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EVALUATION OF POSSIBLE INSTALLATION OF CO 2
CAPTURE FACILITIES IN AN EXISTING IGCC PLANT CAPTURE FACILITIES IN AN EXISTING IGCC PLANT
Authors: 
Claudio Allevi, Refinery Development Manager, SARAS
Gasification Technology Conference, October 2008 – Washington (USA)
Rosa Domenichini, Technical Director, Foster Wheeler Italiana
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
•   Global reduction in emission of 30% in developed world by 2020 is
expected  to be required
EU di     ti h i   i         ll t   di t •   EU directive on greenhouse gas emissions allowance trading system
(post Kyoto) will consider the opportunities offered by CCS
•   Energy efficiency and renewables help but do not solve the problem Energy efficiency and renewables help but do not solve the problem
•   Significant CO 2 reductions cannot be achieved if we do not capture
CO 2 from industrial installations (re. to EU Directive-draft-23/01/08)
•   Pre-combustion  CCS  is  a  sound  technical  choice  to  combat  climate
change
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TOPICS
•  What is SARAS?
•  Description of the existing IGCC plant p g          p
•  CO 2 capture from an existing IGCC plant
•  CO 2 capture options CO 2 capture options 
-    “Minimum” capture
-    “Maximum” capture
•  Conclusions
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SARAS IN A SNAPSHOT PURE PLAY REFINER WITH STABILIZATION
OF RETURNS FROM POWER GENERATION
• 300,000 bl/day high complexity refinery 
integrated with petrochemical & power
Arcola
•    diesel yield above 50%, the highest amongst 
European listed refiners
ITALY
SPAIN
• Marketing activities based in
Tank farm
•    flexible operations to exploit market 
opportunities 
Retail stations
Ulassai
Sarroch
Sardinia
Cartagena
Marketing activities based in 
the high diesel demand regions 
of Italy and Spain
Wind farm
Sagunto
Biodiesel Plant
Tank farm
• Investing also in renewable energy
Refinery&Power plant
Tank farm • World’s largest liquid fuel gasification
plant, converting heavy bottoms into 
clean gas, fed into a 575 MW CCGT
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•    72 MW wind farm located in Sardinia
•    fuel oil yield close to zero 
COMPETITIVE POSITIONING
FLEXIBILITY AS A FURTHER SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
• Flexible refinery configuration allows to run Flexible refinery configuration allows to run 
simultaneously up to 5 different crudes
• Technological enhancements to our 
processing units and improved logistic 
i  f     t     t         ff    th ibilit   t infrastructure offer the possibility to run 
“unconventional” crudes (higher value)
• Strategic location, in the center of the 
Mediterranean Sea, enhances flexibility of  , y
supply
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Saras’ 2007 main crude sources
IGCC – Existing Plant Block Flow Diagram
Air  Air Air 
Separation
Gasification Syngas  Syngas 
Oxygen
OVER THE FENCE
Gasification
Island
Syngas 
Saturation
Acid Gas 
Removal
Syngas 
Treatment
Heavy Oil
St
Syngas Syngas
Gas Turbines
El.Power
Filter Cake
Steam
Sulphur
Recovery
Hydrogen 
Production
Steam Turbines
HRSGs Utilities
Gasification Technology Conference, October 2008 – Washington (USA) ©  Saras  All rights reserved         6
Hydrogen
Sulphur
IGCC CONFIGURATION
•   Gasification Unit (3 x 33% trains): •   Gasification Unit (3 x 33% trains): 
•    152 t/h heavy oil
•    “low pressure direct quench” GE Energy (ex Texaco) 
•   Syngas Treatment (2 x 50% trains): •   Syngas Treatment (2 x 50% trains):
•    Heat recovery by steam generation and water preheating
•    COS hydrolysis
•   Acid Gas Removal (2 x 50%): •   Acid Gas Removal (2 x 50%):
•    UOP (Selexol TM ) 
•   Hydrogen Purification (60000 Nm 3 /h):
•    Membranes/PSA •    Membranes/PSA 
•   Combined Cycle (3 x 33% single shaft trains):
•    GT GE 9E (135 MWe) – ST GE (60 MWe)
•    185 t/h MP/LP steam export to refinery
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185 t/h MP/LP steam export to refinery
•   SRU & Tail Gas Treatment
IGCC AVAILABILITY
Pl    t  St   t        i    2000   IGCC        il  bilit    h      i d  d      t    th    t    h  i    l Plant  Start-up  in  2000.  IGCC  availability  has  increased  due  to  the  technical
improvements and to the O&M management optimisation.
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NOTE: Plant availability includes also the scheduled shutdown
IGCC PERFORMANCE
Gasification Feed Flowrate t/h 152
Syngas Thermal Power (gasification scrubber outlet) MWth 1474.0
Hydrogen Production Nm 3 /h 60,000
Hydrogen Production MWth 180
LP Steam Export to refinery t/h 80
MP Steam Export to refinery t/h 100
Steam Export (overall) MWth 142 Steam Export (overall) MWth 142
Power Output from 1 GT MWe 135
Power Output from 1 ST MWe 60
Gross Power Output MWe 585
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CO 2 Capture from an Existing IGCC Plant
•     ALTERNATIVE 1:     Minimum capture of CO 2 contained in syngas ex 
gasification 
•     ALTERNATIVE 2:     Maximum capture with addition of two CO shift stages 
(approx. 85%)
Typical Syngas Composition (current operation)
Ex Gasification
% vol.
H 2 O 55 %
H 2 20 %
CO 20 %
CO 2 5%
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2
ALTERNATIVE 1 -  CO 2 Minimum Capture Case
REQUIRED INSTALLATION REQUIRED INSTALLATION :
•     AGR modification (New CO 2 absorber and new flash gas compressors)
•     New CO 2 drying and compression unit 2 y   g p
•     Modifications to gas turbine burners
•     Implementation of SCR in HRSGs (NO x control)
CHECK REQUIRED:
•     Sulphur Recovery Unit
•     Nitrogen/Steam injection alternative to SCR
Gasification Technology Conference, October 2008 – Washington (USA) ©  Saras  All rights reserved         11
ALTERNATIVE 1 - CO 2 Minimum Capture Case
Ai
CO 2 
Compression
CO 2
Air 
Separation
Syngas 
S  t     ti
Oxygen
Air
AGR 
Compression
OVER THE FENCE
Gasification
Island
Saturation
Acid Gas 
R l
Syngas 
Treatment
Heavy Oil
Syngas
CO 2 capture
Gas Turbines
Removal
El P
Filter Cake
Steam
Syngas
Syngas
Sulphur
Recovery
Hydrogen 
Production
Steam Turbines
HRSGs Utilities
El.Power
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Hydrogen
Sulphur
ALTERNATIVE 2 - CO 2 Maximum Capture Case
REQUIRED INSTALLATION : REQUIRED INSTALLATION :
•  New water-gas shift conversion unit (2 stages) 
•  New AGR Unit (possible re-use of H 2 S absorber and regenerator) (p 2 g )
•  New CO 2 drying and compression unit
•  Modification to gas turbine burners 
•  Implementation of SCR in HRSGs (NO x Control)
REQUIRED CHECK :
•  Possible by-pass membrane of hydrogen  production  unit Possible by pass membrane of hydrogen  production  unit
•  Sulphur recovery unit
•  Nitrogen/steam injection alternative to SCR
•  Cooling water system
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g y
ALTERNATIVE 2 - CO 2 Maximum Capture Cases/
Increase of CO 2 content by means of shift reaction
Air Air 
Separation
Gasification Syngas  Syngas 
CO 2 Oxygen
Air
CO 2
compression
OVER THE FENCE
Gasification
Island
Syngas 
Saturation
Acid Gas 
Removal
(H S & CO )
Syngas 
Treatment
Petcoke
Syngas Shift Reaction
Gas Turbines
(H 2 S & CO 2 )
El P
Solid by-products
Steam
Syngas Shift Reaction
Sulphur
Recovery
Hydrogen 
Production
Steam Turbines
HRSGs Utilities
El.Power
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Hydrogen
Sulphur
Gasification Feed Flowrate t/h 152
IGCC Performance
Syngas Thermal Power 
(gasification scrubber outlet)
MWth          1,474
Hydrogen Production MWth 180
ALT. 1 ALT. 2
Power Output from 1 GT MWe 135 132.4 132.5
Steam Export MWth          142.1
Power Output from 1 ST MWe 59.7 57.4 46.97
Gross Power Output MWe 584.1 569.4 538.4
Power Consumption MWe 63.8 93.5 112.1
Net Electric Power Produced MWe 520 3 476 426 3 Net Electric Power Produced MWe 520.3 476 426.3
Net Electric Power difference MWe - 44.4 - 94.0
CO 2 captured t/h 84.6 442.9
CO 2 capture rate % ∼16 ∼85
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Loss of Power over carbon capture        kWt/CO 2 0.52 0.21
ALTERNATIVE 1 ALTERNATIVE 2
CO 2 captured t/year 680,000 3,550,000
Net Electric Power  Reduction MW 44.4 94
Electric Power for capture MW/t CO 2 0.52 0.21
Electric Power Cost for Capture (*) €/t CO 2 44.2 17.9
(*) based on  85 €/MWh
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( ) based on  85 €/MWh
Preliminary costs have been evaluated  Further investigation is  Preliminary costs have been evaluated. Further investigation is 
required to better define the investment cost
•   Revamping of the existing unit versus grass roots
•   Impact on the other units
•   Transportation and storage to be investigated Transportation and storage to be investigated 
Gasification Technology Conference, October 2008 – Washington (USA) ©  Saras  All rights reserved         17
CONCLUSIONS
•   CO 2 market and power  scenario have significant impact on the 
economics – high cost of electricity will penalize the redditivity
•   CO 2 minimum capture appears not to be attractive
•   CO  maximum capture can be viable •   CO 2 maximum capture can be viable
•   CO 2 capture decreases efficiency by 10% and power output by 
18%  18%
•   Role of political and legislative issues (EU Directives – State 
Member approach-incentives)
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Member approach incentives)
THANK   YOU
claudio allevi@saras it claudio.allevi@saras.it
rosa  maria  domenichini@fwceu com rosa_maria_domenichini@fwceu.com
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 davido.extraxim@gmail.com