win of climate change mitigation, poverty alleviation,
and biodiversity conservation, a concept referred to as “REDD+”. A central component of this policy narrative
is that decentralization of control to the communities who live in or around forests will lead to improved
management of both carbon stocks and biodiversity resources and that the financial incentives provided through
REDD initiatives will improve local livelihoods. My research challenges the somewhat simplistic calculations of
this policy equation by examining the relationship between local-level institutional dynamics and the social and
environmental impacts of the national payments for ecosystem services program in Mexico. The program, one of
only four such national-scale initiatives in the world, pays rural communities to conserve forest commons and
has been targeted by international policy makers as a model for the development of REDD initiatives. Based on
case studies in thirty-two communities participating in the national program, I combine GIS analysis of deforestation
rates with an examination of the interactions between local-level institutional dynamics and the impacts of the
program on socioeconomic well-being and ecosystem management. I conclude that REDD+ initiatives will be
most effective at achieving both additionality of climate change mitigation positive social impacts if targeted to
communities: 1) with strong pre-existing local institutions; 2) whose primary limitations to enforcement of rules
and adequate forest management are financial; and 3) who have other economic incentives to conserve the
forest commons.
Keywords: decentralization, REDD, payments for ecosystem services, ecosystem management, institutional
Sharma, Bimal
Changing Pattern of Agricultural Productivity in Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India
Introduction of green revolution technology has many variants for agricultural land use intensification and increasing
agricultural production as well. The authors have tried to probe into the changing pattern of agricultural productivity
which is not only result of agro-ecological conditions of land but also of the use of improved seed-fertilizer
technology. Such scenario is a recently emerging phenomenon in the Brahmaputra valley.
Comparing inter- and intra- zone differences of agricultural productivity, a profile of agricultural productivity is
examined with a focus on isolating the effects of seed-fertilizer technology. It is found that the use of High
Yielding Verities has significant effects on enhancement of agricultural productivity in the lower parts and use of
fertilizer in the central as well as upper parts of the Brahmaputra valley. As a result, two really differentiated
scenarios of the change of agricultural productivity have been observed. First, the scenario of per humid weather
conditions with floods and natural calamities prevailing in the upper northern and lower parts of the valley
restricts productivity level and also creates variations in its areal pattern. And the second one is related to the
scenario of sub-humid climate of fertile alluvial soils (Morigaon - Dibrugarh area of upper southern part of the
valley) in which the processes of diffusion of seed-fertilizer technology are operated through the market centers
and intensification of rural road network. These conditions of agricultural practices increase productivity fast
with diversifying its areal patterns. Consequently, the obliterated pattern of productivity change is observed in
the valley.
Keywords: seed fertilizer technology, diversified pattern, point concentrated effect, line-aligned features.
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Sharma, Bishnu Prasad
Contribution of Leasehold Forestry in Reducing Poverty among Participating Households in Nepal
The paper analyzes the role of leasehold forestry (LHF), an innovative forest management regime being
experimented in the hills of Nepal with the objective of reducing poverty among participating households. LHFs
are degraded public forest lands granted on a 40 years lease to identified poor households with the purpose of
forest regeneration and raising forest incomes. Using micro-data collected from some 508 LHF households and
61 control households, the contribution of the LHF in reducing various dimensions of poverty and inequality has
been examined.
The findings reveal that LHF biomass contributed around 5 percent of household income. Though the non-LHF
households with similar poverty and resource characteristics receive about one fourth less biomass flow income
annually, the poverty incidence, poverty gap and severity among these two categories is not significantly different.
However, among LHF households, LHF income contributed to reduce poverty incidence, poverty gap and severity
by around 10, 17 and 22 percent respectively. Within the LHF households, there exists considerable inequality
in the biomass income from LHF and the LHF benefit sharing was not found to be pro-poor. The study concludes
that allocating land alone is not sufficient to ensure utilization and benefit flow for resource poor, socioeconomically weak people as high transaction cost and lack of strong economic incentives discourage defending
property right and utilization of leased forest land.
Keywords: Leasehold Forestry, non-market valuation, poverty impact, inequality
Sharma, Navita
Patterns, Utilization And Management Of Common Land – A Case Study Of District Una, Himachal
Pradesh, India.
Common land or as commonly known as Shamlat Land in North West India comprising states of Punjab, Haryana
and Himachal Pradesh, is an important common property resource. This is the land which is accessible to and
jointly used by people living in a particular geographical location such as villages or cluster of villages. It includes
community pastures, community forests, common dumping grounds, wastelands, etc. In developing countries
like India, this type of land is a significant component of the land resource base of rural communities. Common
land is most often a finite but replenishable resource, therefore it requires responsible use in order to
The study of patterns, utilization and management of common land is vital. It can provide interesting insights to
policy planners, administrators and community developers. This paper covers a district of Himachal Pradesh,
India. It examines the patterns, utilization and management of common land in the district. Data used in the
paper is collected personally from revenue records. However, the data is also supported by field work conducted
in selected villages of the district.
Keywords: common land, Himachal Pradesh
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Shethia, Yash
Rupam, Kumar
System Dynamics Modeling in Rajasthan: NGO Perspective
In December 2009, an international group of social scientists, forest ecology experts, energy engineers, and
system dynamics modelers gathered on the outskirts of the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary to scrutinize localized,
progressive deforestation and the linkages to livelihoods of populations that depend on forest products extracted
from within the federal delineations. This study, conducted for the purpose of designing sustainable conservation
policy, utilized participatory rural appraisal methods and expert testament to tap into local knowledge and
account for discrete behavioral aspects. A heavy reliance on community participation as well as group model
building afforded the construction of a system dynamics model that helps to quantify and map the economic
decisions of village households located within and around the sanctuary and the resulting ecological impacts on
the sanctuary. The resulting research model can be utilized to further study the depletion of this natural resource
due to human activity, and after subsequent model analysis and field testing, to suggest potential strategic points
of intervention and conservation policy. This paper identifies what worked, what didn’t, and how to improve
future efforts from the NGO perspective.
Keywords: system dynamics; computer simulation; participatory methods; capacity building
Shimada, Daisaku
How Can Societies Create Common Access to Nature? The Roots and Development Process of
the Bruce Trail, a Canadian Case Study
The relationship between nature and human beings is a fundamental theme of commons studies. Every economic
activity takes place because of ecological support. However, the relation between human beings and nature has
become invisible and indirect for us. Generally, it is supposed that the more invisible and indirect the relation,
the less attention we pay to the natural environment. In this sense, it is very important that society allow the right
of common access to nature so that people can appreciate and enjoy the blessings of nature.
From ancient times, access to nature was open to the public or local communities in many countries. However,
industrialization, urbanization, and urban sprawl have threatened the right of common access to nature. Some
regions - for example, Scandinavian countries - have sustained this right throughout industrialization and
globalization. On the other hand, in Japan, a district court denied the right of common access to the shore in
1978. Why do some regions succeed in maintaining the right of common access to nature, while some regions
fail?  How can we keep, reintroduce, create or transplant this right?
This paper explores these questions by clarifying the roots and development process of the Bruce Trail - 800km
of main trail and over 290km of associated side trails from Niagara to Tobermory along the Niagara Escarpment
- which has been built and maintained by the volunteer-based organization, the Bruce Trail Conservancy. It is
interesting how they have succeeded in creating such a long trail in a country that has a strong private land
ownership tradition. My conclusion is that they have transplanted ideas from other countries, in particular Norway,
while at the same time adjusting these ideas to the Canadian situation, as they have built a unique open-access
trail system.
Keywords: common access, the Bruce Trail, property right, case Studies, Canada
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Shivakoti, Ganesh
Evaluating Decentralized, Semi-Decentralized and Centralized Forest Management Regimes in
There is a growing trend towards decentralization of forest management in the developing nations of South and
South East Asia. Over the past two or three decades, Nepal has taken a lead in initiating innovative policies of
community-based forest management. Evan in the changing scenario, Nepal has been involved with a variety of
forest management practices, beginning with centralized forest management system and moving toward semidecentralized forest management system as leasehold forestry to decentralized community forestry management
system. Traditionally, centralized government control forests have been regarded as the appropriate solutions to
control the overexploitation of resources. Limited ascribing use and access right to leasehold forestry user group
is a forestry approach to address ecological restoration of degraded forests and poverty alleviation of rural
household, where as community forestry approach regarded as shifted policy toward encouraging participatory
system of management by local people. Not all of forestry management approaches are equally successful and
there is considerable debate about the role of property rights, operational rules and internal and external support
in managing the resources in a sustainable manner.
Forest inventory analysis in term of number of trees, saplings and diameter at breast height (DBH) indicates
considerable increase in forest condition within the community forests and moderate increase in leasehold
forests where as decline forest condition in government managed forests. Analysis of existing forest laws, policies
and local institutions studies, revels substantial variation among the three management regimes in terms of the
property rights regimes within which they function, the monitoring and harvesting rules, and the level of internal
and external support. In general, the leasehold forest groups had limited permission for harvesting products and
change operational rules however community forest groups enjoy the highest bundle of property rights and
better level of monitoring systems, In contrast, state forests have the weakest monitoring and management activities.
With limited downward accountability and state forced institutions which are relatively inflexible and unable to
adapt changing governance system lead neither to the betterment of forests, nor to the strengthening of local
communities. In many if not most instances, decentralization reforms tend to be louder needed in county like
Keywords: Decentralization, centralization, property rights, forest management regimes and rules at multiple
Short, Chris
Drainage, biodiversity and a landscape-scale solution: reviewing a UK delivery model
A project in the Severn Vale in England aims to ensure the long term conservation of an area of lowland peat that
has long since been enclosed and used for agriculture.  A small wildlife area survives but managing this alongside
the productive agricultural areas has proved contentious.  A new management approach was attempted 2 years
ago that recognised the potential for collaborative action that might stabilise the peat soils, and therefore carbon
emissions, and improve wildlife habitats, increase flood prevention and help to ensure that the area is managed
locally  using local skills and knowledge capacity. This paper is based on an evaluation of the delivery model
used to establish a local management group that is now the main link between the statutory agencies and the
management of the area.  This places the project within what is increasingly called an 'adaptive management'
context, a term used to describe projects that are looking to find solutions where there is ecological and social
uncertainty. In this case the uncertainty seems to have been replaced by a desire and willingness for ‘cos s238 13
management, through adopting a process that engages the local community and key local stakeholders while at
the same time fulfilling the requirements of statutory agencies.  The paper outlines the delivery model and
focuses on the ability of this delivery model to be transferred within the UK, where such approaches are rare, and
the implications of mainstreaming such an approach.
Keywords: habitats, delivery model, UK
Shukla, Nimisha
Iyengar, Sudarshan
Governing of Commons: The Bhoodaan Way
Vinoba Bhave, an ideologue of Gandhian thought and devout practitioner developed the Gandhian doctrine of
trusteeship and gave it a concrete form. He appealed big land owners and asked land as gift to be distributed to
landless poor. He called it Bhoodaan that gradually culminated into Gramdaan, where the land of the entire
village was donated to the community and treated as community property. Bhoodaan activity began in 1951 and
soon became a movement in whole of India. About 4 million acres or 1.6 million hectare of land was received
as daan – gift till 1970, when the activity ended. The land distributed to landless had inheritance rights but did
not give right to alienate. Bhoodaan is a case of collective ownership and private use.
 The paper will analyse the Bhoodaan and Gramdaan movement in India in the framework of common property
management and use of natural resources. The process of receiving land as a gift, its distribution to landless and
plans for production and management would be analysed. Unlike the traditional community based naturally
evolved systems of commons management for private and public economic benefits, Bhoodaan is a system that
is introduced to a community with basic principle and value of non-violence. It is expected that the communities
will experiment and naturalise it. The Land management policies of the State have failed in supporting the
commons and the livelihoods options of the people. Instead, in collaboration with business, it is privatising it for
building an industrial society. The paper would examine the theory of Bhoodaan as a case study and comment
whether it would simultaneously solve the problem of equity in land use in agriculture and also achieve ecological
sustainability in common property framework. 
Keywords: Bhoodan, Gramdan, right to alienate, livelihoods, equity in land use, ecological sustainability
Sikor, Thomas
Forest Commons? Smallholder Tree Plantations in Vietnam
Tree plantations have expanded significantly at the global scale. Vietnam has experienced a rapid expansion of
industrial tree plantations over the past decade, mirroring the general increase in Asia.  Yet Vietnam is also
special because a large share of the tree plantations are owned and managed by smallholders.  Smallholder
plantations have become a primary source of raw materials for the pulp and paper and wood chip industries as
well as the booming construction sector in Vietnam.
This paper seeks to identify the political and economic factors that influence smallholder tree plantations in
Vietnam.  It identifies the opportunities motivating smallholders to establish tree plantations, points out constraints
on their ability to benefit from the rapidly growing demand for wood and assess the effects of tree plantations on
local livelihoods.  Using data from empirical fieldwork in two provinces of Vietnam, the paper pays particular
attention to issues of access to land, finance, and wood markets. 
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The paper uses these insights to explore the reasons underlying highly individualized management practices. 
Although there are clear potential benefits to cooperation (e.g., joint marketing, labor exchange for harvesting,
technology dissemination, etc.), tree plantations are thoroughly household based.  The paper shows that the
opportunities available to households for engaging in tree planting is highly varied, as they are conditioned by
larger scale political and economic forces.  In particular, its findings attest to the importance of state policy as a
key differentiating force in Vietnam.  Land reforms have given secure land rights to individual households. 
Direct state involvement in the financial system may guarantee smallholders access to capital with suitable
conditions, but the access is highly individualized despite the existence of savings and loans groups.
Keywords: forest, tree plantations, social differentiation
Sikor, Thomas
Violence and the Commons: Dynamics of Property and Authority
Access and property regarding natural resources are intimately bound up with the exercise of power and authority
(Sikor and Lund 2009). The process of seeking authorizations for property claims, such as claims on forest
resources, also works to authorize the authorizing politico-legal institution, such as a forest management committee.
Applied to resources held in common, this recursive relationship implies that social actors attribute authority to
commons institutions once they seek to turn access into property by seeking endorsement from such institutions.
Vice versa, as the power of a particular commons institution becomes legitimized as authority, this process
simultaneously endorses some claims on resource commons over others. Violence confounds the picture. Violence
is a common means by which property rights get erased, weakened, strengthened and created. Violence is also
part of the repertoire available to politico-legal institutions seeking to solidify their power and to create new
grounds for claims of authority. Consequently, commons institutions may derive (part of) their power from the
exercise of violence. Property rights to commons may arise from threats and acts of violence. Reference to
commons may even legitimate violent practices. This paper discusses the conceptual relationship between
commons and violence. It proceeds on the basis of theorizing about the recursive relationship between negotiations
over access and property, on the one hand, and contestations about power and authority, on the other. The
conceptual relationship between commons and violence is also examined through a series of empirical cases.
Keywords: access, property, authority, violence
Singh, Katar
Tragedy of the Global Commons: Causes, Impacts and Mitigation
Global commons including climate, ecosystems and their services to human beings have been under great biotic
and abiotic pressures for decades now. Biodiversity is being lost at an almost unprecedented pace. Climate
change including such aberrations as global warming, floods, droughts, eruption of volcanoes, tsunamis, hurricanes
and, melting of glaciers will bring about rapid and unpredictable changes in the earth’s entire biophysical system
and adversely impact on human wellbeing. There are thus massive indications of a tragedy of global commons
caused partly by human activity and partly by natural factors. But times of crises are also times of opportunity.
There have been many initiatives in the past at both national and international levels to mitigate the adverse
impacts of climatic aberrations on human wellbeing and avert the tragedy of the global commons. But the
measures adopted followed conventional lines of unsustainable technological and economic practices and weak
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institutional structures.
There is a growing awareness now for the need for adoption of active public policies to create more sustainable
economic structures and processes to mitigate the tragedy of the global commons and avert the ecological crises.
Green accounting, green gross domestic product, a global Green New Deal, low carbon economy and a green
energy revolution are some of the catch phrases that now find their way into governance and management of
global commons.
The paper attempts to identify the causes of the tragedy of the global commons, assesses the impacts of the
tragedy and explores strategies and policy options for mitigation of the adverse impacts of  thetragedy.
The paper proposes a theoretical framework for diagnosing the root causes of the tragedy of the global commons
and explores alternative management regimes for the global commons. The strategy proposed comprises a mixture
of institutional, command and control, and market-based instruments, depending on the relative uniqueness and
resilience of the global commons in question. The paper is largely based on a review of the relevant literature
available on the subject and partly on the empirical work done by the author over the last three decades or so.
Keywords: global commons, tragedy, climate change, causes, impacts, green accounting
Singh Krishna Kumar
Lok Vaniki Policy
The Govt. Of Madhya Pradesh in 2001 has introduced scientific management of private forests under Lok-Vaniki
Act and rules in compliance of the Hon´ble Supreme Court’s directive. This is also in appreciation of the
worldwide growing concern of management of small-scale private forest. Madhya Pradesh is a leading State in
this respect. The State Govt. has entrusted the Government forest protection to the people under the Joint Forest
Management, a welcome step under the National Forest Policy. This places better trust in private forest management,
which can contribute substantially to the forest cover of the State. In addition to attaining the desired goals of
forest cover increase, it will improve rural economy on the whole and check illicit felling in the government
‘Lok Vaniki Adhiniyam 2001’ is a unique legislative Act, which for the first time in the country takes a paradigm
shift in the policy of Forest Management of Natural (pristine) Teak forest.
Taking the queue from the State owned Forests management plans, Lok Vaniki presented proposal to the Madhya
Pradesh State Govt. of preparing a scientific management plans for its over 1,00,00 hectare of natural forest on
private Revenue lands owned by more than 2000 farmers all over the State.
Project Objectives
• To create a long term concept for ecological forest management and a secure and sustained source of
income for farmers with small private forests
• To access domestic and global market which require a sustainable and scientifically managed forest
• To diversify to none nationalized timber for furniture and other wood based industries
• To create certifiable and managed forest on degraded land not suitable for agriculture
• To extend certification also to other crops grown by the respective farmers
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• To create ecotourism within these certified private forest areas in Madhya Pradesh
• To contribute to improved soil and water erosion control measures within the private forest areas in Madhya
• To systematically include some 100.000 hectares of private forest available, into the official carbon
management policy including credits for carbon sink 
•  Joint survey by Forest and Revenue Departments to Identifying undisputed forestland of farmers.
• Creation of Chartered Foresters who are qualified for preparing scientific management plans for the farmers
and also responsible for getting it passed by the District forest Office as per the Forest Conservation Act. 
• Prepare scientific management plan, by Chartered Foresters, of 10 years, for annual cut not more than 5%
of the woodlot, which makes it well within sustainable limits.
• Planting trees 1.5 times the cut,
• Monitoring by Forest Department, NGO and self-assessment
• Since the implementation of Lok Vaniki Act. Lands, which were Liability to the farmer with zero income,
have earned from Rs50,000/- to Rs5,00,000/- per annum.
• Increasing forest cover
• Looking at the benefits has given incentive for new plantation.
Keywords: forests, Lok Vaniki Act, benefits
Singh, Neha
Narayanan, N.C.
Efficacy of Groundwater as ‘Commons’: An Enquiry into the Implementation of Groundwater
(Control and Regulation) Bill of 1992 in selected States in India
Though in India water has been perceived as a common pool resource (CPR) for centuries, in the current scenario,
water as ‘commons’ exists more in theory than in reality. The case of groundwater is even more complex considering
the present state of prescription under the Indian law where ownership of land carries the ownership of the
groundwater under it. This has resulted in the excessive, indiscriminate use of groundwater leading to over
exploitation. The pressure on ground water resources has increased many folds in the recent past with the shifts
in the agricultural patterns, urban growth and rising demands from various sectors of the economy. Central
Groundwater Board data paints a gloomy picture of the status of the groundwater resources across the country
with an increasing number of ‘critical’ and over exploited’ blocks. This critical state of ground water resources
has led to the urgent need for groundwater regulation in India. The Model Groundwater (Control and Regulation)
Bill of 1992 was formulated and circulated by the Central Government for the consideration of the states, and
eventually been adopted in many states across the country. This paper examines the effectiveness of the Model
Bill with the analysis of the provisions of the Bill as well as implementation challenges in the various states in
India. The paper also addresses the larger debate on the issue of groundwater as commons.
Keywords: groundwater, commons, regulation, over exploitation, India
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Singh, Poonam Jayant
Tyagi, Lalit Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep K
Global Genetic Resource Commons: Conflicting Regulatory Framework in Intellectual Property
Genetic resources constitute a vital part of biodiversity inherited by mankind from generations before us. Genetic
resources are governed by a number of laws including CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) for access and
benefit sharing of genetic resources, conservation and its sustainable use, ITPGRFA (International Treaty on Plant
Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture) for Plant Genetic Resources, the Interlaken Declaration for Animal
Genetic Resources for promotion of livestock biodiversity to promote global food security. The Intellectual
property (IP) system has been linked to biodiversity, traditional knowledge and genetic resources as IP is seen as
a principal component to extract benefits our of traditionally held and conserved genetic pool and knowledge
associated with it.. At international level significant unsolved issues exist about scope of access, regulation and
sovereignty over genetic resources and traditional knowledge like regulations for disclosure of origin and prior
informed consent. The developing countries have earmarked the patent monopoly suiting their needs arising out
of creations of mind, but the knowledge associated with genetic resources and traditional knowledge has been
categorized into Prior Art suiting the needs of Developed countries. For their benefit all genetic resources have
been put together as “common heritage of mankind” and the benefits are being reaped by developed countries.
The need of the hour is to streamline international regulations and treaties, which provide access and benefit
sharing regimes incorporated in the TRIPS agreement with mandatory provisions under WTO for the knowledge
holders and conservers of genetic resource biodiversity.
Keywords: access and benefit sharing, intellectual property, genetic resources, trips, WTO, CBD, ITPGRFA
Sinha, Bhaskar
Achieving Conservation and Livelihood: A Case Study from Orissa, India
The forest policies are primarily reviewed from time to time on the assessment of function of formal/state institutions
responsible for conservation and management of forest. However, a variety of informal institutions embedded
with social and human capitals, operating at grassroots level, do not get recognized for their conservation potential
by the policy makers as these institutions are legally not recognized. Besides, there is lack of scientific methodology
to empirically measure the effectiveness of these institutions. Consequently, there exists a knowledge gap between
the appreciation of issues between the policy establishment and that of the stakeholders at the local level.
Through an interdisciplinary approach, we provide empirical evidences in favour of local institutions regulating
community based forest management (CFM) in the state of Orissa, India and present model for sustainable
The integrated approach of remotes sensing, GIS and field inventory developed in the study is an important
scientific contribution to monitoring of the forest cover and livelihood studies at a village level, where majority
of CFM operates. By virtue of statistical soundness of the methodology, the study has provided convincing and
easily understandable results in favour of community based forest management in Orissa as a viable option
towards forest protection and management. The comparative analysis on the livelihood patterns in the three
districts of the state revealed that CFM has contributed towards forest protection and regeneration; however, the
potential of forest towards livelihood enhancement is not yet fully realized. The study further discusses a model
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to achieve ecological sustainability on one hand and enhancing incomes of the forest-dependent communities
on the other hand.
Keywords: community based forest management, integrated natural resource management, ecological
sustainability, livelihood enhancement
Sinha, Bhaskar
Basu, Anoma; Katiyar, Anuj Singh
Adapting to climate change: Opportunities under NREGA
The impact of climate change would be the most severe for the poor communities, living in the developing
nations with limited options for livelihood and high level of dependence on the natural resources. The impacts
would increase the food insecurity, water stress and extreme weather events which would affect the livelihood
security of these communities and increase their vulnerability. It is therefore important that development
programmes targeting such communities should be underpinned with the measures of adaptation to climate
change. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), implemented on a national scale is one such
programme that creates employment by undertaking diverse activities aimed towards water harvesting, drought
proofing, flood protection and plantations.
The study evaluates the ecological and economic impact of NREGA in Panna, a drought-prone district of M.P.
Threat in relation to climate change, would be more severe as the district is characterized by high level of poverty
(72% of population under BPL) and less irrigated land (11.8%). Construction of wells, renovation/construction of
ponds, plantations and watershed management are some of the major activities being implemented. These
activities are measures towards adaptation to climate change apart from having direct outputs in terms of enhanced
agricultural productivity due to increased availability of water and land conservation. Results show an increase
in irrigated land by 26% and subsequent increase in their average household income by 15%. In case of Kapil
Dhara (construction of well on individual land), there is 100% increase of irrigated land and 45% increase in
their income.
With respect to people’s perceptions, more than 50% of the respondents ranked prevention of soil erosion and
increased soil moisture as the most important benefits accrued due to plantation, but only after they were briefed
about different benefits including wage employment, materiel and ecological benefits. This indicates that
sensitization of the masses towards role of NREGA in climate change adaptation would add to people’s appreciation
and participation in the program for championing development with adaptation.
Keywords: climate change adaptation, NREGA, food security, water scarcity, soil moisture
Sinha, Himadri
Halting the Forest Degradation: Search for Livelihood Based Forest Conservation in India
In India forest felling causes 1-2% depletion of forest annually. Rapid industrialization is likely to consume
around 5% forest in near future. In this background steady decline of forest is inevitable unless alternative
measures are adopted. This will have grave consequence both on climate as well as people’s livelihood.
 In India nearly 3 million people directly depend on forest for their living. However, they thrive on subsistence
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economy hence vulnerable to exploitation. Drawing example from remunerative livelihood based forest
conservation models as promoted in India, the paper discusses the viability of forest conservation by the forest
communities under sustainable livelihood regimes.
Paper analyses three remunerative livelihood based forest conservation approaches viz. Eco Forestry, Sustainable
NTFP Based Livelihood Management, and Community Forestry for Tasar (Silk worm) Culture. These models
were studied as separate cases and a comparative analysis was then drawn. It has been observed that while eco
forestry scheme generated year round fuel wood for forest communities besides doubling forest user’s income
without impairing forest health, Sustainable NTFP Based Livelihood and Community Forestry for Tasar Culture
resulted three times higher income, one and half times more employment days besides ensuring the sustainable
use of NTFP and Tasar hosts plants.
Keywords: forest, livelihood, tasar, commons, India
Sinha, Himadri
Mishra, Shailendra
Forest Management in Central India: Conflicting Agglomeration of Maoist, Displacement, Poverty
and Conservation of Forest
For past five years the Central Indian States (Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa) have become the hub of new
industrial activities. Large scale mining activities and setting up of new industrial plants particularly in tribal
dominated districts have caused massive displacement. Apart from tribal displacement, such industrial activities
are also causing mass scale acquisition of forested area as most minerals are covered under forest flora. There is
growing violent resistant against mass displacement. Sensing the deep public disenchantment, Maoist in the garb
of people’s messiah, have mobilised an arms rebellion against industrialization and government establishment.
Forest has become their hideouts and in many places with the passive support of locals they virtually turned
these forests into their own self styled republic.
These two developments virtually made all traditional forest protection activities: government sponsored Joint
Forest Management Activities and NGO activities related to forest protection defunct. Maoist has banned the
movement of all forest products without their permission. For forest dependent communities this has caused
further impoverishment as they cannot collect the NTFP and sell it freely. As a result such communities become
indifferent about forest management. In this back drop the paper analyses the implication of present influx of
industrialization, growing Maoist clout in forest area and public dissension against all these development and
the government establishment. Paper also explored new arrangement of forest protection and management with
public, people and corporate partnership. Drawing example from Central Indian States paper emphasized that
by sensitizing industry as well as people with alternate development opportunities, a more viable joint management
can be worked out with broader public, people and corporate partnership for forest conservation and NTFP
management. Cases from state of Orissa and Jharkhand showed that industries do adopt a positive outlook
towards forest management for ensuring better business environment. People when they find viable livelihood
contribute more pragmatically to forest management. Government’s responsibility in such cases is to nurture
such environment.
Keywords: forest, livelihood, NTFP, commons, India
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Sivamohan, MVK
Kumar, Dinesh
Pampered Views and Parrot Talks: In the Cause of Well Irrigation in India
The paper reveals some of the fallacies in Indian irrigation. They are as follows. Groundwater is a democratic
resource; access to well irrigation is more equitable than canals; well irrigation is more productive than canal
irrigation and therefore is superior to canal irrigation. Surface irrigation is becoming increasingly irrelevant in
India’s irrigation landscape in spite of growing investments, and therefore future investments in the sector should
be diverted for well irrigation. The growth in well irrigation in semi arid regions of India can be sustained by
recharging the aquifers using local runoff. Well irrigation can boost agricultural growth and eradicate poverty in
water-abundant eastern India.
The paper makes the following arguments. The inherent advantages of surface irrigation system over well irrigation
such as higher system dependability and the ability to effectively address spatial mismatch in resource availability
and demand, means the second is not a substitute for the first. The use of outdated irrigation management
concepts which treat “drainage” as waste leads to underassessment of efficiency of surface systems. Sustaining
well irrigation in semi arid and arid regions would need “imported surface water” rather than local runoff for
recharging. The use of simple statistics of “area irrigated’ to pass judgments about performance of surface irrigation
systems is sheer misuse of statistics, as there are complex socio-economic and hydrological processes adversely
affecting their performance, which are beyond the institutional capacity of irrigation agencies to control. Well
irrigation alone cannot boost agricultural growth and reduce poverty in eastern India as the region has very low
per capita arable land, and offers low marginal returns from irrigation owing to high humidity and rainfall.
Finally, to conclude improving the performance of irrigation systems, be it gravity or well, and sustaining the
country’s irrigation growth is a governance challenge.
Keywords: India, irrigation, agriculture growth, poverty reduction, governance
Smith, Henk
Complex Commons under Threat of Mining and Development: The Process for and Content of a
Community Veto
The Sekuruwe community of Mokopane district lost much of its land to an international mining company when
the cabinet member responsible for communal trust land leased the valuable agricultural land with the approval
of the distant leadership of the larger tribe, but without talking to or negotiating with the community itself. Three
hundred families lost their best mealie fields and vegetable gardens, and their best communal grazing land,
springs and dams. Their gravesites were moved, and they lost access to their sacred places to make place for a
tailings dam of the world’s richest platinum mine. They would never have agreed to sell or lease their land. The
community lost most of its commons and is now challenging the minister’s decision in the South African law
courts. It is fighting to retain its soul.
The Protection of Land Rights Act requires that communal land cannot be disposed without a decision in terms
of its customary law and the consent of a general meeting of affected community members, and the South
African constitution insists on the recognition of customary law. The minerals act [MPRDA] supersedes the
tenure laws and allows the state to authorise mining with minimal recognition of the rights of owners and
occupiers. In the court litigation proceedings and other advocacy measures adopted by the community leadership,
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like elsewhere, customary law is and is pitted against the powerful external driver in the form of national state
law designed to further class interests.
The stories of the Sekuruwe and Enderois communities are replete, and the urgent project at hand is to guide and
debate the rules and procedure of engagement between miners, developers and the owners/users of commons.
The paper will explore
• thevoicesof owners, users and occupiers of commons,
• theboundaries of their authority, their living local or customary rules, procedures and institutions,
• equality of arms and bargaining strengths,
• ecological, sustainability and other interests.
All of these must be considered to give substance to the demand that any disposal of commons must be subject
to the consent and veto power of its users, and the concomitant implications for governance of commons. A veto
power gives legal political impetus and grounding for governance arrangements.
The paper will also cover developments in international soft law on the application of the FPIC principle to
commons and community property.
Keywords: law, mining, consent under customary law
Smith, Margaret (Peggy) Anne
Applying Indigenous Traditional Knowledge in Forest Management in Canada: Moving Beyond
Across Canada, governments—provincial and federal—are exploring the application of Indigenous Traditional
Knowledge (ITK) in forest management. Some governments have enshrined the use of ITK in policy; others are
more tentative. Indigenous peoples themselves ask that their knowledge be considered in trying to solve the
complex environmental problems being faced across the country—from infestations of mountain pine beetle
attributed to climate change to maintenance of wildlife habitat and protection of local water systems during
timber harvesting. What is the state of application of ITK in forest management in Canada? This study is based on
a synthesis of the knowledge in this field. The study reviewed existing literature and examined case studies
across Canada. Results show that: 1) there are still major issues to be solved around “ownership, control, access
and possession” of Indigenous knowledge before Indigenous people are comfortable sharing this knowledge, 2)
some Indigenous communities have been able to negotiate agreements with the State that are leading to operational
changes in forest operations; and 3) mutual learning can lead to improved outcomes in forest management that
respect the rights and values of Indigenous peoples while maintaining science-based decision-making.
Keywords: Indigenous Peoples, knowledge, forests, governance, Canada
Snorek, Julie
Contested Views of the Causes of Social Collapse among Pastoralists in Northern Niger
Pastoral nomads of the Sahel in West Africa traditionally adapt to many climactic extremes. Due to their mobility,
it is perceived that pastoral peoples are less vulnerable to the threats of climate change (McLeman 2006, Henry
2004). However, over the course of the last forty years, with climate as a proximal cause, Tuareg and WoDaaBe
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Fulani pastoralists in Tahoua, Niger are choosing a sedentary lifestyle in direct contradiction to their traditional
values. The result is a failure of their pastoral system. By capturing the life histories of these former nomads, this
study will illustrate how their views, however conflicting, are forming new models of adaptation and cultural
Keywords: migration, IDPs, drought, nomadic, pastoralists, Tuareg, Wodaabe, Sahel
Sreenivasan, Vinay
Streets as Urban Commons
In Indian cities today, streets(1) serve various purposes – for transport, as market spaces to earn livelihoods, to
source goods, to sleep (for the homeless), as socialising spaces in the form of street-side benches, and as urban
forestry locations. As such, streets are shared resources where all stakeholders have equal interests and hence
streets should be considered as commons.
In recent times, State policies and programmes have created imbalances in access and use of streets. For instance,
in Bangalore the increasing number of personalised motor transport (cars and two-wheelers) is causing congestion.
Attempting to reduce congestion, the government is building flyovers and widening roads. These measures are
increasing motorable road space on streets and drastically reducing the amount of space for other components –
pavements, trees, street-side benches. Hence streets are being conducive only for motorised transport users,
while restricting access for pedestrians, vendors and the homeless. Additionally certain state actions are reducing
access for street vendors(2). Overall streets as commons are abused, their relationship with people becoming
One cause for the abuse is that there are no laws or customs governing the use of streets. Streets are not traditional
commons and have no customary laws governing them; the present legal framework in India (the Public Trust
Doctrine largely) is restricted to the natural commons. Contributing to the abuse is the lack of recognition of
streets as commons in popular discourse coupled with the absence of discussion on the rights of all citizens to
adequately use streets.
There is a need for research to show how streets serve various sections of the community and also analyze the
impact of increasing the road-space on streets. There is also a pressing need for a greater discussion on the
framing of streets as commons. Meanwhile, various inclusive options based on principles of social justice and
equity need to be explored, to govern the usage of streets. Else streets will soon turn into roads serving only the
needs of motorised transport users, often the dominant communities in cities.
(1) Streets is being used here as that entity which encompasses roads, pavements, street-side trees, street
furniture like benches etc
(2) The Urban Development Department of the state of Karnataka, India recently issued a circular asking for
corporations to limit access to street vendors – in terms of which streets they can use, the timings when they
an ply their trade, what sort of goods can be sold etc.
Keywords: streets, governance, commons, equitable use, Bangalore
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Sridhar, Aarthi
Rodriguez, Sudarshan
Shifting Discourse: Analysing State and Community Relations on Rights and Governance of Coastal
Commons in India
The beach front and the coast play a crucial socio-economic and socio-cultural role in the lives of traditional
fishing communities. Historically, communities have evolved an intimate relation with particular stretches of
coastline that they use, the area that is in front of their settlement and extends on either side of their settlements.
In addition, the sea shore is an integral part of their social, cultural and economic fabric; the way their communities
are organised. 
This paper first gives an overview and history of the governance of coastal spaces by fishing communities and
then the State in India. It illustrates the use of beach space by fishing communities and their governance patterns
illustrating its critical linkage to their livelihood through select case studies from Tamil Nadu, India.
The paper also traces the historical demands of fisher communities to the State, for rights over these spaces of
access and the use of beach space, as well as regulate the entry of external actors. The paper traces and examines
the response of the State and the campaigns against the ‘reform process’ and deregulation of coastal management
legislation in India. We focus also on the development and articulation of demands for coastal land rights made
by fisher communities and juxtapose this these narratives with the changes in community governance patterns of
the coastal commons. The paper analyses the factors influencing the relationship between the State and the
communities over the issue of land rights, given the challenges of community governance and State initiatives. 
In conclusion, our paper makes a case for a revised approach to coastal land use and land rights suggesting the
need to modify existing land use and rights based policies to accommodate and recognise the dynamics of
community-based governance structures and patterns.
Keywords: coasts, rights, governance, fisherfolk, State
Srinivasan, Jeena Thathamath
Property Rights Issues in Seasonally Altering Multiple Use Wetlands: A Study of Kole Wetlands,
Wetlands which face several anthropogenic and other threats are complex ecosystems providing substantial
benefits to human society. This paper examines the property rights issues associated with Kole wetlands, a
Ramsar site in Kerala, India which is a complex wetland resource. The nature of property rights associated with
this resource changes according to its seasonal alteration giving rise to complex management issues under the
existing wetland agriculture –fishery interactions. The paper places the livelihood issues within the seasonally
altering property rights regime and identifies the various inter-linkages and feedbacks between various uses of
wetlands each having varied property rights. Both secondary and primary data have been used to examine the
property rights issue of the wetlands. Further qualitative primary data have been organised under the Driver
Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework to understand wetland-agriculture/fishery interactions and
the various pressures facing the ecosystem. It is seen that the property rights on the wetlands ranges from private
property to common property according to the seasonal alteration of the ecosystem and the use to which it is put
to. It is also observed that various types of onsite and offsite livelihood activities supported by the Kole lands are
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sometimes in conflict with each other. While the existing institutional mechanism of Padasekharams play a
major role in governing agricultural use mainly rice cultivation of the wetland they fail to do so when it alters to
a completely flooded wetland ecosystem. The study explores the reasons for this failure as well.
Keywords: Property Rights, seasonal alteration, multiple use, DPSIR, Kole wetlands, India
Sugimoto, Ayumi
Decentralization and Ignored Local Dynamics: A Case Study on CBFM in the Philippines
Decentralization has emerged as a major strategy for many developing countries to achieve environmental
management, and it has created new local commons. Existing empirical studies on the subject have been attentive
to the dynamics among user groups and the multi-level dynamics. On the contrary, these studies focus very little
on heterogeneity among villagers   user group members and non user group members inside a village, and how
these heterogeneity affect the outcome of decentralization. This research seeks to shed new light on the study of
decentralized natural resource governance by focusing on relations between these two actors.
In this case study, the forest which is under Community-based Forest Management (CBFM) in the Philippines
today, has provided various livelihood resources to the all villagers as communal forest for a long time. Most
villagers survive by using three types of land: (1) upland/forest for fuel woods and timbers, (2) backyard for
vegetables and fruits, and (3) lowland for rice. By decentralized forest policies, however, only user group members
can legally access its resources inside the CBFM area, the policy divides the villagers into members and nonmembers. CBFM area to the members means resources of fuel woods and timbers, on the other hand, non
members think it is important as a watershed for providing water to lowland rice field. Most of the non members
want the members non to utilize any forest product inside CBFM area for preventing soil erosion and lack of
water, moreover, they complain the foresters if they give cutting permissions to the members. These pressures by
the non-members result in protection from excessive forest utilization inside CBFM area. Therefore this ignored
local dynamics affects CBFM project implementation process in different ways of other actors like local government,
forestry bureau and NGOs which are focused on so far.
Keywords: decentralization, local dynamics, heterogeneity, Community-based Forest Management, Republic of
the Philippines
Sulemana, Nuhu
Incentives for Farmers for the Management of On-Farm Timber Trees in Ghana
In Ghana, farms and fallow lands contain more timber trees than the remaining of the natural forest. On-farm
timber trees are however under a great threat because farmers are destroying them. An important reason is that
farmers do not get any benefit for keeping timber trees on their farms. The aim of the research was therefore to
find possible ways of sharing forest benefits to include farmers. Perceptions of stakeholders on roles played in
on-farm timber production, and on how forest benefits can be shared to include farmers, were investigated. The
research also focused on determining how farmers could be motivated to keep on-farm timber trees and sought
stakeholders’ views on a possible benefit sharing scheme that includes farmers.
The research employed the use of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods including questionnaires, interviews
and Focus Group Discussions (FGD’s). Results obtained, were later validated    with    thevariousstakeholders.
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The study on stakeholders’ roles revealed very interesting findings. For instance, whilst some stakeholders saw
the Traditional Council’s role as giving support to the timber companies to have ‘trouble free’ operations, they
saw themselves as educating farmers to preserve trees. The Stool landowners saw their role as educating farmers
and protecting trees from fire, while other stakeholders did not see them doing anything in on-farm timber tree
management. Additionally, the District Assembly (DA) role was seen to be more of providing infrastructural
development but not being directly involved in on-farm tree management. The Forestry Commission (FC) saw
their role to be in the preparation of trees for felling and monitoring logging activities, but some other stakeholders
saw their roles as being limited to the reserved forest.
Sampling of stakeholders’ views on the inclusion of farmers in forest benefit sharing showed that on average, the
farmer should receive 9.4% of timber revenue. Findings of the research also pointed that farm input and implements,
cash, adequate compensation and infrastructural improvement were incentives that could motivate farmers to
keep on-farm tree.
An important conclusion of the study is that, there is a general lack of awareness among stakeholders of each
others’ roles in the management of on-farm timber trees. Also farmers will be motivated to keep timber trees if
they receive a share of timber revenue. Moreover, there is a general willingness on the part of stakeholders to
include the farmer in the current benefit sharing scheme. The general view was to reduce the share of the FC and
the DA in order to includethe farmer in the scheme.
It is recommended that immediate research should concentrate on drawing the line between what stakeholders
say they do, (what they should do) and what they actually do. Also, a cost benefit analysis is needed to determine
the actual cost of inputs that the various stakeholders make into on-farm timber production and the commensurate
benefit. Further research should also focus on the possibility of giving farmers benefits annually for keeping
timber trees on their farm. In the interim, a new scheme is recommended to improve the situation of on-farm
timber production.
Keywords: On-farm timber trees, incentives, farmers, benefit sharing scheme, Ghana
Sultana, Mahmudah Roksena
Impacts of Co-management Activities on Livelihoods in Satchari National Park
Bangladesh has declared 19 protected areas under the Wildlife Preservation Amendment Act (1974) including
national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves. To reduce the dependency of local people on protected
areas, the Forest Department initiated in 2004 the Nishorgo Support Project (NSP). NSP identified local stakeholders
and formed forest users groups (FUGs), community patrolling groups, and community management committees
to provide local people with alternative income generating activities consistent with conservation. This project
sought to assess the effect of collaborative management activities on rural livelihoods in 4 villages outside Satchari
National Park by comparing the livelihood status of FUG members to non-members; and to assess whether there
has been any change in the forest dependency of these 4 communities or in the condition of the forest following
NSP activities. I gathered both primary and secondary data; primary data collection techniques included household
surveys, focus group discussions, and key informants interviews. The study found that FUG members received
support to invest in alternative income generating activities such as plant nurseries, livestock rearing, fish culture
and other activities. This support had a positive impact on the livelihoods of people who participated in them
with only 5% of FUG members involved in forest resources extraction whereas 49% of non FUG members were
engaged in forestry related activities. Out of 17,836 households living in and around the park, however, only
508 were FUG members and among these only 189 households received support for alternative income generating
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activities. Project results question whether alternative income generating activities can ever be sufficient to have
a significant impact on forest condition.
Keywords: forests, co-management
Sultana, Parvin
Adaptive Learning Networks for Improved Floodplain Management
Adaptive learning is a structured process of “learning by doing” that emphasises the learning process in
management. Previous work on adaptive learning networks has focused on exchanges between individuals or
focused on technical aspects of resource management across villages. However, co-management is increasingly
being adopted in floodplain commons. In Bangladesh many community based organizations (CBOs) have been
formed and left to continue managing wetlands when projects ended. Over 250 existing CBOs involved in
managing floodplain natural resources were brought together into a learning network. The CBOs identified
lessons and good practices and spread their adoption. They identified gaps and opportunities, and coordinated
innovation to address common problems. 
The adaptive learning process evolved through workshops among CBO leaders at a regional level and two-way
communication between leaders and members of their CBOs. By bringing together CBOs that h